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1.
  • Vos, T., et al. (författare)
  • Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 390:10100, s. 1211-1259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 328 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. Methods We estimated prevalence and incidence for 328 diseases and injuries and 2982 sequelae, their non-fatal consequences. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, as the main method of estimation, ensuring consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, and cause of death rates for each condition. For some causes, we used alternative modelling strategies if incidence or prevalence needed to be derived from other data. YLDs were estimated as the product of prevalence and a disability weight for all mutually exclusive sequelae, corrected for comorbidity and aggregated to cause level. We updated the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and total fertility rate. GBD 2016 complies with the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER). Findings Globally, low back pain, migraine, age-related and other hearing loss, iron-deficiency anaemia, and major depressive disorder were the five leading causes of YLDs in 2016, contributing 57.6 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 40.8-75.9 million [7.2%, 6.0-8.3]), 45.1 million (29.0-62.8 million [5.6%, 4.0-7.2]), 36.3 million (25.3-50.9 million [4.5%, 3.8-5.3]), 34.7 million (23.0-49.6 million [4.3%, 3.5-5.2]), and 34.1 million (23.5-46.0 million [4.2%, 3.2-5.3]) of total YLDs, respectively. Age-standardised rates of YLDs for all causes combined decreased between 1990 and 2016 by 2.7% (95% UI 2.3-3.1). Despite mostly stagnant age-standardised rates, the absolute number of YLDs from non-communicable diseases has been growing rapidly across all SDI quintiles, partly because of population growth, but also the ageing of populations. The largest absolute increases in total numbers of YLDs globally were between the ages of 40 and 69 years. Age-standardised YLD rates for all conditions combined were 10.4% (95% UI 9.0-11.8) higher in women than in men. Iron-deficiency anaemia, migraine, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, major depressive disorder, anxiety, and all musculoskeletal disorders apart from gout were the main conditions contributing to higher YLD rates in women. Men had higher age-standardised rates of substance use disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and all injuries apart from sexual violence. Globally, we noted much less geographical variation in disability than has been documented for premature mortality. In 2016, there was a less than two times difference in age-standardised YLD rates for all causes between the location with the lowest rate (China, 9201 YLDs per 100 000, 95% UI 6862-11943) and highest rate (Yemen, 14 774 YLDs per 100 000, 11 018-19 228). Interpretation The decrease in death rates since 1990 for most causes has not been matched by a similar decline in age-standardised YLD rates. For many large causes, YLD rates have either been stagnant or have increased for some causes, such as diabetes. As populations are ageing, and the prevalence of disabling disease generally increases steeply with age, health systems will face increasing demand for services that are generally costlier than the interventions that have led to declines in mortality in childhood or for the major causes of mortality in adults. Up-todate information about the trends of disease and how this varies between countries is essential to plan for an adequate health-system response. Copyright (C) The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.
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2.
  • Hay, S. I., et al. (författare)
  • Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016 : A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Lancet Publishing Group. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 390:10100, s. 1260-1344
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE). We used these measures to track trends and benchmark progress compared with expected trends on the basis of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Methods: We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive HALE and DALYs by sex for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost and years of life lived with disability for each location, age group, sex, and year. We estimated HALE using age-specific death rates and years of life lived with disability per capita. We explored how DALYs and HALE difered from expected trends when compared with the SDI: the geometric mean of income per person, educational attainment in the population older than age 15 years, and total fertility rate. Findings: The highest globally observed HALE at birth for both women and men was in Singapore, at 75·2 years (95% uncertainty interval 71·9-78·6) for females and 72·0 years (68·8-75·1) for males. The lowest for females was in the Central African Republic (45·6 years [42·0-49·5]) and for males was in Lesotho (41·5 years [39·0-44·0]). From 1990 to 2016, global HALE increased by an average of 6·24 years (5·97-6·48) for both sexes combined. Global HALE increased by 6·04 years (5·74-6·27) for males and 6·49 years (6·08-6·77) for females, whereas HALE at age 65 years increased by 1·78 years (1·61-1·93) for males and 1·96 years (1·69-2·13) for females. Total global DALYs remained largely unchanged from 1990 to 2016 (-2·3% [-5·9 to 0·9]), with decreases in communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) disease DALYs ofset by increased DALYs due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The exemplars, calculated as the fve lowest ratios of observed to expected age-standardised DALY rates in 2016, were Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Maldives, Peru, and Israel. The leading three causes of DALYs globally were ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and lower respiratory infections, comprising 16·1% of all DALYs. Total DALYs and age-standardised DALY rates due to most CMNN causes decreased from 1990 to 2016. Conversely, the total DALY burden rose for most NCDs; however, age-standardised DALY rates due to NCDs declined globally. Interpretation: At a global level, DALYs and HALE continue to show improvements. At the same time, we observe that many populations are facing growing functional health loss. Rising SDI was associated with increases in cumulative years of life lived with disability and decreases in CMNN DALYs ofset by increased NCD DALYs. Relative compression of morbidity highlights the importance of continued health interventions, which has changed in most locations in pace with the gross domestic product per person, education, and family planning. The analysis of DALYs and HALE and their relationship to SDI represents a robust framework with which to benchmark location-specific health performance. Country-specific drivers of disease burden, particularly for causes with higher-than-expected DALYs, should inform health policies, health system improvement initiatives, targeted prevention eforts, and development assistance for health, including fnancial and research investments for all countries, regardless of their level of sociodemographic development. The presence of countries that substantially outperform others suggests the need for increased scrutiny for proven examples of best practices, which can help to extend gains, whereas the presence of underperforming countries suggests the need for devotion of extra attention to health systems that need more robust support. © The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.
