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Sökning: WFRF:(Harnack L)

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1.
  • Koushik, Anita, et al. (författare)
  • Fruits, vegetables, and colon cancer risk in a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Univ Montreal, CHUM, Ctr Rech, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Montreal, PQ H2W 1V1, Canada. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Loma Linda Univ, Ctr Hlth Res, Loma Linda, CA 92350 USA. Maastricht Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Maastricht, Netherlands. Amer Canc Soc, Atlanta, GA 30329 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Div Prevent Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Lab, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Univ Buffalo State Univ New York, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Buffalo, NY 14222 USA. Roswell Pk Canc Inst, Dept Canc Prevent & Populat Sci, Buffalo, NY 14263 USA. Dana Farber Canc Inst, Dept Adult Oncol, Boston, MA USA. TNO, Dept Food & Chem Risk Anal, Zeist, Netherlands. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol & Community Hlth, Minneapolis, MN USA. Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Dept Pathol, Karmanos Canc Inst, Detroit, MI 48201 USA. Natl Canc Inst, Nutr Epidemiol Unit, I-20133 Milan, Italy. Karolinska Inst, Natl Inst Environm Med, Div Nutr Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden. NCI, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA. Univ Toronto, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada. Natl Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Promot, Helsinki, Finland. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Bronx, NY 10467 USA. AZJ, Div Epidemiol, Dept Environm Med, New York, NY USA. : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 99:19, s. 1471-1483
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Fruit and vegetable intakes have been associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer; however, in more recent studies associations have been less consistent. Statistical power to examine associations by colon site has been limited in previous studies. Methods Fruit and vegetable intakes in relation to colon cancer risk were examined in the Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (Cis) were estimated separately in 14 studies using Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using a randomeffects model. Intakes of total fruits and vegetables, total fruits, and total vegetables were categorized according to quintiles and absolute cutpoints. Analyses were conducted for colon cancer overall and for proximal and distal colon cancer separately. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Among 756217 men and women followed for up to 6 to 20 years, depending on the study, 5838 were diagnosed with colon cancer. The pooled multivariable RRs (95% Cis) of colon cancer for the highest versus lowest quintiles of intake were 0.91 (0.82 to 1-01 1 P-trend =.19) for total fruits and vegetables, 0.93 (0.85 to 1.02, P-trend =.28) for total fruits, and 0.94 (0.86 to 1.02, P-trend =.17) for total vegetables. Similar results were observed when intakes were categorized by identical absolute cut points across studies (pooled multivariable FIR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.77 to 1.05 for 800 or more versus <200 g/day of total fruits and vegetables, P-trend =.06). The age-standardized incidence rates of colon cancer for these two intake categories were 54 and 61 per 100000 person-years, respectively. When analyzed by colon site, the pooled multivariable RRs (95% Cis) comparing total fruit and vegetable intakes of 800 or more versus less than 200 g/day were 0.74 (0.57 to 0.95, P-trend =.02) for distal colon cancers and 1.02 (0.82 to 1.27, P-trend =.57) for proximal colon cancers. Similar site-specific associations were observed for total fruits and total vegetables. Conclusion Fruit and vegetable intakes were not strongly associated with colon cancer risk overall but may be associated with a lower risk of distal colon cancer.
