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Sökning: WFRF:(Hansen Kurt)

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1.
  • Graff, M., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide physical activity interactions in adiposity. A meta-analysis of 200,452 adults
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genet. - : Public library service. - 1553-7404 .- 1553-7390. ; 13:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Physical activity (PA) may modify the genetic effects that give rise to increased risk of obesity. To identify adiposity loci whose effects are modified by PA, we performed genome-wide interaction meta-analyses of BMI and BMI-adjusted waist circumference and waist-hip ratio from up to 200,452 adults of European (n = 180,423) or other ancestry (n = 20,029). We standardized PA by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable where, on average, 23% of participants were categorized as inactive and 77% as physically active. While we replicate the interaction with PA for the strongest known obesity-risk locus in the FTO gene, of which the effect is attenuated by similar to 30% in physically active individuals compared to inactive individuals, we do not identify additional loci that are sensitive to PA. In additional genome-wide meta-analyses adjusting for PA and interaction with PA, we identify 11 novel adiposity loci, suggesting that accounting for PA or other environmental factors that contribute to variation in adiposity may facilitate gene discovery.
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2.
  • Erni, W., et al. (författare)
  • Technical design report for the PANDA (AntiProton Annihilations at Darmstadt) Straw Tube Tracker
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal A. Hadrons and Nuclei. - : Springer. - 1434-6001 .- 1434-601X. ; 49:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This document describes the technical layout and the expected performance of the Straw Tube Tracker (STT), the main tracking detector of the PANDA target spectrometer. The STT encloses a Micro-Vertex-Detector (MVD) for the inner tracking and is followed in beam direction by a set of GEM stations. The tasks of the STT are the measurement of the particle momentum from the reconstructed trajectory and the measurement of the specific energy loss for a particle identification. Dedicated simulations with full analysis studies of certain proton-antiproton reactions, identified as being benchmark tests for the whole PANDA scientific program, have been performed to test the STT layout and performance. The results are presented, and the time lines to construct the STT are described.
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3.
  • Gejl, Kasper Degn, et al. (författare)
  • No Superior Adaptations to Carbohydrate Periodization in Elite Endurance Athletes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. - 0195-9131 .- 1530-0315. ; 49:12, s. 2486-2497
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose The present study investigated the effects of periodic carbohydrate (CHO) restriction on endurance performance and metabolic markers in elite endurance athletes. Methods Twenty-six male elite endurance athletes (maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), 65.0 mL O(2)kg(-1)min(-1)) completed 4 wk of regular endurance training while being matched and randomized into two groups training with (low) or without (high) CHO manipulation 3 dwk(-1). The CHO manipulation days consisted of a 1-h high-intensity bike session in the morning, recovery for 7 h while consuming isocaloric diets containing either high CHO (414 2.4 g) or low CHO (79.5 1.0 g), and a 2-h moderate bike session in the afternoon with or without CHO. VO2max, maximal fat oxidation, and power output during a 30-min time trial (TT) were determined before and after the training period. The TT was undertaken after 90 min of intermittent exercise with CHO provision before the training period and both CHO and placebo after the training period. Muscle biopsies were analyzed for glycogen, citrate synthase (CS) and -hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HAD) activity, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT1b), and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (pACC). Results The training effects were similar in both groups for all parameters. On average, VO2max and power output during the 30-min TT increased by 5% +/- 1% (P < 0.05) and TT performance was similar after CHO and placebo during the preload phase. Training promoted overall increases in glycogen content (18% +/- 5%), CS activity (11% +/- 5%), and pACC (38% +/- 19%; P < 0.05) with no differences between groups. HAD activity and CPT1b protein content remained unchanged. Conclusions Superimposing periodic CHO restriction to 4 wk of regular endurance training had no superior effects on performance and muscle adaptations in elite endurance athletes.
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4.
  • Golubev, Pavel, et al. (författare)
  • Pion Emission in H-2,C-12,Al-27(gamma,pi+) Reactions at Threshold
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Physics, Section A. - : Elsevier. - 0375-9474 .- 1873-1554. ; 806:1-4, s. 216-229
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The very first data from MAX-lab in Lund, Sweden on pion photoproduction at threshold energies are presented. The decrease of the total π+ yield in γ+12C, 27Al reactions below 200 MeV as well as the dσ/dΩ cross-section data essentially follow the predictions of an intranuclear-cascade model with an attractive potential for the pion–nucleus interaction. However, View the MathML source, cross-section data at 176 MeV show deviations which call for refinements of the model and possibly also for the inclusion of coherent pion-production mechanisms.
