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Sökning: WFRF:(Heeman Fiona)

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1.
  • Collij, Lyduine E., et al. (författare)
  • Spatial-Temporal Patterns of beta-Amyloid Accumulation A Subtype and Stage Inference Model Analysis
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). - 0028-3878 .- 1526-632X. ; 98:17, s. E1692-E1703
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Objectives beta-amyloid (A beta) staging models assume a single spatial-temporal progression of amyloid accumulation. We assessed evidence for A beta accumulation subtypes by applying the data-driven Subtype and Stage Inference (SuStaIn) model to amyloid-PET data. Methods Amyloid-PET data of 3,010 participants were pooled from 6 cohorts (ALFA+, EMIF-AD, ABIDE, OASIS, and ADNI). Standardized uptake value ratios were calculated for 17 regions. We applied the SuStaIn algorithm to identify consistent subtypes in the pooled dataset based on the cross-validation information criterion and the most probable subtype/stage classification per scan. The effects of demographics and risk factors on subtype assignment were assessed using multinomial logistic regression. Results Participants were mostly cognitively unimpaired (n = 1890 [62.8%]), had a mean age of 68.72 (SD 9.1) years, 42.1% were APOE epsilon 4 carriers, and 51.8% were female. A 1-subtype model recovered the traditional amyloid accumulation trajectory, but SuStaIn identified 3 optimal subtypes, referred to as frontal, parietal, and occipital based on the first regions to show abnormality. Of the 788 (26.2%) with strong subtype assignment (>50% probability), the majority was assigned to frontal (n = 415 [52.5%]), followed by parietal (n = 199 [25.3%]) and occipital subtypes (n = 175 [22.2%]). Significant differences across subtypes included distinct proportions of APOE epsilon 4 carriers (frontal 61.8%, parietal 57.1%, occipital 49.4%), participants with dementia (frontal 19.7%, parietal 19.1%, occipital 31.0%), and lower age for the parietal subtype (frontal/occipital 72.1 years, parietal 69.3 years). Higher amyloid (Centiloid) and CSF p-tau burden was observed for the frontal subtype; parietal and occipital subtypes did not differ. At follow-up, most participants (81.1%) maintained baseline subtype assignment and 25.6% progressed to a later stage. Discussion Whereas a 1-trajectory model recovers the established pattern of amyloid accumulation, SuStaIn determined that 3 subtypes were optimal, showing distinct associations with Alzheimer disease risk factors. Further analyses to determine clinical utility are warranted.
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2.
  • Heeman, Fiona, et al. (författare)
  • [11C]PIB amyloid quantification : effect of reference region selection
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: EJNMMI Research. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 2191-219X. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The standard reference region (RR) for amyloid-beta (Aβ) PET studies is the cerebellar grey matter (GMCB), while alternative RRs have mostly been utilized without prior validation against the gold standard. This study compared five commonly used RRs to gold standard plasma input-based quantification using the GMCB. Methods: Thirteen subjects from a test–retest (TRT) study and 30 from a longitudinal study were retrospectively included (total: 17 Alzheimer’s disease, 13 mild cognitive impairment, 13 controls). Dynamic [11C]PiB PET (90 min) and T1-weighted MR scans were co-registered and time–activity curves were extracted for cortical target regions and the following RRs: GMCB, whole cerebellum (WCB), white matter brainstem/pons (WMBS), whole brainstem (WBS) and eroded subcortical white matter (WMES). A two-tissue reversible plasma input model (2T4k_Vb) with GMCB as RR, reference Logan and the simplified reference tissue model were used to derive distribution volume ratios (DVRs), and standardized uptake value (SUV) ratios were calculated for 40–60 min and 60–90 min intervals. Parameter variability was evaluated using TRT scans, and correlations and agreements with the gold standard (DVR from 2T4k_Vb with GMCB RR) were also assessed. Next, longitudinal changes in SUVs (both intervals) were assessed for each RR. Finally, the ability to discriminate between visually Aβ positive and Aβ negative scans was assessed. Results: All RRs yielded stable TRT performance (max 5.1% variability), with WCB consistently showing lower variability. All approaches were able to discriminate between Aβ positive and Aβ negative scans, with highest effect sizes obtained for GMCB (range − 0.9 to − 0.7), followed by WCB (range − 0.8 to − 0.6). Furthermore, all approaches provided good correlations with the gold standard (r ≥ 0.78), while the highest bias (as assessed by the regression slope) was observed using WMES (range slope 0.52–0.67), followed by WBS (range slope 0.58–0.92) and WMBS (range slope 0.62–0.91). Finally, RR SUVs were stable across a period of 2.6 years for all except WBS and WMBS RRs (60–90 min interval). Conclusions: GMCB and WCB are considered the best RRs for quantifying amyloid burden using [11C]PiB PET.
