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  • Bridel, Claire, et al. (författare)
  • Diagnostic Value of Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurofilament Light Protein in Neurology: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JAMA neurology. - : American Medical Association. - 2168-6157 .- 2168-6149. ; 76:9, s. 1035-1048
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurofilament light protein (NfL) is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a number of neurological conditions compared with healthy controls (HC) and is a candidate biomarker for neuroaxonal damage. The influence of age and sex is largely unknown, and levels across neurological disorders have not been compared systematically to date.To assess the associations of age, sex, and diagnosis with NfL in CSF (cNfL) and to evaluate its potential in discriminating clinically similar conditions.PubMed was searched for studies published between January 1, 2006, and January 1, 2016, reporting cNfL levels (using the search terms neurofilament light and cerebrospinal fluid) in neurological or psychiatric conditions and/or in HC.Studies reporting NfL levels measured in lumbar CSF using a commercially available immunoassay, as well as age and sex.Individual-level data were requested from study authors. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the fixed effects of age, sex, and diagnosis on log-transformed NfL levels, with cohort of origin modeled as a random intercept.The cNfL levels adjusted for age and sex across diagnoses.Data were collected for 10 059 individuals (mean [SD] age, 59.7 [18.8] years; 54.1% female). Thirty-five diagnoses were identified, including inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (n = 2795), dementias and predementia stages (n = 4284), parkinsonian disorders (n = 984), and HC (n = 1332). The cNfL was elevated compared with HC in a majority of neurological conditions studied. Highest levels were observed in cognitively impaired HIV-positive individuals (iHIV), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and Huntington disease. In 33.3% of diagnoses, including HC, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer disease (AD), and Parkinson disease (PD), cNfL was higher in men than women. The cNfL increased with age in HC and a majority of neurological conditions, although the association was strongest in HC. The cNfL overlapped in most clinically similar diagnoses except for FTD and iHIV, which segregated from other dementias, and PD, which segregated from atypical parkinsonian syndromes.These data support the use of cNfL as a biomarker of neuroaxonal damage and indicate that age-specific and sex-specific (and in some cases disease-specific) reference values may be needed. The cNfL has potential to assist the differentiation of FTD from AD and PD from atypical parkinsonian syndromes.
  • Golman, Klaes, et al. (författare)
  • 13C-angiography.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Academic Radiology. - : Elsevier. - 1878-4046. ; 9:Suppl 2, s. 507-510
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Ackum, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Vi tar fram en handfast plan för en omstart av Sverige
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Dagens Nyheter. - 1101-2447. ; :27 april
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Det är /.../ fullt möjligt att tänka strategiskt och systematiskt även i brinnande kris. Omstartskommissionen hoppas kunna bidra till fokus, analys och konkreta policyförslag för att stödja Sveriges långsiktiga inriktning. Vi kommer att under våren och sommaren anordna seminarier och hearings om vårt arbete, delrapporter ska läggas fram – och när budgetarbetet börjar och Riksdagen öppnar, vill vi kunna bidra med en rejäl och handfast plan för hur vi omstartar Sverige.
  • Ahmad, Shahzad, et al. (författare)
  • CDH6 and HAGH protein levels in plasma associate with Alzheimer’s disease in APOE ε4 carriers
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many Alzheimer’s disease (AD) genes including Apolipoprotein E (APOE) are found to be expressed in blood-derived macrophages and thus may alter blood protein levels. We measured 91 neuro-proteins in plasma from 316 participants of the Rotterdam Study (incident AD = 161) using Proximity Extension Ligation assay. We studied the association of plasma proteins with AD in the overall sample and stratified by APOE. Findings from the Rotterdam study were replicated in 186 AD patients of the BioFINDER study. We further evaluated the correlation of these protein biomarkers with total tau (t-tau), phosphorylated tau (p-tau) and amyloid-beta (Aβ) 42 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (N = 441). Finally, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify the genetic variants determining the blood levels of AD-associated proteins. Plasma levels of the proteins, CDH6 (β = 0.638, P = 3.33 × 10−4) and HAGH (β = 0.481, P = 7.20 × 10−4), were significantly elevated in APOE ε4 carrier AD patients. The findings in the Rotterdam Study were replicated in the BioFINDER study for both CDH6 (β = 1.365, P = 3.97 × 10−3) and HAGH proteins (β = 0.506, P = 9.31 × 10−7) when comparing cases and controls in APOE ε4 carriers. In the CSF, CDH6 levels were positively correlated with t-tau and p-tau in the total sample as well as in APOE ε4 stratum (P < 1 × 10−3). The HAGH protein was not detected in CSF. GWAS of plasma CDH6 protein levels showed significant association with a cis-regulatory locus (rs111283466, P = 1.92 × 10−9). CDH6 protein is implicated in cell adhesion and synaptogenesis while HAGH protein is related to the oxidative stress pathway. Our findings suggest that these pathways may be altered during presymptomatic AD and that CDH6 and HAGH may be new blood-based biomarkers.
