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1.
  • De Marinis, Yang, et al. (författare)
  • Serology assessment of antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19 by rapid IgM/IgG antibody test
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Infection Ecology and Epidemiology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 2000-8686. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created a global health- and economic crisis. Detection of antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which causes COVID-19 by serological methods is important to diagnose a current or resolved infection. In this study, we applied a rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG antibody test and performed serology assessment of antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. In PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients (n = 45), the total antibody detection rate is 92% in hospitalized patients and 79% in non-hospitalized patients. The total IgM and IgG detection is 63% in patients with <2 weeks from disease onset; 85% in non-hospitalized patients with >2 weeks disease duration; and 91% in hospitalized patients with >2 weeks disease duration. We also compared different blood sample types and suggest a higher sensitivity by serum/plasma over whole blood. Test specificity was determined to be 97% on 69 sera/plasma samples collected between 2016-2018. Our study provides a comprehensive validation of the rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG serology test, and mapped antibody detection patterns in association with disease progress and hospitalization. Our results support that the rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG test may be applied to assess the COVID-19 status both at the individual and at a population level.
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2.
  • Fadista, Joao, et al. (författare)
  • Global genomic and transcriptomic analysis of human pancreatic islets reveals novel genes influencing glucose metabolism.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - : National Academy of Sciences. - 1091-6490. ; 111:38, s. 13924-13929
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetic variation can modulate gene expression, and thereby phenotypic variation and susceptibility to complex diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here we harnessed the potential of DNA and RNA sequencing in human pancreatic islets from 89 deceased donors to identify genes of potential importance in the pathogenesis of T2D. We present a catalog of genetic variants regulating gene expression (eQTL) and exon use (sQTL), including many long noncoding RNAs, which are enriched in known T2D-associated loci. Of 35 eQTL genes, whose expression differed between normoglycemic and hyperglycemic individuals, siRNA of tetraspanin 33 (TSPAN33), 5'-nucleotidase, ecto (NT5E), transmembrane emp24 protein transport domain containing 6 (TMED6), and p21 protein activated kinase 7 (PAK7) in INS1 cells resulted in reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In addition, we provide a genome-wide catalog of allelic expression imbalance, which is also enriched in known T2D-associated loci. Notably, allelic imbalance in paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3) was associated with its promoter methylation and T2D status. Finally, RNA editing events were less common in islets than previously suggested in other tissues. Taken together, this study provides new insights into the complexity of gene regulation in human pancreatic islets and better understanding of how genetic variation can influence glucose metabolism.
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3.
  • Khorram-Manesh, Amir, 1958, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term outcome of a large series of patients surgically treated for pheochromocytoma
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of internal medicine. - 0954-6820. ; 258:1, s. 55-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To analyse the morbidity, mortality and long-term outcome in a consecutive series of surgically treated patients with pheochromocytoma (PC), or paraganglioma (PG), from the western region of Sweden between 1950 and 1997. PATIENTS: All patients (n = 121) who had been hospitalized and treated for PC/PG over 47 years. DESIGN: Retrospective review of patients with PC/PG regarding presenting symptoms, tumour characteristics, clinical management and long-term outcome after treatment. SETTING: One referral centre for all patients from the western region of Sweden. RESULTS: During an observation of 15 +/- 6 years, 42 patients died vs. 23.6 expected in the general population (P < 0.001). There was no intra- or post-operative mortality. Four patients with sporadic disease died of malignant PC and six with hereditary disease of associated neuroectodermal tumours. Five patients died of other malignancies, 20 of cardiovascular disease and seven of other causes. Besides older age at primary surgery, elevated urinary excretion of methoxy-catecholamines was the only observed risk factor for death (P = 0.02). At diagnosis 85% of the patients were hypertensive; one year after surgery more than half were still hypertensive. However, pre- and post-operative hypertension did not influence the risk for death versus controls. CONCLUSION: Pheochromocytoma/PG can be safely treated by surgery. Death of malignant PC/PG was unusual, but the patients as a group had an increased risk of death. We recommend life-long follow-up of patients treated for PC/PG with screening for recurrent tumour in sporadic cases and for associated tumours in hereditary cases. This strategy would also be helpful in diagnosing cardiovascular disease at an early stage.
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4.