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3.
  • Ablikim, M., et al. (författare)
  • Amplitude analysis of the KSKS system produced in radiative J /psi decays
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - : AMER PHYSICAL SOC. - 2470-0010 .- 2470-0029. ; 98:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An amplitude analysis of the KSKS system produced in radiative J/psi decays is performed using the (1310.6 +/- 7.0) x 10(6) nip decays collected by the BESIII detector. Two approaches are presented. A mass-dependent analysis is performed by parametrizing the KSKS invariant mass spectrum as a sum of Breit-aligner line shapes. Additionally, a mass-independent analysis is performed to extract a piecewise function that describes the dynamics of the KSKS system while making minimal assumptions about the properties and number of poles in the amplitude. The dominant amplitudes in the mass-dependent analysis include the f(0)(1710), f(0)(2200), and f(2)'(1525). The mass-independent results, which are made available as input for further studies, are consistent with those of the mass-dependent analysis and are useful for a systematic study of hadronic interactions. The branching fraction of radiative J/psi decays to KSKS is measured to be (8.1 +/- 0.4) x 10(-4), where the uncertainty is systematic and the statistical uncertainty is negligible.
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4.
  • Ablikim, M., et al. (författare)
  • First measurement of e(+)e(-) -> pK(S)(0)(n)over-barK(-) + c.c. above open charm threshold
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - 2470-0010 .- 2470-0029. ; 98:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The process e(+)e(-) -> pK(S)(0)(n) over barK(-) + c.c. and its intermediate processes are studied for the first time, using data samples collected with the BESIII detector at BEPCII at center-of-mass energies of 3.773, 4.008, 4.226, 4.258, 4.358, 4.416, and 4.600 GeV, with a total integrated luminosity of 7.4 fb(-1). The Born cross section of e(+)e(-) -> pK(S)(0)(n) over barK(-) + c.c. is measured at each center-of-mass energy, but no significant resonant structure in the measured cross-section line shape between 3.773 and 4.600 GeV is observed. No evident structure is detected in the pK(-), nK(S)(0), pK(S)(0), nK(+), p (n) over bar, or (KSK-)-K-0 invariant mass distributions except for Lambda(1520). The Born cross sections of e(+)e(-) -> Lambda(1520)(n) over barK(S)(0) + c.c. and e(+)e(-) -> Lambda(1520)(p) over barK(+) + c.c. are measured, and the 90% confidence level upper limits on the Born cross sections of e(+)e(-) -> Lambda(1520)(Lambda) over bar (1520) are determined at the seven center-of-mass energies. There is an evident difference in line shape and magnitude of the measured cross sections between e(+)e(-) -> Lambda(1520)(-> pK(-))(n) over barK(S)(0) and e(+)e(-) -> pK-(Lambda) over bar (1520)(-> (n) over barK(S)(0)).
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5.
  • Ablikim, M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of branching fractions for psi(3686) -> gamma eta ', gamma eta, and gamma pi(0)
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - : AMER PHYSICAL SOC. - 2470-0010 .- 2470-0029. ; 96:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using a data sample of 448 x 10(6) psi(3686) events collected with the BESIII detector operating at the BEPCII storage ring, the decays psi(3686) -> gamma eta and psi(3686) -> gamma pi(0) are observed with a statistical significance of 7.3 sigma and 6.7 sigma, respectively. The branching fractions are measured to be B(psi(3686) -> gamma eta) = (0.85 +/- 0.18 +/- 0.05) x 10(-6) and B(psi(3686) ->gamma pi(0)) = (0.95 +/- 0.16 +/- 0.05) x 10(-6). In addition, we measure the branching fraction of psi(3686) -> gamma eta' to be B(psi(3686) -> gamma eta') = (125.1 +/- 2.2 +/- 6.2)x10(-6), which represents an improvement of precision over previous results.
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6.
