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1.
  • Erlinge, D., et al. (författare)
  • Bivalirudin versus Heparin Monotherapy in Myocardial Infarction
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : MASSACHUSETTS MEDICAL SOC. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 377:12, s. 1132-1142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND The comparative efficacy of various anticoagulation strategies has not been clearly established in patients with acute myocardial infarction who are undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) according to current practice, which includes the use of radial-artery access for PCI and administration of potent P2Y 12 inhibitors without the planned use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. METHODS In this multicenter, randomized, registry-based, open-label clinical trial, we enrolled patients with either ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-STEMI (NSTEMI) who were undergoing PCI and receiving treatment with a potent P2Y(12) inhibitor (ticagrelor, prasugrel, or cangrelor) without the planned use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. The patients were randomly assigned to receive bivalirudin or heparin during PCI, which was performed predominantly with the use of radial-artery access. The primary end point was a composite of death from any cause, myocardial infarction, or major bleeding during 180 days of follow-up. RESULTS A total of 6006 patients (3005 with STEMI and 3001 with NSTEMI) were enrolled in the trial. At 180 days, a primary end-point event had occurred in 12.3% of the patients (369 of 3004) in the bivalirudin group and in 12.8% (383 of 3002) in the heparin group (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 1.10; P = 0.54). The results were consistent between patients with STEMI and those with NSTEMI and across other major subgroups. Myocardial infarction occurred in 2.0% of the patients in the bivalirudin group and in 2.4% in the heparin group (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.19; P = 0.33), major bleeding in 8.6% and 8.6%, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.19; P = 0.98), definite stent thrombosis in 0.4% and 0.7%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.27 to 1.10; P = 0.09), and death in 2.9% and 2.8%, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.41; P = 0.76). CONCLUSIONS Among patients undergoing PCI for myocardial infarction, the rate of the composite of death from any cause, myocardial infarction, or major bleeding was not lower among those who received bivalirudin than among those who received heparin monotherapy. (Funded by the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation and others;
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2.
  • Andersen, Kasper, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Dose–Response Relationship of Total and Leisure Time Physical Activity to Risk of Heart Failure : a prospective cohort study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Circulation Heart Failure. - 1941-3289 .- 1941-3297. ; 7:5, s. 701-708
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background—The nature of the association between levels of physical activity and risk of heart failure is little known. We investigated nonlinear associations of total and leisure time physical activity with risk of heart failure.Methods and Results—In 1997, 39 805 persons without heart failure completed a questionnaire of lifestyle factors and medical history. We used Cox regression models to investigate total (adjusting for education and previous myocardial infarction) and direct (multivariable-adjusted) effects of self-reported total and leisure time physical activity on risk of heart failure of any cause and heart failure of nonischemic origin. Heart failure diagnoses were obtained until December 31, 2010. Higher leisure time physical activity was associated with lower risk of heart failure of any cause; hazard ratio of the total effect of leisure time physical activity was for fifth versus first quintile 0.54; 95% confidence interval was 0.44 to 0.66. The direct effect was similar. High total daily physical activity level was associated with lower risk of heart failure, although the effect was less pronounced than for leisure time physical activity (total effect hazard ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.69–0.95; fifth versus first quintile). A similar direct effect observed.Conclusions—Leisure time physical activity was inversely related to risk of developing heart failure in a dose–response fashion. This was reflected in a similar but less pronounced association of total physical activity with risk of heart failure. Only part of the effects appeared to be mediated by traditional risk factors.
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3.
  • Bennermo, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic and environmental influences on the plasma interleukin-6 concentration in patients with a recent myocardial infarction : a case-control study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research. - 1079-9907 .- 1557-7465. ; 31:2, s. 259-264
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim was to study the stimuli responsible for triggering and sustaining the plasma concentration of the inflammatory marker interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients with a first myocardial infarction before the age of 60 and healthy control subjects matched for age and sex. The plasma IL-6 concentration, antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Helicobacter pylori, herpes simplex type 1 and 2, and genotype for the IL6-174 G>C single-nucleotide polymorphism were determined 3 months after the acute event. The results showed that patients had higher IL-6 levels than control subjects, whereas there were no differences regarding individual or total number (pathogen burden) of positive antibody tests against the different pathogens or IL6 genotype distribution. The plasma IL-6 concentration was associated with the number of positive antibody tests in patients and control subjects, whereas patients irrespective of IL6 genotype had increased IL-6. Multivariate analysis, including traditional coronary heart disease risk factors, antibodies against pathogens, and IL6 genotype, explained 17% of the variation of the plasma IL-6 concentration. Neither pathogen burden nor IL6 genotype did contribute to the variation of plasma IL-6 levels, whereas smoking, body-mass index, hypertension, case-control status, and age were determinants of the plasma IL-6 concentration.