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  • Park, Yikyung, et al. (författare)
  • Intakes of vitamins A, C, and E and use of multiple vitamin supplements and risk of colon cancer : a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 21:11, s. 1745-1757
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To evaluate the associations between intakes of vitamins A, C, and E and risk of colon cancer. Using the primary data from 13 cohort studies, we estimated study- and sex-specific relative risks (RR) with Cox proportional hazards models and subsequently pooled RRs using a random effects model. Among 676,141 men and women, 5,454 colon cancer cases were identified (7-20 years of follow-up across studies). Vitamin A, C, and E intakes from food only were not associated with colon cancer risk. For intakes from food and supplements (total), the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CI) were 0.88 (0.76-1.02, > 4,000 vs. a parts per thousand currency sign1,000 mu g/day) for vitamin A, 0.81 (0.71-0.92, > 600 vs. a parts per thousand currency sign100 mg/day) for vitamin C, and 0.78 (0.66-0.92, > 200 vs. a parts per thousand currency sign6 mg/day) for vitamin E. Adjustment for total folate intake attenuated these associations, but the inverse associations with vitamins C and E remained significant. Multivitamin use was significantly inversely associated with colon cancer risk (RR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.81-0.96). Modest inverse associations with vitamin C and E intakes may be due to high correlations with folate intake, which had a similar inverse association with colon cancer. An inverse association with multivitamin use, a major source of folate and other vitamins, deserves further study.
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4.
  • Genkinger, J M, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol intake and ovarian cancer risk : a pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Channing Lab, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol, Minneapolis, MN USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Div Prevent Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. SUNY Buffalo, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Buffalo, NY USA. TNO, Dept Food & Chem Risk Anal, Zeist, Netherlands. Natl Inst Environm Med, Karolinska Inst, Div Nutr Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden. NCI, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA. Amer Canc Soc, Atlanta, GA 30329 USA. Univ Toronto, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Fac Med, Toronto, ON, Canada. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Bronx, NY 10467 USA. Maastricht Univ, NUTRIM, Dept Epidemiol, Maastricht, Netherlands. : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 94:5, s. 757-762
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alcohol has been hypothesized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis by its potential to increase circulating levels of estrogen and other hormones; through its oxidation byproduct, acetaldehyde, which may act as a cocarcinogen; and by depletion of folate and other nutrients. Case-control and cohort studies have reported conflicting results relating alcohol intake to ovarian cancer risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of the primary data from ten prospective cohort studies. The analysis included 529 638 women among whom 2001 incident epithelial ovarian cases were documented. After study-specific relative risks ( RR) and 95% confidence intervals ( CI) were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models, and then were pooled using a random effects model; no associations were observed for intakes of total alcohol ( pooled multivariate RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.86-1.44 comparing >= 30 to 0 g day(-1) of alcohol) or alcohol from wine, beer or spirits and ovarian cancer risk. The association with alcohol consumption was not modified by oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy, parity, menopausal status, folate intake, body mass index, or smoking. Associations for endometrioid, mucinous, and serous ovarian cancer were similar to the overall findings. This pooled analysis does not support an association between moderate alcohol intake and ovarian cancer risk.
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  • Kim, Dong-Hyun, et al. (författare)
  • Pooled analyses of 13 prospective cohort studies on folate intake and colon cancer
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - : SPRINGER. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 21:11, s. 1919-1930
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies of folate intake and colorectal cancer risk have been inconsistent. We examined the relation with colon cancer risk in a series of 13 prospective studies. Study- and sex-specific relative risks (RRs) were estimated from the primary data using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random-effects model. Among 725,134 participants, 5,720 incident colon cancers were diagnosed during follow-up. The pooled multivariate RRs (95% confidence interval [CI]) comparing the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake were 0.92 (95% CI 0.84-1.00, p-value, test for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.85) for dietary folate and 0.85 (95% CI 0.77-0.95, p-value, test for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.42) for total folate. Results for total folate intake were similar in analyses using absolute intake cutpoints (pooled multivariate RR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.78-0.98, comparing a parts per thousand yen560 mcg/days vs. < 240 mcg/days, p-value, test for trend = 0.009). When analyzed as a continuous variable, a 2% risk reduction (95% CI 0-3%) was estimated for every 100 mu g/day increase in total folate intake. These data support the hypothesis that higher folate intake is modestly associated with reduced risk of colon cancer.