  • Ablikim, M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of e(+)e(-) -> D(D)over-bar cross sections at the psi(3770) resonance
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Chinese Physics C, High Energy Physics & Nuclear Physics. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 1674-1137 .- 0899-9996. ; 42:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report new measurements of the cross sections for the production of D (D) over bar final states at the psi(3770) resonance. Our data sample consists of an integrated luminosity of 2.93 fb(-1) of e(+)e(-) annihilation data produced by the BEPCII collider and collected and analyzed with the BESIII detector. We exclusively reconstruct three D-0 and six D+ hadronic decay modes and use the ratio of the yield of fully reconstructed D (D) over bar events ("double tags") to the yield of all reconstructed D or (D) over bar mesons ("single tags") to determine the number of D-0(D) over bar (0) and D+D- events, benefiting from the cancellation of many systematic uncertainties. Combining these yields with an independent determination of the integrated luminosity of the data sample, we find the cross sections to be sigma(e(+)e(-) -> D-0(D) over bar (0)(-) )=(3.615 +/- 0.010 +/- 0.038) nb and sigma(e(+)e(-) -> D+D-)=(2.830 +/- 0.011 +/- 0.026) nb, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.
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7.
  • Ablikim, M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of e(+)e(-) -> K(K)over-barJ/psi cross sections at center-of-mass energies from 4.189 to 4.600 GeV
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - : AMER PHYSICAL SOC. - 2470-0010 .- 2470-0029. ; 97:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigate the process e(+)e(-) -> K (K) over barJ/psi at center-of-mass energies from 4.189 to 4.600 GeV using 4.7 fb(-1) of data collected by the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider. The Born cross sections for the reactions e(+)e(-) -> K(+)K(-)J/psi and K(S)(0)K(S)(0)J/psi are measured as a function of center-of-mass energy. The energy dependence of the cross section for e(+)e(-) -> K(+)K(-)J/psi is shown to differ from that for pi(+)pi(-)J/psi in the region around the Y(4260). In addition, there is evidence for a structure around 4.5 GeV in the e(+)e(-) -> K(+)K(-)J/psi cross section that is not present in pi(+)pi(-)J/psi.
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8.
  • Ablikim, M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of singly Cabibbo-suppressed decays D-0 → π0π0π0, π0π0η, π0ηη and ηηη
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters B. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. - 0370-2693 .- 1873-2445. ; 781, s. 368-375
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using a data sample of e(+)e(-) collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.93 fb(-1) collected with the BESIII detector at a center-of-mass energy of root s = 3.773 GeV, we search for the singly Cabibbo-suppressed decays D-0 -> pi(0)pi(0)pi(0), pi(0)pi(0)eta, pi(0)eta eta and eta eta eta using the double tag method. The absolute branching fractions are measured to be B(D-0 -> pi(0)pi(0)pi(0)) = (2.0 +/- 0.4 +/- 0.3) x 10(-4), B(D-0 -> pi(0)pi(0)eta) = (3.8 +/- 1.1 +/- 0.7) x 10(-4) and B(D-0 -> pi(0)eta eta) = (7.3 +/- 1.6 +/- 1.5) x 10(-4) with the statistical significances of 4.8 sigma, 3.8 sigma and 5.5 sigma, respectively, where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second ones systematic. No significant signal of D-0 -> eta eta eta is found, and the upper limit on its decay branching fraction is set to be B(D-0 -> eta eta eta) < 1.3 x 10(-4) at the 90% confidence level.
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9.
  • Ablikim, M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D*(s0) (2317)(+/-) -> pi D-0(s)+/-
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - : American Physical Society. - 2470-0010 .- 2470-0029. ; 97:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The process e(+)e(-) -> D*D-+(s)*(s0) (2317)(-) + c.c. is observed for the first time with the data sample of 567 pb(-1) collected with the BESIII detector operating at the BEPCII collider at a center-of-mass energy root s = 4.6 GeV. The statistical significance of the D*(s0) (2317)(+/-) signal is 5.8 sigma and the mass is measured to be (2318.3 +/- 1.2 +/- 1.2) MeV/c(2). The absolute branching fraction B(D*(s0) (2317)(+/-) -> pi D-0(s)+/-) is measured as 1.00(-0.14)(+0.00) (stat)(-0.14)(+0.00) (syst) for the first time. The uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.
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10.
  • Ablikim, M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the Absolute Branching Fraction of the Inclusive Decay Lambda(+)(c) -> Lambda plus X
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : AMER PHYSICAL SOC. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 121:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Based on an e(+)e(-) collision data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 567 pb(-1) taken at the center-of-mass energy of root s = 4.6 GeV with the BESIII detector, we measure the absolute branching fraction of the inclusive decay Lambda(+)(c) -> Lambda + X to be B(Lambda(+)(c) -> Lambda + X) = (38.2(-2.2)(+2.8) +/- 0.9)% using the double-tag method, where X refers to any possible final state particles. In addition, we search for direct CP violation in the charge asymmetry of this inclusive decay for the first time, and obtain A(CP) [B(Lambda(+)(c) -> Lambda + X) - B((Lambda) over bar (-)(c) -> (Lambda) over bar + X)]/[B(Lambda(+)(c) -> Lambda + X) + B((Lambda) over bar (-)(c) -> (Lambda) over bar + X)] = (2.1(-6.6)(+7.0) +/- 1.6)%, a statistically limited result with no evidence of CP violation.
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