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Sökning: WFRF:(Hart Tom)

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1.
  • Di Angelantonio, E., et al. (författare)
  • Association of Cardiometabolic Multimorbidity With Mortality
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: JAMA. - : American Medical Association. - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 314:1, s. 52-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE: The prevalence of cardiometabolic multimorbidity is increasing. OBJECTIVE: To estimate reductions in life expectancy associated with cardiometabolic multimorbidity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Age- and sex-adjusted mortality rates and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using individual participant data from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (689,300 participants; 91 cohorts; years of baseline surveys: 1960-2007; latest mortality follow-up: April 2013; 128,843 deaths). The HRs from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration were compared with those from the UK Biobank (499,808 participants; years of baseline surveys: 2006-2010; latest mortality follow-up: November 2013; 7995 deaths). Cumulative survival was estimated by applying calculated age-specific HRs for mortality to contemporary US age-specific death rates. EXPOSURES: A history of 2 or more of the following: diabetes mellitus, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: All-cause mortality and estimated reductions in life expectancy. RESULTS: In participants in the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration without a history of diabetes, stroke, or MI at baseline (reference group), the all-cause mortality rate adjusted to the age of 60 years was 6.8 per 1000 person-years. Mortality rates per 1000 person-years were 15.6 in participants with a history of diabetes, 16.1 in those with stroke, 16.8 in those with MI, 32.0 in those with both diabetes and MI, 32.5 in those with both diabetes and stroke, 32.8 in those with both stroke and MI, and 59.5 in those with diabetes, stroke, and MI. Compared with the reference group, the HRs for all-cause mortality were 1.9 (95% CI, 1.8-2.0) in participants with a history of diabetes, 2.1 (95% CI, 2.0-2.2) in those with stroke, 2.0 (95% CI, 1.9-2.2) in those with MI, 3.7 (95% CI, 3.3-4.1) in those with both diabetes and MI, 3.8 (95% CI, 3.5-4.2) in those with both diabetes and stroke, 3.5 (95% CI, 3.1-4.0) in those with both stroke and MI, and 6.9 (95% CI, 5.7-8.3) in those with diabetes, stroke, and MI. The HRs from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration were similar to those from the more recently recruited UK Biobank. The HRs were little changed after further adjustment for markers of established intermediate pathways (eg, levels of lipids and blood pressure) and lifestyle factors (eg, smoking, diet). At the age of 60 years, a history of any 2 of these conditions was associated with 12 years of reduced life expectancy and a history of all 3 of these conditions was associated with 15 years of reduced life expectancy. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Mortality associated with a history of diabetes, stroke, or MI was similar for each condition. Because any combination of these conditions was associated with multiplicative mortality risk, life expectancy was substantially lower in people with multimorbidity.
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2.
  • Escala-Garcia, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study of germline variants and breast cancer-specific mortality
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 120:6, s. 647-657
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: We examined the associations between germline variants and breast cancer mortality using a large meta-analysis of women of European ancestry. METHODS: Meta-analyses included summary estimates based on Cox models of twelve datasets using similar to 10.4 million variants for 96,661 women with breast cancer and 7697 events (breast cancer-specific deaths). Oestrogen receptor (ER)-specific analyses were based on 64,171 ER-positive (4116) and 16,172 ER-negative (2125) patients. We evaluated the probability of a signal to be a true positive using the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). RESULTS: We did not find any variant associated with breast cancer-specific mortality at P<5 x 10(-8). For ER-positive disease, the most significantly associated variant was chr7:rs4717568 (BFDP = 7%, P = 1.28 x 10(-7), hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [ CI] = 0.84-0.92); the closest gene is AUTS2. For ER-negative disease, the most significant variant was chr7: rs67918676 (BFDP = 11%, P = 1.38 x 10(-7), HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16-1.39); located within a long intergenic non-coding RNA gene (AC004009.3), close to the HOXA gene cluster. CONCLUSIONS: We uncovered germline variants on chromosome 7 at BFDP <15% close to genes for which there is biological evidence related to breast cancer outcome. However, the paucity of variants associated with mortality at genome-wide significance underpins the challenge in providing genetic-based individualised prognostic information for breast cancer patients.
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3.
  • Heap, Graham A., et al. (författare)
  • HLA-DQA1-HLA-DRB1 variants confer susceptibility to pancreatitis induced by thiopurine immunosuppressants
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 46:10, s. 1131-1134
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pancreatitis occurs in approximately 4% of patients treated with the thiopurines azathioprine or mercaptopurine. Its development is unpredictable and almost always leads to drug withdrawal. We identified patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who had developed pancreatitis within 3 months of starting these drugs from 168 sites around the world. After detailed case adjudication, we performed a genome-wide association study on 172 cases and 2,035 controls with IBD. We identified strong evidence of association within the class II HLA region, with the most significant association identified at rs2647087 (odds ratio 2.59, 95% confidence interval 2.07-3.26, P = 2 x 10(-16)). We replicated these findings in an independent set of 78 cases and 472 controls with IBD matched for drug exposure. Fine mapping of the H LA region identified association with the HLA-DQA1*02:01-HLA-DRB1*07:01 haplotype. Patients heterozygous at rs2647087 have a 9% risk of developing pancreatitis after administration of a thiopurine, whereas homozygotes have a 17% risk.
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5.
  • Michailidou, Kyriaki, et al. (författare)
  • Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 551:7678, s. 92-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10-8. The majority of credible risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall in distal regulatory elements, and by integrating in silico data to predict target genes in breast cells at each locus, we demonstrate a strong overlap between candidate target genes and somatic driver genes in breast tumours. We also find that heritability of breast cancer due to all single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention.
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7.