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3.
  • Lopes Alves, Isadora, et al. (författare)
  • Strategies to reduce sample sizes in Alzheimer’s disease primary and secondary prevention trials using longitudinal amyloid PET imaging
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's Research and Therapy. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1758-9193. ; 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Detecting subtle-to-moderate biomarker changes such as those in amyloid PET imaging becomes increasingly relevant in the context of primary and secondary prevention of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This work aimed to determine if and when distribution volume ratio (DVR; derived from dynamic imaging) and regional quantitative values could improve statistical power in AD prevention trials. Methods: Baseline and annualized % change in [11C]PIB SUVR and DVR were computed for a global (cortical) and regional (early) composite from scans of 237 cognitively unimpaired subjects from the OASIS-3 database (www.oasis-brains.org). Bland-Altman and correlation analyses were used to assess the relationship between SUVR and DVR. General linear models and linear mixed effects models were used to determine effects of age, sex, and APOE-ε4 carriership on baseline and longitudinal amyloid burden. Finally, differences in statistical power of SUVR and DVR (cortical or early composite) were assessed considering three anti-amyloid trial scenarios: secondary prevention trials including subjects with (1) intermediate-to-high (Centiloid > 20.1), or (2) intermediate (20.1 < Centiloid ≤ 49.4) amyloid burden, and (3) a primary prevention trial focusing on subjects with low amyloid burden (Centiloid ≤ 20.1). Trial scenarios were set to detect 20% reduction in accumulation rates across the whole population and in APOE-ε4 carriers only. Results: Although highly correlated to DVR (ρ =.96), cortical SUVR overestimated DVR cross-sectionally and in annual % change. In secondary prevention trials, DVR required 143 subjects per arm, compared with 176 for SUVR. Both restricting inclusion to individuals with intermediate amyloid burden levels or to APOE-ε4 carriers alone further reduced sample sizes. For primary prevention, SUVR required less subjects per arm (n = 855) compared with DVR (n = 1508) and the early composite also provided considerable sample size reductions (n = 855 to n = 509 for SUVR, n = 1508 to n = 734 for DVR). Conclusion: Sample sizes in AD secondary prevention trials can be reduced by the acquisition of dynamic PET scans and/or by restricting inclusion to subjects with intermediate amyloid burden or to APOE-ε4 carriers only. Using a targeted early composite only leads to reductions of sample size requirements in primary prevention trials. These findings support strategies to enable smaller Proof-of-Concept Phase II clinical trials to better streamline drug development.
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4.
  • Pemberton, Hugh G., et al. (författare)
  • Quantification of amyloid PET for future clinical use : a state-of-the-art review
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. - : Springer. - 1619-7070.
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology is one of the earliest detectable brain changes in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. The overall load and spatial distribution of brain Aβ can be determined in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET), for which three fluorine-18 labelled radiotracers have been approved for clinical use. In clinical practice, trained readers will categorise scans as either Aβ positive or negative, based on visual inspection. Diagnostic decisions are often based on these reads and patient selection for clinical trials is increasingly guided by amyloid status. However, tracer deposition in the grey matter as a function of amyloid load is an inherently continuous process, which is not sufficiently appreciated through binary cut-offs alone. State-of-the-art methods for amyloid PET quantification can generate tracer-independent measures of Aβ burden. Recent research has shown the ability of these quantitative measures to highlight pathological changes at the earliest stages of the AD continuum and generate more sensitive thresholds, as well as improving diagnostic confidence around established binary cut-offs. With the recent FDA approval of aducanumab and more candidate drugs on the horizon, early identification of amyloid burden using quantitative measures is critical for enrolling appropriate subjects to help establish the optimal window for therapeutic intervention and secondary prevention. In addition, quantitative amyloid measurements are used for treatment response monitoring in clinical trials. In clinical settings, large multi-centre studies have shown that amyloid PET results change both diagnosis and patient management and that quantification can accurately predict rates of cognitive decline. Whether these changes in management reflect an improvement in clinical outcomes is yet to be determined and further validation work is required to establish the utility of quantification for supporting treatment endpoint decisions. In this state-of-the-art review, several tools and measures available for amyloid PET quantification are summarised and discussed. Use of these methods is growing both clinically and in the research domain. Concurrently, there is a duty of care to the wider dementia community to increase visibility and understanding of these methods.
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