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4.
  • Bjorkander, Inge, et al. (författare)
  • Differential Index : A Simple Time Domain Heart Rate Variability Analysis with Prognostic Implications in Stable Angina Pectoris
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Cardiology. - 0008-6312 .- 1421-9751. ; 111:2, s. 126-133
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To examine the usefulness of time domain heart rate variability (HRV) measurements by a simple graphical method, the differential index (DI), in prognostic assessments of patients with chronic stable angina pectoris. METHODS: HRV measurements in the time domain by DI were compared to conventional measurements of standard deviation of all normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), percent of differences between adjacent normal RR intervals >50 ms (PNN50) and square root of the mean of the sum of squares of differences between adjacent normal RR intervals (RMSSD) from 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic recordings in 678 patients in the Angina Prognosis Study in Stockholm. The patients received double-blind treatment with metoprolol or verapamil. Main outcome measures were cardiovascular death or non-fatal myocardial infarction during follow-up (median 40 months). RESULTS: Patients suffering cardiovascular death (n = 30) had lower DI, SDNN and PNN50 (all p < 0.001). In a multivariate Cox model, DI below median independently predicted cardiovascular death (p = 0.002), as did SDNN (p = 0.016) and PNN50 (p = 0.030), but not RMSSD (p = 0.10). The separation of survival curves was most pronounced and specificity was slightly better with DI. DI and PNN50 increased with metoprolol but not verapamil treatment. Short-term treatment effects were not related to prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Low time domain HRV carries independent prognostic information regarding cardiovascular death in stable angina pectoris. The simple DI method provided equally good or better prognostic information than conventional, more laborious HRV methods.
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5.
  • Böhm, Felix, et al. (författare)
  • The Full Revasc (Ffr-gUidance for compLete non-cuLprit REVASCularization) Registry-based randomized clinical trial
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : MOSBY-ELSEVIER. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 241, s. 92-100
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Complete revascularization in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with multivessel disease has resulted in reduction in composite clinical endpoints in medium sized trials. Only one trial showed an effect on hard clinical endpoints, but the revascularization procedure was guided by angiographic evaluation of stenosis severity. Consequently, it is not clear how Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) affects hard clinical endpoints in STEMI. Methods and Results The Ffr-gUidance for compLete non-cuLprit REVASCularization (FULL REVASC) - is a pragmatic, multicenter, international, registry-based randomized clinical trial designed to evaluate whether a strategy of FFR-guided complete revascularization of non-culprit lesions, reduces the combined primary endpoint of total mortality, non-fatal MI and unplanned revascularization. 1,545 patients were randomized to receive FFR-guided PCI during the index hospitalization or initial conservative management of non-culprit lesions. We found that in angiographically severe non-culprit lesions of 90-99% severity, 1 in 5 of these lesions were re-classified as non-flow limiting by FFR. Considering lesions of intermediate severity (70%-89%), half were re-classified as non-flow limiting by FFR. The study is event driven for an estimated follow-up of at least 2.75 years to detect a 9.9%/year >7.425%/year difference (HR = 0.74 at 80% power (alpha = .05)) for the combined primary endpoint. Conclusion This large randomized clinical trial is designed and powered to evaluate the effect of complete revascularization with FFR-guided PCI during index hospitalization on total mortality, non-fatal MI and unplanned revascularization following primary PCI in STEMI patients with multivessel disease. Enrollment completed in September 2019 and follow-up is ongoing.
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6.