  • van der Valk, Tom, et al. (författare)
  • The genome of the endangered dryas monkey provides new insights into the evolutionary history of the vervets
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Molecular biology and evolution. - 0737-4038 .- 1537-1719. ; 37:1, s. 183-194
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genomic data can be a powerful tool for inferring ecology, behaviour and conservation needs of highly elusive species, particularly when other sources of information are hard to come by. Here we focus on the dryas monkey, an endangered primate endemic to the Congo Basin with cryptic behaviour and possibly less than 250 remaining individuals. Using whole genome data we show that the dryas monkey represents a sister lineage to the vervet monkeys and has diverged from them at least 1 million years ago with additional bi-directional gene flow 590,000 – 360,000 years ago. After bonobo-chimpanzee admixture, this is the second reported case of gene flow that most likely involved crossing the Congo River, a strong dispersal barrier. As the demographic history of bonobos and dryas monkey shows similar patterns of population increase during this time period, we hypothesise that the fluvial topology of the Congo River might have been more dynamic than previously recognised. As a result of dryas monkey - vervet admixture, genes involved in resistance to the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have been exchanged, possibly indicating adaptive introgression. Despite the presence of several homozygous loss-of-function mutations in genes associated with reduced sperm mobility and immunity, we find high genetic diversity and low levels of inbreeding and genetic load in the studied dryas monkey individual. This suggests that the current population carries sufficient genetic variability for the long-term survival of this species. We thus provide an example of how genomic data can directly improve our understanding of elusive species.
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8.
  • Cuni-Sanchez, Aida, et al. (författare)
  • High aboveground carbon stock of African tropical montane forests
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 596:7873, s. 536-542
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tropical forests store 40–50 per cent of terrestrial vegetation carbon. However, spatial variations in aboveground live tree biomass carbon (AGC) stocks remain poorly understood, in particular in tropical montane forests. Owing to climatic and soil changes with increasing elevation, AGC stocks are lower in tropical montane forests compared with lowland forests. Here we assemble and analyse a dataset of structurally intact old-growth forests (AfriMont) spanning 44 montane sites in 12 African countries. We find that montane sites in the AfriMont plot network have a mean AGC stock of 149.4 megagrams of carbon per hectare (95% confidence interval 137.1–164.2), which is comparable to lowland forests in the African Tropical Rainforest Observation Network4 and about 70 per cent and 32 per cent higher than averages from plot networks in montane and lowland forests in the Neotropics, respectively. Notably, our results are two-thirds higher than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change default values for these forests in Africa8. We find that the low stem density and high abundance of large trees of African lowland forests is mirrored in the montane forests sampled. This carbon store is endangered: we estimate that 0.8 million hectares of old-growth African montane forest have been lost since 2000. We provide country-specific montane forest AGC stock estimates modelled from our plot network to help to guide forest conservation and reforestation interventions. Our findings highlight the need for conserving these biodiverse and carbon-rich ecosystems.
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9.
  • Deputy, Mohammed, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term outcome and quality of life after continent ileostomy for ulcerative colitis : A systematic review
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Colorectal Disease. - : Wiley. - 1462-8910 .- 1463-1318. ; 23:9, s. 2286-2299
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim The continent ileostomy allows evacuation of an ileal reservoir at a time convenient to the patient. It is a surgical option for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) when a restorative option is not suitable or has not succeeded and the patient does not want a conventional end ileostomy. Continent ileostomy types include the Kock pouch, Barnett continent intestinal reservoir and T-pouch. All of the published evidence on the long-term outcome and quality of life after continent ileostomy for UC was systematically reviewed. Methods A systematic review was performed in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Studies published between 1990 and 2020 were included. A descriptive synthesis was used due to the clinical heterogeneity. Results The search returned 1655 abstracts and after screening of abstracts and full text review, 19 were included in the final review, involving 1602 patients. Operative mortality is low (0%-3.6%) after all types of continent ileostomy but reoperation rates are high (20.8%-65%) because of valve mechanism failures. Rates of fistulae (0%-25.5%) and stomal stenosis (0%-25%) can be relatively high postoperatively. Quality of life scores improve for most patients undergoing continent ileostomy, especially for patients converted from ileal pouch anal anastomosis. Overall, continent ileostomy retention is high in the long-term. Discussion In the long-term, patients report high satisfaction and a good quality of life with continent ileostomy, despite high reoperation rates and complications. Newer technologies may reinvigorate interest in the continent ileostomy for this population.
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10.
  • Evangelou, Evangelos, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies confirms a susceptibility locus for knee osteoarthritis on chromosome 7q22
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 1468-2060. ; 70:2, s. 349-355
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent form of arthritis and accounts for substantial morbidity and disability, particularly in older people. It is characterised by changes in joint structure, including degeneration of the articular cartilage, and its aetiology is multifactorial with a strong postulated genetic component. Methods A meta-analysis was performed of four genome-wide association (GWA) studies of 2371 cases of knee OA and 35 909 controls in Caucasian populations. Replication of the top hits was attempted with data from 10 additional replication datasets. Results With a cumulative sample size of 6709 cases and 44 439 controls, one genome-wide significant locus was identified on chromosome 7q22 for knee OA (rs4730250, p = 9.2 x 10(-9)), thereby confirming its role as a susceptibility locus for OA. Conclusion The associated signal is located within a large (500 kb) linkage disequilibrium block that contains six genes: PRKAR2B (protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta), HPB1 (HMG-box transcription factor 1), COG5 (component of oligomeric golgi complex 5), GPR22 (G protein-coupled receptor 22), DUS4L (dihydrouridine synthase 4-like) and BCAP29 (B cell receptor-associated protein 29). Gene expression analyses of the (six) genes in primary cells derived from different joint tissues confirmed expression of all the genes in the joint environment.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 14
  • [1]2Nästa

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