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1.
  • Kolsrud, Oscar, et al. (författare)
  • Measured and not estimated glomerular filtration rate should be used to assess renal function in heart transplant recipients.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1460-2385. ; 31:7, s. 1182-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In organ transplanted patients, impaired renal function is of major prognostic importance and influences therapeutic decisions. Therefore, monitoring of renal function with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is of importance, both before and after heart transplantation (HTx). The GFR can be measured directly (mGFR) or estimated (eGFR) with equations based on circulating creatinine or cystatin C levels. However, these equations have not been thoroughly validated in the HTx population.
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2.
  • Aakre, K. M., et al. (författare)
  • Analytical Considerations in Deriving 99th Percentile Upper Reference Limits for High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin Assays: Educational Recommendations from the IFCC Committee on Clinical Application of Cardiac Bio-Markers
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical chemistry. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 68:8, s. 1022-1030
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry Committee on Clinical Application of Cardiac Bio-Markers provides evidence-based educational documents to facilitate uniform interpretation and utilization of cardiac biomarkers in clinical laboratories and practice. The committee's goals are to improve the understanding of certain key analytical and clinical aspects of cardiac biomarkers and how these may interplay in clinical practice. Measurement of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays is a cornerstone in the clinical evaluation of patients with symptoms and/or signs of acute cardiac ischemia. To define myocardial infarction, the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction requires patients who manifest with features suggestive of acute myocardial ischemia to have at least one cTn concentration above the sex-specific 99th percentile upper reference limit (URL) for hs-cTn assays and a dynamic pattern of cTn concentrations to fulfill the diagnostic criteria for MI. This special report provides an overview of how hs-cTn 99th percentile URLs should be established, including recommendations about prescreening and the number of individuals required in the reference cohort, how statistical analysis should be conducted, optimal preanalytical and analytical protocols, and analytical/biological interferences or confounds that can affect accurate determination of the 99th percentile URLs. This document also provides guidance and solutions to many of the issues posed.
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3.
  • Aakre, Kristin M, et al. (författare)
  • Lower Limits for Reporting High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin Assays and Impact of Analytical Performance on Patient Misclassification.
  • 2024
  • Ingår i: Clinical chemistry. - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 70:3, s. 497-505
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cardiac troponin measurements are indispensable for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction and provide useful information for long-term risk prediction of cardiovascular disease. Accelerated diagnostic pathways prevent unnecessary hospital admission, but require reporting cardiac troponin concentrations at low concentrations that are sometimes below the limit of quantification. Whether analytical imprecision at these concentrations contributes to misclassification of patients is debated.The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry Committee on Clinical Application of Cardiac Bio-Markers (IFCC C-CB) provides evidence-based educational statements on analytical and clinical aspects of cardiac biomarkers. This mini-review discusses how the reporting of low concentrations of cardiac troponins impacts on whether or not assays are classified as high-sensitivity and how analytical performance at low concentrations influences the utility of troponins in accelerated diagnostic pathways. Practical suggestions are made for laboratories regarding analytical quality assessment of cardiac troponin results at low cutoffs, with a particular focus on accelerated diagnostic pathways. The review also discusses how future use of cardiac troponins for long-term prediction or management of cardiovascular disease may require improvements in analytical quality.Clinical guidelines recommend using cardiac troponin concentrations as low as the limit of detection of the assay to guide patient care. Laboratories, manufacturers, researchers, and external quality assessment providers should extend analytical performance monitoring of cardiac troponin assays to include the concentration ranges applicable in these pathways.
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4.
  • Aldenbratt, Annika, et al. (författare)
  • Estimation of kidney function in patients with primary neuromuscular diseases : is serum cystatin C a better marker of kidney function than creatinine?
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: JN. Journal of Nephrology. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1121-8428 .- 1724-6059. ; 35:2, s. 493-503
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Using serum creatinine leads to an overestimation of kidney function in patients with primary neuromuscular disorders, and reduced kidney function may remain undetected. Cystatin C (CysC) could provide a better estimation.AIM: To evaluate the precision, accuracy, and bias of two creatinine-, one cystatin C-based and one combined equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with primary neuromuscular disease.PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of the 418 patients initially identified at the out-patient clinic, data on kidney function was obtained for 145 adult patients (age 46 ± 14 years, BMI 26 ± 6 kg/m2) with primary neuromuscular disease. Kidney function was measured by iohexol clearance, and blood samples for serum creatinine and CysC were drawn simultaneously. Bias was defined as the mean difference between eGFR and measured iohexol clearance, and accuracy as the proportion of eGFRs within ± 10% (P10) of measured clearance.RESULTS: Kidney function (iohexol clearance) was 81 ± 19 (38-134) ml/min/1.73m2. All equations overestimated kidney function by 22-60 ml/min/1.73m2. eGFR CysC had the lowest bias overall 22 (95% CI 20-26) ml/min/1.73m2 also at all levels of kidney function we evaluated (at 30-59 ml/min/1.73m2 bias was 27 (95% CI 21-35), at 60-89 it was 25 (95% CI 20-28) and at ≥ 90 it was 12 (95% CI 7-22)). eGFR CysC also had the best accuracy in patients with reduced kidney function (P10 was 5.9% at 30-59 ml/min/1.73m2).CONCLUSIONS: Cystatin C-based estimations of kidney function performed better than creatinine-based ones in patients with primary neuromuscular disease, but most importantly, all evaluated equations overestimated kidney function, especially in patients with reduced kidney function. Therefore, kidney function should be measured by gold-standard methods when precision and accuracy are needed.