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6.
  • Mahajan, Anubha, et al. (författare)
  • Refining the accuracy of validated target identification through coding variant fine-mapping in type 2 diabetes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 50:4, s. 559-571
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We aggregated coding variant data for 81,412 type 2 diabetes cases and 370,832 controls of diverse ancestry, identifying 40 coding variant association signals (P < 2.2 × 10−7); of these, 16 map outside known risk-associated loci. We make two important observations. First, only five of these signals are driven by low-frequency variants: even for these, effect sizes are modest (odds ratio ≤1.29). Second, when we used large-scale genome-wide association data to fine-map the associated variants in their regional context, accounting for the global enrichment of complex trait associations in coding sequence, compelling evidence for coding variant causality was obtained for only 16 signals. At 13 others, the associated coding variants clearly represent ‘false leads’ with potential to generate erroneous mechanistic inference. Coding variant associations offer a direct route to biological insight for complex diseases and identification of validated therapeutic targets; however, appropriate mechanistic inference requires careful specification of their causal contribution to disease predisposition.
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7.
  • Makonyi, K., et al. (författare)
  • Evaluating vacuum phototriodes designed for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment. - : Elsevier. - 0167-5087. ; 763, s. 36-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this work properties of a vacuum phototriode (VPT) and preamplifier unit designed for the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA experiment being built at FAIR are investigated. With the use of lead tungstate and lanthanium bromide scintillators the VPT properties are studied at low photon energies, from tens of key in the lanthanium bromide measurements and between 10 MeV and 60 MeV in the lead tungstate measurements. At these energies the noise of the VPT unit can be expected to influence its performance significantly. It is shown that the noise contribution to the measured energy resolution, under optimal conditions, is consistent with a fluctuation of (one standard deviation) approximately 200 electrons at the VPT anode. For a lead tungstate crystal this is equivalent to a noise of 1.2 MeV. For lanthanium bromide this makes it possible to use VPTs for gamma ray spectroscopy above a few hundreds of keV without noticeable effects on the energy resolution compared to measurements with a standard photomultiplier. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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8.
  • Naghavi, Mohsen, et al. (författare)
  • Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 1474-547X .- 0140-6736. ; 385:9963, s. 117-171
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specifi c all-cause and cause-specifi c mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries. Methods We estimated age-sex-specifi c all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey, and Russia. We improved statistical models for garbage code redistribution. We used six different modelling strategies across the 240 causes; cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) was the dominant strategy for causes with sufficient information. Trends for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias were informed by meta-regression of prevalence studies. For pathogen-specifi c causes of diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections we used a counterfactual approach. We computed two measures of convergence (inequality) across countries: the average relative difference across all pairs of countries (Gini coefficient) and the average absolute difference across countries. To summarise broad findings, we used multiple decrement life-tables to decompose probabilities of death from birth to exact age 15 years, from exact age 15 years to exact age 50 years, and from exact age 50 years to exact age 75 years, and life expectancy at birth into major causes. For all quantities reported, we computed 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We constrained cause-specific fractions within each age-sex-country-year group to sum to all-cause mortality based on draws from the uncertainty distributions. Findings Global life expectancy for both sexes increased from 65.3 years (UI 65.0-65.6) in 1990, to 71.5 years (UI 71.0-71.9) in 2013, while the number of deaths increased from 47.5 million (UI 46.8-48.2) to 54.9 million (UI 53.6-56.3) over the same interval. Global progress masked variation by age and sex: for children, average absolute diff erences between countries decreased but relative diff erences increased. For women aged 25-39 years and older than 75 years and for men aged 20-49 years and 65 years and older, both absolute and relative diff erences increased. Decomposition of global and regional life expectancy showed the prominent role of reductions in age-standardised death rates for cardiovascular diseases and cancers in high-income regions, and reductions in child deaths from diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and neonatal causes in low-income regions. HIV/AIDS reduced life expectancy in southern sub-Saharan Africa. For most communicable causes of death both numbers of deaths and age-standardised death rates fell whereas for most non-communicable causes, demographic shifts have increased numbers of deaths but decreased age-standardised death rates. Global deaths from injury increased by 10.7%, from 4.3 million deaths in 1990 to 4.8 million in 2013; but age-standardised rates declined over the same period by 21%. For some causes of more than 100 000 deaths per year in 2013, age-standardised death rates increased between 1990 and 2013, including HIV/AIDS, pancreatic cancer, atrial fibrillation and flutter, drug use disorders, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and sickle-cell anaemias. Diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, neonatal causes, and malaria are still in the top five causes of death in children younger than 5 years. The most important pathogens are rotavirus for diarrhoea and pneumococcus for lower respiratory infections. Country-specific probabilities of death over three phases of life were substantially varied between and within regions. Interpretation For most countries, the general pattern of reductions in age-sex specifi c mortality has been associated with a progressive shift towards a larger share of the remaining deaths caused by non-communicable disease and injuries. Assessing epidemiological convergence across countries depends on whether an absolute or relative measure of inequality is used. Nevertheless, age-standardised death rates for seven substantial causes are increasing, suggesting the potential for reversals in some countries. Important gaps exist in the empirical data for cause of death estimates for some countries; for example, no national data for India are available for the past decade.