  • Ekerstad, Niklas, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical Frailty Scale classes are independently associated with 6-month mortality for patients after acute myocardial infarction.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European heart journal. Acute cardiovascular care. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 2048-8734 .- 2048-8726. ; 11:2, s. 89-98
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: Data on the prognostic value of frailty to guide clinical decision-making for patients with myocardial infarction (MI) are scarce. To analyse the association between frailty classification, treatment patterns, in-hospital outcomes, and 6-month mortality in a large population of patients with MI.METHODS AND RESULTS: An observational, multicentre study with a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data using the SWEDEHEART registry. In total, 3381 MI patients with a level of frailty assessed using the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS-9) were included. Of these patients, 2509 (74.2%) were classified as non-vulnerable non-frail (CFS 1-3), 446 (13.2%) were vulnerable non-frail (CFS 4), and 426 (12.6%) were frail (CFS 5-9). Frailty and non-frail vulnerability were associated with worse in-hospital outcomes compared with non-frailty, i.e. higher rates of mortality (13.4% vs. 4.0% vs. 1.8%), cardiogenic shock (4.7% vs. 2.5% vs. 1.9%), and major bleeding (4.5% vs. 2.7% vs. 1.1%) (all P < 0.001), and less frequent use of evidence-based therapies. In Cox regression analyses, frailty was strongly and independently associated with 6-month mortality compared with non-frailty, after adjustment for age, sex, the GRACE risk score components, and other potential risk factors [hazard ratio (HR) 3.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.30-4.79]. A similar pattern was seen for vulnerable non-frail patients (fully adjusted HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.41-3.02).CONCLUSION: Frailty assessed with the CFS was independently and strongly associated with all-cause 6-month mortality, also after comprehensive adjustment for baseline differences in other risk factors. Similarly, non-frail vulnerability was independently associated with higher mortality compared with those with preserved functional ability.
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7.
  • Erlinge, David, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of vulnerable plaques and patients by intracoronary near-infrared spectroscopy and ultrasound (PROSPECT II) : a prospective natural history study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 397:10278, s. 985-995
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and intravascular ultrasound are promising imaging modalities to identify non-obstructive plaques likely to cause coronary-related events. We aimed to assess whether combined NIRS and intravascular ultrasound can identify high-risk plaques and patients that are at risk for future major adverse cardiac events (MACEs).Methods: PROSPECT II is an investigator-sponsored, multicentre, prospective natural history study done at 14 university hospitals and two community hospitals in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. We recruited patients of any age with recent (within past 4 weeks) myocardial infarction. After treatment of all flow-limiting coronary lesions, three-vessel imaging was done with a combined NIRS and intravascular ultrasound catheter. Untreated lesions (also known as non-culprit lesions) were identified by intravascular ultrasound and their lipid content was assessed by NIRS. The primary outcome was the covariate-adjusted rate of MACEs (the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or progressive angina) arising from untreated non-culprit lesions during follow-up. The relations between plaques with high lipid content, large plaque burden, and small lumen areas and patient-level and lesion-level events were determined. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02171065.Findings: Between June 10, 2014, and Dec 20, 2017, 3629 non-culprit lesions were characterised in 898 patients (153 [17%] women, 745 [83%] men; median age 63 [IQR 55-70] years). Median follow-up was 3.7 (IQR 3.0-4.4) years. Adverse events within 4 years occurred in 112 (13.2%, 95% CI 11.0-15.6) of 898 patients, with 66 (8.0%, 95% CI 6.2-10.0) arising from 78 untreated non-culprit lesions (mean baseline angiographic diameter stenosis 46.9% [SD 15.9]). Highly lipidic lesions (851 [24%] of 3500 lesions, present in 520 [59%] of 884 patients) were an independent predictor of patient-level non-culprit lesion-related MACEs (adjusted odds ratio 2.27, 95% CI 1.25-4.13) and nonculprit lesion-specific MACEs (7.83, 4.12-14.89). Large plaque burden (787 [22%] of 3629 lesions, present in 530 [59%] of 898 patients) was also an independent predictor of non-culprit lesion-related MACEs. Lesions with both large plaque burden by intravascular ultrasound and large lipid-rich cores by NIRS had a 4-year non-culprit lesion-related MACE rate of 7.0% (95% CI 4.0-10.0). Patients in whom one or more such lesions were identified had a 4-year non-culprit lesion-related MACE rate of 13.2% (95% CI 9.4-17.6).Interpretation: Combined NIRS and intravascular ultrasound detects angiographically non-obstructive lesions with a high lipid content and large plaque burden that are at increased risk for future adverse cardiac outcomes.
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8.