  • Parikh, Hemang M, et al. (författare)
  • Relationship between insulin sensitivity and gene expression in human skeletal muscle
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: BMC Endocrine Disorders. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1472-6823. ; 21:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) in skeletal muscle is a key feature of the pre-diabetic state, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases and also predicts type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood.METHODS: To explore these mechanisms, we related global skeletal muscle gene expression profiling of 38 non-diabetic men to a surrogate measure of insulin sensitivity, i.e. homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).RESULTS: We identified 70 genes positively and 110 genes inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity in human skeletal muscle, identifying autophagy-related genes as positively correlated with insulin sensitivity. Replication in an independent study of 9 non-diabetic men resulted in 10 overlapping genes that strongly correlated with insulin sensitivity, including SIRT2, involved in lipid metabolism, and FBXW5 that regulates mammalian target-of-rapamycin (mTOR) and autophagy. The expressions of SIRT2 and FBXW5 were also positively correlated with the expression of key genes promoting the phenotype of an insulin sensitive myocyte e.g. PPARGC1A.CONCLUSIONS: The muscle expression of 180 genes were correlated with insulin sensitivity. These data suggest that activation of genes involved in lipid metabolism, e.g. SIRT2, and genes regulating autophagy and mTOR signaling, e.g. FBXW5, are associated with increased insulin sensitivity in human skeletal muscle, reflecting a highly flexible nutrient sensing.
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5.
  • Prokopenko, Inga, et al. (författare)
  • A Central Role for GRB10 in Regulation of Islet Function in Man.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1553-7404 .- 1553-7390. ; 10:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Variants in the growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (GRB10) gene were in a GWAS meta-analysis associated with reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) if inherited from the father, but inexplicably reduced fasting glucose when inherited from the mother. GRB10 is a negative regulator of insulin signaling and imprinted in a parent-of-origin fashion in different tissues. GRB10 knock-down in human pancreatic islets showed reduced insulin and glucagon secretion, which together with changes in insulin sensitivity may explain the paradoxical reduction of glucose despite a decrease in insulin secretion. Together, these findings suggest that tissue-specific methylation and possibly imprinting of GRB10 can influence glucose metabolism and contribute to T2D pathogenesis. The data also emphasize the need in genetic studies to consider whether risk alleles are inherited from the mother or the father.
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6.
  • Ström, Kristoffer, et al. (författare)
  • N1-methylnicotinamide is a signalling molecule produced in skeletal muscle coordinating energy metabolism
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity is a major health problem, and although caloric restriction and exercise are successful strategies to lose adipose tissue in obese individuals, a simultaneous decrease in skeletal muscle mass, negatively effects metabolism and muscle function. To deeper understand molecular events occurring in muscle during weight-loss, we measured the expressional change in human skeletal muscle following a combination of severe caloric restriction and exercise over 4 days in 15 Swedish men. Key metabolic genes were regulated after the intervention, indicating a shift from carbohydrate to fat metabolism. Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) was the most consistently upregulated gene following the energy-deficit exercise. Circulating levels of N1-methylnicotinamide (MNA), the product of NNMT activity, were doubled after the intervention. The fasting-fed state was an important determinant of plasma MNA levels, peaking at ~18 h of fasting and being lowest ~3 h after a meal. In culture, MNA was secreted by isolated human myotubes and stimulated lipolysis directly, with no effect on glucagon or insulin secretion. We propose that MNA is a novel myokine that enhances the utilization of energy stores in response to low muscle energy availability. Future research should focus on applying MNA as a biomarker to identify individuals with metabolic disturbances at an early stage.
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7.
  • Tornberg, Åsa, et al. (författare)
  • Relation between cycling exercise capacity, fiber-type composition, and lower extremity muscle strength and muscle endurance.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. - : NSCA National Strength and Conditioning Association. - 1533-4287. ; 25:1, s. 16-22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Segerström, ÅB, Holmbäck, AM, Hansson, O, Elgzyri, T, Eriksson, K-F, Ringsberg, K, Groop, L, Wollmer, P, and Thorsson, O. Relation between cycling exercise capacity, fiber-type composition, and lower extremity muscle strength and muscle endurance. J Strength Cond Res 25(1): 16-22, 2011-The aim of the study was to determine the relation between peak oxygen uptake (&OV0312;o2peak), peak work rate (WRpeak), fiber-type composition, and lower extremity strength and endurance during a maximal incremental cycle test. Thirty-nine healthy sedentary men, aged 30-46, participated in the study. Subjects performed a maximal incremental cycle test and isokinetic knee extension (KE) and flexion (KF) strength and endurance tests at velocities of 60 and 180°·s. Muscle biopsies were taken from m. vastus lateralis and analyzed for fiber-type composition. A significant correlation existed between KE strength and &OV0312;o2peak and WRpeak. Also, KF endurance correlated significantly to &OV0312;o2peak and WRpeak. The KE endurance correlated significantly to WRpeak (rp = 0.32, p < 0.05) and almost significantly to &OV0312;o2peak (rp = 0.28, p = 0.06). Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that KE strength, KF endurance, and the percentage of type I fibers could explain up to 40% of the variation in &OV0312;o2peak and WRpeak. The performance of sedentary subjects in a maximal incremental cycle test is highly affected by knee muscle strength and endurance. Fiber-type composition also contributes but to a smaller extent.
