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Sökning: WFRF:(Halperin Jonathan L.)

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1.
  • Brownstein, Catherine A., et al. (författare)
  • An international effort towards developing standards for best practices in analysis, interpretation and reporting of clinical genome sequencing results in the CLARITY Challenge
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology. - 1465-6906 .- 1474-760X. ; 15:3, s. R53-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There is tremendous potential for genome sequencing to improve clinical diagnosis and care once it becomes routinely accessible, but this will require formalizing research methods into clinical best practices in the areas of sequence data generation, analysis, interpretation and reporting. The CLARITY Challenge was designed to spur convergence in methods for diagnosing genetic disease starting from clinical case history and genome sequencing data. DNA samples were obtained from three families with heritable genetic disorders and genomic sequence data were donated by sequencing platform vendors. The challenge was to analyze and interpret these data with the goals of identifying disease-causing variants and reporting the findings in a clinically useful format. Participating contestant groups were solicited broadly, and an independent panel of judges evaluated their performance. Results: A total of 30 international groups were engaged. The entries reveal a general convergence of practices on most elements of the analysis and interpretation process. However, even given this commonality of approach, only two groups identified the consensus candidate variants in all disease cases, demonstrating a need for consistent fine-tuning of the generally accepted methods. There was greater diversity of the final clinical report content and in the patient consenting process, demonstrating that these areas require additional exploration and standardization. Conclusions: The CLARITY Challenge provides a comprehensive assessment of current practices for using genome sequencing to diagnose and report genetic diseases. There is remarkable convergence in bioinformatic techniques, but medical interpretation and reporting are areas that require further development by many groups.
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2.
  • Tin, Adrienne, et al. (författare)
  • Target genes, variants, tissues and transcriptional pathways influencing human serum urate levels
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 51:10, s. 1459-1474
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elevated serum urate levels cause gout and correlate with cardiometabolic diseases via poorly understood mechanisms. We performed a trans-ancestry genome-wide association study of serum urate in 457,690 individuals, identifying 183 loci (147 previously unknown) that improve the prediction of gout in an independent cohort of 334,880 individuals. Serum urate showed significant genetic correlations with many cardiometabolic traits, with genetic causality analyses supporting a substantial role for pleiotropy. Enrichment analysis, fine-mapping of urate-associated loci and colocalization with gene expression in 47 tissues implicated the kidney and liver as the main target organs and prioritized potentially causal genes and variants, including the transcriptional master regulators in the liver and kidney, HNF1A and HNF4A. Experimental validation showed that HNF4A transactivated the promoter of ABCG2, encoding a major urate transporter, in kidney cells, and that HNF4A p.Thr139Ile is a functional variant. Transcriptional coregulation within and across organs may be a general mechanism underlying the observed pleiotropy between urate and cardiometabolic traits.
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3.
  • Connolly, Stuart J, et al. (författare)
  • Dronedarone in High-Risk Permanent Atrial Fibrillation
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 365:24, s. 2268-2276
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Dronedarone restores sinus rhythm and reduces hospitalization or death in intermittent atrial fibrillation. It also lowers heart rate and blood pressure and has antiadrenergic and potential ventricular anti-arrhythmic effects. We hypothesized that dronedarone would reduce major vascular events in high-risk permanent atrial fibrillation. Methods We assigned patients who were at least 65 years of age with at least a 6-month history of permanent atrial fibrillation and risk factors for major vascular events to receive dronedarone or placebo. The first coprimary outcome was stroke, myocardial infarction, systemic embolism, or death from cardiovascular causes. The second coprimary outcome was unplanned hospitalization for a cardiovascular cause or death. Results After the enrollment of 3236 patients, the study was stopped for safety reasons. The first coprimary outcome occurred in 43 patients receiving dronedarone and 19 receiving placebo (hazard ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34 to 3.94; P=0.002). There were 21 deaths from cardiovascular causes in the dronedarone group and 10 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 4.49; P=0.046), including death from arrhythmia in 13 patients and 4 patients, respectively (hazard ratio, 3.26; 95% CI, 1.06 to 10.00; P=0.03). Stroke occurred in 23 patients in the dronedarone group and 10 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.11 to 4.88; P=0.02). Hospitalization for heart failure occurred in 43 patients in the dronedarone group and 24 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.99; P=0.02). Conclusions Dronedarone increased rates of heart failure, stroke, and death from cardiovascular causes in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation who were at risk for major vascular events. Our data show that this drug should not be used in such patients.