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9.
  • Nilsson, Karl, et al. (författare)
  • Large-eddy simulations of the Lillgrund wind farm
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Wind Energy. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1095-4244 .- 1099-1824. ; 18:3, s. 449-467
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The power production of the Lillgrund wind farm is determined numerically using large-eddy simulations and compared with measurements. In order to simulate realistic atmospheric conditions, pre-generated turbulence and wind shear are imposed in the computational domain. The atmospheric conditions are determined from data extracted from a met mast, which was erected prior to the establishment of the farm. In order to allocate most of the computational power to the simulations of the wake flow, the turbines are modeled using an actuator disc method where the discs are imposed in the computational domain as body forces which for every time step are calculated from tabulated airfoil data. A study of the influence of imposed upstream ambient turbulence is performed and shows that higher levels of turbulence results in slightly increased total power production and that it is of great importance to include ambient turbulence in the simulations. By introducing ambient atmospheric turbulence, the simulations compare very well with measurements at the studied inflow angles. A final study aiming at increasing the farm production by curtailing the power output of the front row turbines and thus letting more kinetic energy pass downstream is performed. The results, however, show that manipulating only the front row turbines has no positive effect on the farm production, and therefore, more complex curtailment strategies are needed to be tested.
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10.
  • Singh, B. P., et al. (författare)
  • Experimental access to Transition Distribution Amplitudes with the PANDA experiment at FAIR
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal A. Hadrons and Nuclei. - : Springer. - 1434-6001 .- 1434-601X. ; 51:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Baryon-to-meson Transition Distribution Amplitudes (TDAs) encoding valuable new information on hadron structure appear as building blocks in the collinear factorized description for several types of hard exclusive reactions. In this paper, we address the possibility of accessing nucleon-to-pion (pi N) TDAs from (p) over barp -> e(+)e(-)pi(0) reaction with the future PANDA detector at the FAIR facility. At high center-of-mass energy and high invariant mass squared of the lepton pair q(2), the amplitude of the signal channel (p) over barp -> e(+)e(-)pi(0) admits a QCD factorized description in terms of pi N TDAs and nucleon Distribution Amplitudes (DAs) in the forward aid backward kinematic regimes. Assuming the validity of this factorized description, we perform feasibility studies for measuring (p) over barp -> e(+)e(-)pi(0) with the PANDA detector. Detailed simulations on signal reconstruction efficiency as well as on rejection of the most severe background channel, i.e. (p) over barp -> pi(+)pi(-)pi(0) were performed for the center-of-mass energy squared s = 5 GeV2 and s = 10 GeV2, in the kinematic regions 3.0 < q(2) < 4.3 GeV2 and 5 < q(2) < 9 GeV2, respectively, with a neutral pion scattered in the forward or backward cone vertical bar cos theta(pi 0)vertical bar > 0.5 in the proton-antiproton center-of-mass frame. Results of the simulation show that the particle identification capabilities of the PANDA detector will allow to achieve a background rejection factor of 5 . 10(7) (1 . 10(7)) at low (high) q(2) for s = 5 GeV2, and of 1 . 10(8) (6 . 10(6)) at low (high) q(2) for s = 10 GeV2, while keeping the signal reconstruction efficiency at around 40%. At both energies, a clean lepton signal can be reconstructed with the expected statistics corresponding to 2 of integrated luminosity. The cross sections obtained from the simulations are used to show that a test of QCD collinear factorization can be done at the lowest order by measuring scaling laws and angular distributions. The future measurement of the signal channel cross section with PANDA will provide a new test of the perturbative QCD description of a novel class of hard exclusive reactions and will open the possibility of experimentally accessing pi N TDAs.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 70
  • [1]234567Nästa

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