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Sökning: WFRF:(Hedman Rickard)

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1.
  • Cymer, Florian, et al. (författare)
  • Exploration of the Arrest Peptide Sequence Space Reveals Arrest-enhanced Variants
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - 0021-9258 .- 1083-351X. ; 290:16, s. 10208-10215
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Translational arrest peptides (APs) are short stretches of polypeptides that induce translational stalling when synthesized on a ribosome. Mechanical pulling forces acting on the nascent chain can weaken or even abolish stalling. APs can therefore be used as in vivo force sensors, making it possible to measure the forces that act on a nascent chain during translation with single-residue resolution. It is also possible to score the relative strengths of APs by subjecting them to a given pulling force and ranking them according to stalling efficiency. Using the latter approach, we now report an extensive mutagenesis scan of a strong mutant variant of the Mannheimia succiniciproducens SecM AP and identify mutations that further increase the stalling efficiency. Combining three such mutations, we designed an AP that withstands the strongest pulling force we are able to generate at present. We further show that diproline stretches in a nascent protein act as very strong APs when translation is carried out in the absence of elongation factor P. Our findings highlight critical residues in APs, show that certain amino acid sequences induce very strong translational arrest and provide a toolbox of APs of varying strengths that can be used for in vivo force measurements.
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2.
  • Hedman, Johannes, et al. (författare)
  • Pre-PCR processing in bioterrorism preparedness : improved diagnostic capabilities for laboratory response networks
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Biosecurity and bioterrorism. - : Mary Ann Liebert. - 1538-7135 .- 1557-850X. ; 11:S1, s. S87-S101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diagnostic DNA analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a valuable tool for rapid detection of biothreat agents. However, analysis is often challenging because of the limited size, quality, and purity of the biological target. Pre-PCR processing is an integrated concept in which the issues of analytical limit of detection and simplicity for automation are addressed in all steps leading up to PCR amplification—that is, sampling, sample treatment, and the chemical composition of PCR. The sampling method should maximize target uptake and minimize uptake of extraneous substances that could impair the analysis—so-called PCR inhibitors. In sample treatment, there is a trade-off between yield and purity, as extensive purification leads to DNA loss. A cornerstone of pre-PCR processing is to apply DNA polymerase-buffer systems that are tolerant to specific sample impurities, thereby lowering the need for expensive purification steps and maximizing DNA recovery. Improved awareness among Laboratory Response Networks (LRNs) regarding pre-PCR processing is important, as ineffective sample processing leads to increased cost and possibly false-negative or ambiguous results, hindering the decision-making process in a bioterrorism crisis. This article covers the nature and mechanisms of PCR-inhibitory substances relevant for agroterrorism and bioterrorism preparedness, methods for quality control of PCR reactions, and applications of pre-PCR processing to optimize and simplify the analysis of various biothreat agents. Knowledge about pre-PCR processing will improve diagnostic capabilities of LRNs involved in the response to bioterrorism incidents.
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3.
  • Hedman, Rickard, 1983- (författare)
  • Dynamics of peptide chains during co-translational translocation, membrane integration & domain folding
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The biosynthesis of proteins occurs at the ribosomes, where amino acids are linked together into linear chains. Nascent protein chains may undergo several different processes during their synthesis. Some proteins begin to fold, while others interact with chaperones, targeting factors or processing enzymes. Nascent membrane proteins are targeted to the cell membrane for integration, which involves the translocation of periplasmic domains and the insertion of membrane-embedded parts.The aim of this thesis was to gain insights about the dynamics of nascent peptide chains undergoing folding, membrane translocation and integration. To this end, we explored the use of arrest peptides (APs) as force sensors. APs stall ribosomes when translated unless there is tension in the nascent peptide chain: the higher the tension, the more full-length protein can be detected. By using APs, we could show that a transmembrane helix is strongly ‘pulled’ twice on its way into the membrane and that strong electric forces act on negatively charged peptide segments translocating through the membrane. Furthermore, we discovered that APs could be used to detect protein folding and made the surprising discovery that a small protein domain folded well inside the ribosomal tunnel. Finally, we explored the arrest-stability of a large set of AP variants and found two extremely stable APs.
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4.
  • Ismail, Nurzian, et al. (författare)
  • A biphasic pulling force acts on transmembrane helices during translocon mediated membrane integration
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. - 1545-9993 .- 1545-9985. ; 19:10, s. 1018-1022
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Membrane proteins destined for insertion into the inner membrane of bacteria or the endoplasmic reticulum membrane in eukaryotic cells are synthesized by ribosomes bound to the bacterial SecYEG or the homologous eukaryotic Sec61 translocon. During co-translational membrane integration, transmembrane alpha-helical segments in the nascent chain exit the translocon through a lateral gate that opens toward the surrounding membrane, but the mechanism of lateral exit is not well understood. In particular, little is known about how a transmembrane helix behaves when entering and exiting the translocon. Using translation-arrest peptides from bacterial SecM proteins and from the mammalian Xbp1 protein as force sensors, we show that substantial force is exerted on a transmembrane helix at two distinct points during its transit through the translocon channel, providing direct insight into the dynamics of membrane integration.
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5.
  • Ismail, Nurzian, et al. (författare)
  • Charge-driven dynamics of nascent-chain movement through the SecYEG translocon
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. - 1545-9993 .- 1545-9985. ; 22, s. 145-149
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • On average, every fifth residue in secretory proteins carries either a positive or a negative charge. In a bacterium such as Escherichia coli, charged residues are exposed to an electric field as they transit through the inner membrane, and this should generate a fluctuating electric force on a translocating nascent chain. Here, we have used translational arrest peptides as in vivo force sensors to measure this electric force during cotranslational chain translocation through the SecYEG translocon. We find that charged residues experience a biphasic electric force as they move across the membrane, including an early component with a maximum when they are 47-49 residues away from the ribosomal P site, followed by a more slowly varying component. The early component is generated by the transmembrane electric potential, whereas the second may reflect interactions between charged residues and the periplasmic membrane surface.