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4.
  • Bekwelem, Wobo, et al. (författare)
  • Extracranial Systemic Embolic Events in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 132:9, s. 796-803
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation is a major cause of thromboembolic events. In comparison with atrial fibrillation-related stroke, extracranial systemic embolic events (SEEs) remain poorly defined. Methods and Results All suspected SEEs reported among 37973 participants of 4 large contemporary randomized clinical trials of anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation were independently readjudicated for clinical and objective evidence of sudden loss of perfusion of a limb or organ. Over 91746 patient-years of follow-up, 221 SEEs occurred in 219 subjects. The SEE incidence was 0.24 of 100 and stroke incidence was 1.92 of 100 patient-years. In comparison with patients with stroke, those with SEE were more often female (56% versus 47%; P=0.01) and had comparable mean age (73.18.5 versus 73.5 +/- 8.8 years; P=0.57) and mean CHADS(2) scores (2.4 +/- 1.3 versus 2.5 +/- 1.2; P=0.33). SEEs more frequently involved the lower extremity (58%) than visceral-mesenteric (31%) or upper extremity (10%). SEE-related care involved clinic assessment alone in 5%, 30% were hospitalized without procedures, 60% underwent endovascular or surgical intervention, and 5% underwent amputation. Within 30 days, 54% of patients recovered fully, 20% survived with deficits, and 25% died. Thirty-day mortality was greater after visceral-mesenteric than lower- or upper-extremity SEE (55%, 17%, and 9%, respectively, P0.0001). The relative risk of death throughout follow-up was 4.33 (95% confidence interval, 3.29-5.70) after SEE versus 6.79 (95% confidence interval, 6.22-7.41) after stroke in comparison with patients without either event. Conclusions SEE constituted 11.5% of clinically recognized thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation and was associated with high morbidity and mortality. SEE mortality was comparable to that of ischemic stroke and varied by anatomic site.
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5.
  • Ezekowitz, Michael D., et al. (författare)
  • Apixaban compared to heparin/vitamin K antagonist in patients with atrial fibrillation scheduled for cardioversion : the EMANATE trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 39:32, s. 2959-2971
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim The primary objective was to compare apixaban to heparin/ vitamin K antagonist (VKA) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and <= 48 h anticoagulation prior to randomization undergoing cardioversion. Methods One thousand five hundred patients were randomized. The apixaban dose of 5mg b.i.d. was reduced to 2.5 mg b.i.d. in patients with two of the following: age >= 80 years, weight <= 60 kg, or serum creatinine >= 133 mu mol/L. To expedite cardioversion, at the discretion of the investigator, imaging and/or a loading dose of 10 mg (down-titrated to 5 mg) was allowed. The endpoints for efficacy were stroke, systemic embolism (SE), and death. The endpoints for safety were major bleeding and clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) bleeding. Results There were 1038 active and 300 spontaneous cardioversions; 162 patients were not cardioverted. Imaging was performed in 855 patients, and 342 received a loading dose of apixaban. Comparing apixaban to heparin/VKA in the full analysis set, there were 0/753 vs. 6/747 strokes [relative risk (RR) 0; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0-0.64; nominal P = 0.015], no SE, and 2 vs. 1 deaths (RR 1.98; 95% CI 0.19-54.00; nominal P > 0.999). In the safety population, there were 3/735 vs. 6/721 major (RR 0.49; 95% CI 0.10-2.07; nominal P = 0.338) and 11 vs. 13 CRNM bleeding events (RR 0.83; 95% CI 0.34-1.89; nominal P = 0.685). On imaging, 60/61 with thrombi continued randomized treatment; all (61) were without outcome events. Conclusions Rates of strokes, systemic emboli, deaths, and bleeds were low for both apixaban and heparin/VKA treated AF patients undergoing cardioversion.