  • Alvén, Jennifer, et al. (författare)
  • A Deep Learning Approach to MR-less Spatial Normalization for Tau PET Images
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention : MICCAI 2019 - 22nd International Conference, Proceedings - MICCAI 2019 - 22nd International Conference, Proceedings. - : Springer Nature. - 0302-9743 .- 1611-3349. - 9783030322458 - 9783030322441 ; 11765 LNCS, s. 355-363
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The procedure of aligning a positron emission tomography (PET) image with a common coordinate system, spatial normalization, typically demands a corresponding structural magnetic resonance (MR) image. However, MR imaging is not always available or feasible for the subject, which calls for enabling spatial normalization without MR, MR-less spatial normalization. In this work, we propose a template-free approach to MR-less spatial normalization for [18F]flortaucipir tau PET images. We use a deep neural network that estimates an aligning transformation from the PET input image, and outputs the spatially normalized image as well as the parameterized transformation. In order to do so, the proposed network iteratively estimates a set of rigid and affine transformations by means of convolutional neural network regressors as well as spatial transformer layers. The network is trained and validated on 199 tau PET volumes with corresponding ground truth transformations, and tested on two different datasets. The proposed method shows competitive performance in terms of registration accuracy as well as speed, and compares favourably to previously published results.
  • Andersson, Carl-Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • A Genetic Variant of the Sortilin 1 Gene is Associated with Reduced Risk of Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - : IOS Press. - 1387-2877. ; 53:4, s. 1353-1363
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder represented by the accumulation of intracellular tau protein and extracellular deposits of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain. The gene sortilin 1 (SORT1) has previously been associated with cardiovascular disease in gene association studies. It has also been proposed to be involved in AD pathogenesis through facilitating Aβ clearance by binding apoE/Aβ complexes prior to cellular uptake. However, the neuropathological role of SORT1 in AD is not fully understood. To evaluate the associations between gene variants of SORT1 and risk of AD, we performed genetic analyses in a Swedish case-control cohort. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), covering the whole SORT1 gene, were selected and genotyped in 620 AD patients and 1107 controls. The SNP rs17646665, located in a non-coding region of the SORT1 gene, remained significantly associated with decreased risk of AD after multiple testing (pc = 0.0061). In addition, other SNPs were found to be nominally associated with risk of AD, as well as altered cognitive function and the CSF biomarker Aβ42, but these associations did not survive correction for multiple testing. The fact that SORT1 has been strongly associated with risk of cardiovascular disease is intriguing as cardiovascular disease is also regarded as a risk factor for AD. Finally, increased knowledge about SORT1 function has a potential to increase our understanding of APOE, the strongest risk factor for AD.
  • Andersson, Emelie, et al. (författare)
  • Blood and cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light differentially detect neurodegeneration in early Alzheimer's disease
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - : Elsevier. - 0197-4580. ; 95, s. 143-153
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light (NfL) concentration has reproducibly been shown to reflect neurodegeneration in brain disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). NfL concentration in blood correlates with the corresponding CSF levels, but few studies have directly compared the reliability of these 2 markers in sporadic AD. Herein, we measured plasma and CSF concentrations of NfL in 478 cognitively unimpaired (CU) subjects, 227 patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 113 patients with AD dementia. We found that the concentration of NfL in CSF, but not in plasma, was increased in response to Aβ pathology in CU subjects. Both CSF and plasma NfL concentrations were increased in patients with mild cognitive impairment and AD dementia. Furthermore, only NfL in CSF was associated with reduced white matter microstructure in CU subjects. Finally, in a transgenic mouse model of AD, CSF NfL increased before serum NfL in response to the development of Aβ pathology. In conclusion, NfL in CSF may be a more reliable biomarker of neurodegeneration than NfL in blood in preclinical sporadic AD.