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8.
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9.
  • Abels, Mia, et al. (författare)
  • CART is overexpressed in human type 2 diabetic islets and inhibits glucagon secretion and increases insulin secretion
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 59:9, s. 1928-1937
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: Insufficient insulin release and hyperglucagonaemia are culprits in type 2 diabetes. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART, encoded by Cartpt) affects islet hormone secretion and beta cell survival in vitro in rats, and Cart−/− mice have diminished insulin secretion. We aimed to test if CART is differentially regulated in human type 2 diabetic islets and if CART affects insulin and glucagon secretion in vitro in humans and in vivo in mice. Methods: CART expression was assessed in human type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic control pancreases and rodent models of diabetes. Insulin and glucagon secretion was examined in isolated islets and in vivo in mice. Ca2+ oscillation patterns and exocytosis were studied in mouse islets. Results: We report an important role of CART in human islet function and glucose homeostasis in mice. CART was found to be expressed in human alpha and beta cells and in a subpopulation of mouse beta cells. Notably, CART expression was several fold higher in islets of type 2 diabetic humans and rodents. CART increased insulin secretion in vivo in mice and in human and mouse islets. Furthermore, CART increased beta cell exocytosis, altered the glucose-induced Ca2+ signalling pattern in mouse islets from fast to slow oscillations and improved synchronisation of the oscillations between different islet regions. Finally, CART reduced glucagon secretion in human and mouse islets, as well as in vivo in mice via diminished alpha cell exocytosis. Conclusions/interpretation: We conclude that CART is a regulator of glucose homeostasis and could play an important role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Based on the ability of CART to increase insulin secretion and reduce glucagon secretion, CART-based agents could be a therapeutic modality in type 2 diabetes.
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10.
  • Aghaee, Naghmeh, 1986- (författare)
  • The Usefulness of ICT Support Systems for Thesis Courses : Learners' Perspectives at Bachelor and Master Level
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Doing a bachelor’s or master’s degree is a journey that leads to success or attrition (dropout). Previous research show to the significance of considering learners’ perspectives and their need for information and different types of interaction. This can be done through online ICTSS (information and communication technology support systems). The overall aim of this dissertation was to create knowledge about how the use of ICTSS can facilitate different types of interaction and support learners in order to reduce thesis problems and attrition and to enhance the quality of the thesis outcomes. The aim was operationalized by two research questions scrutinizing the interaction problems in the thesis process and investigating how the use of ICTSS can facilitate different types of interaction to reduce such problems and attrition, and to enhance the learning opportunities and quality of the thesis outcomes. To answer the research questions, five main studies were performed by applying different research methods on a case study. The empirical studies were performed at the Department of Computer and Systems Sciences (DSV) at Stockholm University, Sweden. The respondents were different learners (students) with active thesis projects at the bachelor or master level in different programs at DSV between 2012 and 2015. For the first two studies, conceptual and content analysis of the data collected from the case study was performed. For the three other studies, open-ended online questionnaires (survey) and interviews were conducted. On the basis of the findings, three main types of interaction issues were developed which related to the need for more learner-content, peer-to-peer, and learner-supervisor interaction in the thesis process. The hypothesis was that the interaction issues could be reduced by implementing a set of strategic suggestions through the use of an ICTSS including a set of functionalities and resources. The usefulness of these functionalities and resources was evaluated with regard to the learners’ perception and experiences. The findings were categorized to facilitate learner-content, peer-to-peer, and learner-supervisor interaction, as well as management of the contents, supervision, and communication of the supervisory team. From these categories, a conceptual framework was developed in this dissertation to illustrate how the use of the ICTSS supports the thesis process. In conclusion, providing access to a set of structured e-resources and supporting educational communication through different types of interaction with peers and the supervisory team, enables learners’ self-managed learning and facilitates similar learning opportunities for learners in thesis courses.
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