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6.
  • Niesen, Michiel J. M., et al. (författare)
  • Forces on Nascent Polypeptides during Membrane Insertion and Translocation via the Sec Translocon
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Biophysical Journal. - 0006-3495 .- 1542-0086. ; 115:10, s. 1885-1894
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During ribosomal translation, nascent polypeptide chains (NCs) undergo a variety of physical processes that determine their fate in the cell. This study utilizes a combination of arrest peptide experiments and coarse-grained molecular dynamics to measure and elucidate the molecular origins of forces that are exerted on NCs during cotranslational membrane insertion and translocation via the Sec translocon. The approach enables deconvolution of force contributions from NC-translocon and NC-ribosome interactions, membrane partitioning, and electrostatic coupling to the membrane potential. In particular, we show that forces due to NC-lipid interactions provide a readout of conformational changes in the Sec translocon, demonstrating that lateral gate opening only occurs when a sufficiently hydrophobic segment of NC residues reaches the translocon. The combination of experiment and theory introduced here provides a detailed picture of the molecular interactions and conformational changes during ribosomal translation that govern protein biogenesis.
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7.
  • Nilsson, Ola B., et al. (författare)
  • Cotranslational Protein Folding inside the Ribosome Exit Tunnel
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cell reports. - 2211-1247 .- 2211-1247. ; 12:10, s. 1533-1540
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • At what point during translation do proteins fold? It is well established that proteins can fold cotranslationally outside the ribosome exit tunnel, whereas studies of folding inside the exit tunnel have so far detected only the formation of helical secondary structure and collapsed or partially structured folding intermediates. Here, using a combination of co-translational nascent chain force measurements, inter-subunit fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies on single translating ribosomes, molecular dynamics simulations, and cryoelectron microscopy, we show that a small zinc-finger domain protein can fold deep inside the vestibule of the ribosome exit tunnel. Thus, for small protein domains, the ribosome itself can provide the kind of sheltered folding environment that chaperones provide for larger proteins.
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8.
  • Procko, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Computational Design of a Protein-Based Enzyme Inhibitor
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Biology. - 0022-2836 .- 1089-8638. ; 425:18, s. 3563-3575
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While there has been considerable progress in designing protein-protein interactions, the design of proteins that bind polar surfaces is an unmet challenge. We describe the computational design of a protein that binds the acidic active site of hen egg lysozyme and inhibits the enzyme. The design process starts with two polar amino acids that fit deep into the enzyme active site, identifies a protein scaffold that supports these residues and is complementary in shape to the lysozyme active-site region, and finally optimizes the surrounding contact surface for high-affinity binding. Following affinity maturation, a protein designed using this method bound lysozyme with low nanomolar affinity, and a combination of NMR studies, crystallography, and knockout mutagenesis confirmed the designed binding surface and orientation. Saturation mutagenesis with selection and deep sequencing demonstrated that specific designed interactions extending well beyond the centrally grafted polar residues are critical for high-affinity binding.
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9.
  • Sandhu, Hena, et al. (författare)
  • Cotranslational Translocation and Folding of a Periplasmic Protein Domain in Escherichia coli
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Biology. - 0022-2836 .- 1089-8638. ; 433:15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In Gram-negative bacteria, periplasmic domains in inner membrane proteins are cotranslationally translocated across the inner membrane through the SecYEG translocon. To what degree such domains also start to fold cotranslationally is generally difficult to determine using currently available methods. Here, we apply Force Profile Analysis (FPA) - a method where a translational arrest peptide is used to detect folding-induced forces acting on the nascent polypeptide - to follow the cotranslational translocation and folding of the large periplasmic domain of the E. coli inner membrane protease LepB in vivo. Membrane insertion of LepB's two N-terminal transmembrane helices is initiated when their respective N-terminal ends reach 45-50 residues away from the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) in the ribosome. The main folding transition in the periplasmic domain involves all but the similar to 15 most C-terminal residues of the protein and happens when the C-terminal end of the folded part is similar to 70 residues away from the PTC; a smaller putative folding intermediate is also detected. This implies that wildtype LepB folds post-translationally in vivo, and shows that FPA can be used to study both co- and post-translational protein folding in the periplasm.
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10.
  • Su, Ting, et al. (författare)
  • The force-sensing peptide VemP employs extreme compaction and secondary structure formation to induce ribosomal stalling
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: eLIFE. - 2050-084X. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Interaction between the nascent polypeptide chain and the ribosomal exit tunnel can modulate the rate of translation and induce translational arrest to regulate expression of downstream genes. The ribosomal tunnel also provides a protected environment for initial protein folding events. Here, we present a 2.9 angstrom cryo-electron microscopy structure of a ribosome stalled during translation of the extremely compacted VemP nascent chain. The nascent chain forms two a-helices connected by an a-turn and a loop, enabling a total of 37 amino acids to be observed within the first 50-55 angstrom of the exit tunnel. The structure reveals how a-helix formation directly within the peptidyltransferase center of the ribosome interferes with aminoacyl-tRNA accommodation, suggesting that during canonical translation, a major role of the exit tunnel is to prevent excessive secondary structure formation that can interfere with the peptidyltransferase activity of the ribosome.
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