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  • Mannisto, Satu, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary carotenoids and risk of colorectal cancer in a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Hlth Promot & Chron Dis Prevent, Helsinki 00300, Finland. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Brigham & Womens Hosp, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Ctr Canc Prevent, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden. NCI, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA. Maastricht Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Maastricht, Netherlands. Mayo Clin, Coll Med, Rochester, MN USA. SUNY Buffalo, Univ Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260 USA. Dana Farber Canc Inst, Boston, MA 02115 USA. TNO Qual Life, Zeist, Netherlands. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Minneapolis, MN USA. Amer Canc Soc, Atlanta, GA 30329 USA. Univ Toronto, Fac Med, Toronto, ON, Canada. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Bronx, NY 10467 USA. : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 165:3, s. 246-255
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dietary carotenoids have been hypothesized to protect against epithelial cancers. The authors analyzed the associations between intakes of specific carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein + zeaxanthin, and lycopene) and risk of colorectal cancer using the primary data from 11 cohort studies carried out in North America and Europe. Carotenoid intakes were estimated from food frequency questionnaires administered at baseline in each study. During 6-20 years of follow-up between 1980 and 2003, 7,885 incident cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed among 702,647 participants. The authors calculated study-specific multivariate relative risks and then combined them using a random-effects model. In general, intakes of specific carotenoids were not associated with colorectal cancer risk. The pooled multivariate relative risks of colorectal cancer comparing the highest quintile of intake with the lowest ranged from 0.92 for lutein + zeaxanthin to 1.04 for lycopene; only for lutein + zeaxanthin intake was the result borderline statistically significant (95% confidence interval: 0.84, 1.00). The associations observed were generally similar across studies, for both sexes, and for colon cancer and rectal cancer. These pooled data did not suggest that carotenoids play an important role in the etiology of colorectal cancer.
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7.
  • Smith-Warner, Stephanie A., et al. (författare)
  • Methods for pooling results of epidemiologic studies - The pooling project of prospective studies of diet and cancer
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA. NCI, Nutr Epidemiol Branch, Bethesda, MD USA. Loma Linda Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Hlth Res, Loma Linda, CA 92350 USA. Univ So Calif, Dept Prevent Med, Los Angeles, CA USA. Univ So Calif, Norris Comprehens Canc Ctr, Los Angeles, CA USA. NCI, Epidemiol Unit, Milan, Italy. Maastricht Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Epidemiol, Maastricht, Netherlands. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Div Prevent Med, Boston, MA USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Channing Lab, Boston, MA USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Channing Lab, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Ctr Canc Prevent, Boston, MA USA. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol & Community Hlth, Minneapolis, MN USA. SUNY Buffalo, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Buffalo, NY USA. TNO Qual Life, Dept Epidemiol, Zeist, Netherlands. No Calif Canc Ctr, Fremont, CA USA. NCI, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, Bethesda, MD USA. Amer Canc Soc, Epidemiol & Surveilliance Res, Atlanta, GA USA. Univ Toronto, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Bronx, NY USA. NYU, Sch Med, Dept Environm Med, New York, NY USA. Natl Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Promot, Helsinki, Finland. Natl Inst Environm Med, Div Nutr Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden. : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 163:11, s. 1053-1064
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With the growing number of epidemiologic publications on the relation between dietary factors and cancer risk, pooled analyses that summarize results from multiple studies are becoming more common. Here, the authors describe the methods being used to summarize data on diet-cancer associations within the ongoing Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer, begun in 1991. In the Pooling Project, the primary data from prospective cohort studies meeting prespecified inclusion criteria are analyzed using standardized criteria for modeling of exposure, confounding, and outcome variables. In addition to evaluating main exposure-disease associations, analyses are also conducted to evaluate whether exposure-disease associations are modified by other dietary and nondietary factors or vary among population subgroups or particular cancer subtypes. Study-specific relative risks are calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random- or mixed-effects model. The study-specific estimates are weighted by the inverse of their variances in forming summary estimates. Most of the methods used in the Pooling Project may be adapted for examining associations with dietary and nondietary factors in pooled analyses of case-control studies or case-control and cohort studies combined.
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