  • Grönqvist, Helena, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Fifteen Challenges in Establishing a Multidisciplinary Research Program on eHealth Research in a University Setting : A Case Study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research. - 1438-8871 .- 1438-8871. ; 19:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:U-CARE is a multidisciplinary eHealth research program that involves the disciplines of caring science, clinical psychology, health economics, information systems, and medical science. It was set up from scratch in a university setting in 2010, funded by a governmental initiative. While establishing the research program, many challenges were faced. Systematic documentation of experiences from establishing new research environments is scarce.OBJECTIVE:The aim of this paper was to describe the challenges of establishing a publicly funded multidisciplinary eHealth research environment.METHODS:Researchers involved in developing the research program U-CARE identified challenges in the formal documentation and by reflecting on their experience of developing the program. The authors discussed the content and organization of challenges into themes until consensus was reached.RESULTS:The authors identified 15 major challenges, some general to establishing a new research environment and some specific for multidisciplinary eHealth programs. The challenges were organized into 6 themes: Organization, Communication, Implementation, Legislation, Software development, and Multidisciplinarity.CONCLUSIONS:Several challenges were faced during the development of the program and several accomplishments were made. By sharing our experience, we hope to help other research groups embarking on a similar journey to be prepared for some of the challenges they are likely to face on their way.
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9.
  • Hagström, Emil, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma parathyroid hormone and risk of congestive heart failure in the community
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Heart Failure. - : Oxford University Press. - 1388-9842 .- 1879-0844. ; 12:11, s. 1186-1192
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In experimental studies parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been associated with underlying causes of heart failure (HF) such as atherosclerosis, left ventricular hypertrophy, and myocardial fibrosis. Individuals with increased levels of PTH, such as primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism patients, have increased risk of ischaemic heart disease and HF. Moreover, increasing PTH is associated with worse prognosis in patients with overt HF. However, the association between PTH and the development HF in the community has not been reported. In a prospective, community-based study of 864 elderly men without HF or valvular disease at baseline (mean age 71 years, the ULSAM study) the association between plasma (P)-PTH and HF hospitalization was investigated adjusted for established HF risk factors (myocardial infarction, hypertension, diabetes, electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy, smoking, and hypercholesterolaemia) and variables reflecting mineral metabolism (S-calcium, S-phosphate, P-vitamin D, S-albumin, dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, physical activity, glomerular filtration rate, and blood draw season). During follow-up (median 8 years), 75 individuals were hospitalized due to HF. In multivariable Cox-regression analyses, higher P-PTH was associated with increased HF hospitalization (hazard ratio for 1-SD increase of PTH, 1.41, 95% CI 1.12-1.77, P = 0.003). Parathyroid hormone also predicted hospitalization in participants without apparent ischaemic HF and in participants with normal P-PTH. In a large community-based sample of elderly men, PTH predicted HF hospitalizations, also after accounting for established risk factors and mineral metabolism variables. Our data suggest a role for PTH in the development of HF even in the absence of overt hyperparathyroidism.
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10.
  • Hagström, Emil, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma parathyroid hormone and the risk of cardiovascular mortality in the community
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : American Heart Association. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 119:21, s. 2765-2771
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Diseases with elevated levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) such as primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism are associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and death. However, data on the prospective association between circulating PTH levels and cardiovascular mortality in the community are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM), a community-based cohort of elderly men (mean age, 71 years; n=958), was used to investigate the association between plasma PTH and cardiovascular mortality. During follow-up (median, 9.7 years), 117 participants died of cardiovascular causes. In Cox proportional-hazards models adjusted for established cardiovascular risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, body mass index, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, antihypertensive treatment, lipid-lowering treatment, and history of cardiovascular disease), higher plasma PTH was associated with higher risk for cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio for 1-SD increase in PTH, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.18 to 1.60; P<0.001). This association remained essentially unaltered in participants without previous cardiovascular disease and in participants with normal PTH (<6.8 pmol/L) with no other signs of a disturbed mineral metabolism (normal serum calcium, 2.2 to 2.6 mmol/L; normal glomerular filtration rate, >50 mL . min(-1) . 1.73 m(-2) and without vitamin D deficiency, plasma 25-OH vitamin D >37.5 nmol/L). Interestingly, elevated plasma PTH (>5.27 pmol/L) accounted for 20% (95% confidence interval, 10 to 26) of the population-attributable risk proportion for cardiovascular mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma PTH levels predict cardiovascular mortality in the community, even in individuals with PTH within the normal range. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical implications of measuring PTH in cardiovascular risk prediction and to elucidate whether PTH is a modifiable risk factor.
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