  • Andersson, Emelie, et al. (författare)
  • CSF Aβ42 and Aβ40 and their relation to brain soluble and insoluble Aβ in the 5xFAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. - : Wiley. - 1552-5279. ; 17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In patients with AD, CSF Aβ42 is reduced while Aβ40 remains unchanged. It has been suggested that altered CSF Aβ42 is due to aggregation of this peptide into insoluble plaques, resulting in less soluble Aβ42 available for secretion to the CSF. However, the relations between soluble and insoluble Aβ42 and Aβ40 in the brain and the concentrations of these Aβ peptides in CSF are not well studied. METHODS: CSF and cortical brain tissue was collected from 2, 4, 6, and 12 months old male and female 5xFAD mice (n=45). CSF Aβ42 and Aβ40 concentrations were measured using Single molecule array (Simoa) technology. Brain sections were prepared and immunohistochemically (IHC) stained using antibodies specific for Aβ42 and Aβ40. The concentrations of Aβ42 and Aβ40 in soluble (extracted with TBS) and insoluble (extracted with formic acid) cortical brain fractions were determined by the Meso Scale Discovery technique. RESULTS: CSF Aβ42 was decreased over time whereas CSF Aβ40 remained unaltered (Fig 1). In the same mice, IHC revealed an age-related increased deposition of both Aβ42 and Aβ40 in insoluble plaques from 2 months of age (Fig 2). Moreover, measurements of Aβ42 and Aβ40 in soluble and insoluble cortical brain fractions showed increased concentrations of both peptides over time (Fig 3). CSF Aβ42 correlated inversely with cortical deposition of Aβ42 determined with IHC and the concentrations of Aβ42 in soluble and insoluble brain fractions. In contrast, no such correlations were found for Aβ40 (Fig 4). Although cortical levels of the two Aβ peptides were higher in females than in males, these sex differences were not reflected in CSF (Fig 5). CONCLUSIONS: Although significant depositions of both Aβ42 and Aβ40 were found in the brain, only Aβ42 was altered in CSF. Together with the finding that Aβ42 was increased, and not reduced, in soluble cortical brain fractions, this may suggest that mechanisms other than aggregation of Aβ42 into insoluble plaques contribute to decreased CSF concentrations of this Aβ peptide in 5xFAD mice. However, additional characterization of Aβ in the soluble brain fraction is needed to further understand its relation to the concentrations in CSF.
  • Andersson, Maria A, et al. (författare)
  • Electroencephalogram variability in dementia with lewy bodies, Alzheimer's disease and controls.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. - : Karger. - 1420-8008. ; 26:3, s. 284-290
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND/AIM: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is probably still underdiagnosed in the clinical setting. Previous studies have suggested a relationship between fluctuations in attention and electroencephalogram (EEG) measures. Since fluctuation in attention is a core symptom of DLB, we sought to further explore whether EEG measures could help differentiate DLB from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy controls. METHODS: The EEGs of 20 patients with DLB, 64 patients with AD and 54 elderly controls were assessed in regard to frequencies, coherence, and variability. RESULTS: Greater variability was seen in delta-band power over 2-second intervals in parietal electrodes of DLB patients. The DLB group had a higher degree of overall coherence in the delta band and a lower degree of overall coherence in the alpha band than the other groups. Finally, EEG measures could distinguish DLB patients from AD patients and controls with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves ranging between 0.75 and 0.80 and between 0.91 and 0.97, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the difference in variability may be associated with the fluctuating cognition seen in DLB. This might have clinical implications as guidance in the diagnosis of DLB. The EEG analysis is simple enough to be possible to apply in clinical practice.
  • Andersson, Malin E, 1978, et al. (författare)
  • Kinesin gene variability may affect tau phosphorylation in early Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: International journal of molecular medicine. - : Spandidos Publications. - 1107-3756. ; 20:2, s. 233-239
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Kinesin is a microtubule-associated motor protein that transports Alzheimer-associated amyloid precursor protein (APP) in neurons. In animal models, impaired kinesin-mediated APP transport seems to enhance formation of the neurotoxic 42 amino acid fragment of beta-amyloid (A beta 42). In man, one study suggests that a polymorphism (rs8702, 56,836G>C) in the kinesin light chain 1 gene (KNS2) may affect the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To further assess KNS2 as a susceptibility gene for AD we analyzed 802 patients with sporadic AD and 286 controls, 134 longitudinally followed patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 39 cognitively stable controls for the rs8702 polymorphism. The rs8702 polymorphism did not influence risk of AD (p=0.46). However, rs8702 interacted with APOE epsilon 4 carrier status in AD (p=0.006) and influenced cerebrospinal fluid levels of hyperphosphorylated tau in MCI patients who converted to AD during follow-up (p=0.018). These findings support earlier indications that genetic variability in the KNS2 gene may play a role during early stages of AD pathogenesis.
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