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6.
  • Bergström, Petra, et al. (författare)
  • Association of NFE2L2 and KEAP1 haplotypes with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis & frontotemporal degeneration. - : Informa UK Limited. - 2167-9223 .- 2167-8421. ; 15:1-2, s. 130-137
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative motor neuron syndrome influenced by oxidative stress. The transcription factor Nrf2 and its repressor Keap1 constitute an important defence system in cellular protection against oxidative stress. Here we hypothesize that common genetic variations in the genes NFE2L2 and KEAP1, encoding Nrf2 and Keap1, may influence the risk and phenotype of ALS. Five hundred and twenty-two Swedish patients with sporadic ALS (SALS) and 564 Swedish control subjects were studied. Eight tag SNPs in NFE2L2 and three tag SNPs in KEAP1 were genotyped by allelic discrimination and three functional NFE2L2 promoter SNPs were genotyped by sequencing. One NFE2L2 haplotype (GGGAC) was associated with decreased risk of SALS (OR = 0.62 per allele, p = 0.003) and one haplotype in KEAP1 (CGG) was associated with later SALS onset (+3.4 years per allele, p = 0.015). When stratified by subgroup, one haplotype in NFE2L2, GAGCAGA including three functional promoter SNPs associated with high Nrf2 protein expression, was associated with 4.0 years later disease onset per allele in subgroup ALS (p = 0.008). In conclusion, these results suggest that variations in NFE2L2 and KEAP1, encoding two central proteins in cellular oxidative stress defence, may influence SALS pathogenesis.
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9.
  • Bjurman, Christian, 1983, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of a multimarker strategy for prediction of mortality in older heart failure patients: a cohort study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMJ open. - : BMJ. - 2044-6055. ; 3:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Primarily to develop a multimarker score for prediction of 3-year mortality in older patients with decompensated heart failure (HF). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Secondary care. Single centre. PATIENTS AND BIOMARKERS: 131 patients, aged >/=65 years, with decompensated HF were included. Assessment of biomarkers was performed at discharge. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: 3-year mortality. RESULTS: Mean age was 73+/-11 years; mean left ventricular ejection fraction , 43+/-14%; 53% were male. The 3-year mortality was 53.4%. The following N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) levels could optimally stratify mortality: <2000 ng/l (n=39), 30.8% mortality; 2000-8000 ng/l (n=58), 51.7% mortality; and >8000 ng/l (n=34), 82.4% mortality. However, in the 2000-8000 ng/l range, NTproBNP levels had low-prognostic capacity, based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC=0.53; 95% CI 0.40 to 0.67). In this group, multivariate analysis identified age, cystatin C (CysC), and troponin T (TnT) levels as independent risk factors. A risk score based on these three risk factors separated a high-risk and low-risk groups within the NTproBNP range of 2000-8000 ng/l. The score exhibited a significantly higher AUC (0.75; 95% CI 0.62 to 0.86) than NTproBNP alone (p=0.03) in this NTproBNP group and had similar prognostic capacity as NTproBNP in patients below or above this NTproBNP range (p=0.57). Net reclassification improvement and integrated discriminatory improvement in the group with NTproBNP levels between 2000 and 8000 ng/l was 54% and 23%, respectively, and in the whole cohort 22% and 11%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that, to assess risk in HF, older patients required significantly higher levels of NTproBNP than younger patients. Furthermore, a risk score that included TnT and CysC at discharge, and age could improve risk stratification for mortality in older patients with HF in particular when NTproBNP was moderately elevated.
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10.
  • Bjurman, Christian, 1983, et al. (författare)
  • Cystatin C in a composite risk score for mortality in patients with infective endocarditis: a cohort study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMJ open. - : BMJ. - 2044-6055. ; 2:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To develop a multimarker prognostic score for infective endocarditis (IE). DESIGN: Retrospective case-control. SETTING: Secondary care. Single centre. PARTICIPANTS: 125 patients with definite IE. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: 90-day and 5-year mortality. RESULTS: Mean age was 62.7+/-17 years. The 90-day and 5-year mortality was 10.4% and 33.6%, respectively. CysC levels at admission and over 20% increases in CysC levels during 2 weeks of treatment were prognostic for 90-day and 5-year mortality independent of creatinine estimated glomerular filtration rate. In multivariate analyses, CysC (OR 5.42, 95% CI 1.90 to 15.5, p=0.002) and age (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.10, p=0.002) remained prognostic for 5-year mortality. NT-proBNP, TnT, C reactive protein and interleukin 6 were also linked to prognosis. A composite risk scoring system using levels of CysC, NT-proBNP, age and presence of mitral valve insufficiency was able to separate a high-risk and a low-risk group. CONCLUSIONS: CysC levels at admission and increase in CysC after 2 weeks of treatment were independent prognostic markers for both 90-day and 5-year mortality in patients with IE. A multimarker composite risk scoring system including CysC identified a high-risk group.
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