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6.
  • Ezekowitz, Michael D., et al. (författare)
  • Apixaban compared with parenteral heparin and/or vitamin K antagonist in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation undergoing cardioversion : Rationale and design of the EMANATE trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 179, s. 59-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Stroke prevention in anticoagulation-nafve patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing cardioversion has not been systematically studied.Objective: To determine outcomes in anticoagulation-naive patients (defined as those receiving an anticoagulant for <48 hours during the index episode of atrial fibrillation) scheduled for cardioversion.Methods: This is a randomized, prospective, open-label, real-world study comparing apixaban to heparin plus warfarin. Early image-guided cardioversion is encouraged. For apixaban, the usual dose is 5 mg BID with a dose reduction to 2.5 mg BID if 2 of the following are present: age >80 years, weight <60 kg, or serum creatinine >1.5 mg/dL. If cardioversion is immediate, a single starting dose of 10 mg (or 5 mg if the dose is down-titrated) of apixaban is administered. Cardioversion may be attempted up to 90 days after randomization. Patients are followed up for 30 days after cardioversion or 90 days postrandomization if cardioversion is not performed within that timeframe. Outcomes are stroke, systemic embolization, major bleeds, clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, and death, all adjudication-blinded.Statistics: The warfarin-naive cohort from the ARISTOTLE study was considered the closest data set to the patients being recruited into this study. The predicted incidence of stroke, systemic embolism, and major bleeding within 30 days after randomization was approximately 0.75%. To adequately power for a noninferiority trial, approximately 48,000 participants would be needed, a number in excess of feasibility. The figure of 1,500 patients was considered clinically meaningful and achievable.
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10.
  • Hankey, Graeme J., et al. (författare)
  • Rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack: a subgroup analysis of ROCKET AF
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Lancet Ltd. - 1474-4465. ; 11:4, s. 315-322
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background In ROCKET AF, rivaroxaban was non-inferior to adjusted-dose warfarin in preventing stroke or systemic embolism among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to investigate whether the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin is consistent among the subgroups of patients with and without previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA). Methods In ROCKET AF, patients with AF who were at increased risk of stroke were randomly assigned (1:1) in a double-blind manner to rivaroxaban 20 mg daily or adjusted dose warfarin (international normalised ratio 2-0-3.0). Patients and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. Between Dec 18,2006, and June 17,2009,14 264 patients from 1178 centres in 45 countries were randomly assigned. The primary endpoint was the composite of stroke or non-CNS systemic embolism. In this substudy we assessed the interaction of the treatment effects of rivaroxaban and warfarin among patients with and without previous stroke or TIA. Efficacy analyses were by intention to treat and safety analyses were done in the on-treatment population. ROCKET AF is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00403767. Findings 7468 (52%) patients had a previous stroke (n=4907) or TIA (n=2561) and 6796 (48%) had no previous stroke or TIA. The number of events per 100 person-years for the primary endpoint in patients treated with rivaroxaban compared with warfarin was consistent among patients with previous stroke or TIA (2.79% rivaroxaban vs 2.96% warfarin; hazard ratio [HR] 0-94,95% CI 0.77-1.16) and those without (1.44% vs 1.88%; 0.77, 0.58-1-01; interaction p=0.23). The number of major and non-major clinically relevant bleeding events per 100 person-years in patients treated with rivaroxaban compared with warfarin was consistent among patients with previous stroke or TIA (13.31% rivaroxaban vs 13.87% warfarin; HR 0.96,95% CI 0.87-1-07) and those without (16.69% vs 15.19%; 1.10, 0.99-1.21; interaction p=0.08). Interpretation There was no evidence that the relative efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin was different between patients who had a previous stroke or TIA and those who had no previous stroke or TIA. These results support the use of rivaroxaban as an alternative to warfarin for prevention of recurrent as well as initial stroke in patients with AF.
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