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  • Andersen, Kasper, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Dose–Response Relationship of Total and Leisure Time Physical Activity to Risk of Heart Failure : a prospective cohort study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Circulation Heart Failure. - 1941-3289 .- 1941-3297. ; 7:5, s. 701-708
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background—The nature of the association between levels of physical activity and risk of heart failure is little known. We investigated nonlinear associations of total and leisure time physical activity with risk of heart failure.Methods and Results—In 1997, 39 805 persons without heart failure completed a questionnaire of lifestyle factors and medical history. We used Cox regression models to investigate total (adjusting for education and previous myocardial infarction) and direct (multivariable-adjusted) effects of self-reported total and leisure time physical activity on risk of heart failure of any cause and heart failure of nonischemic origin. Heart failure diagnoses were obtained until December 31, 2010. Higher leisure time physical activity was associated with lower risk of heart failure of any cause; hazard ratio of the total effect of leisure time physical activity was for fifth versus first quintile 0.54; 95% confidence interval was 0.44 to 0.66. The direct effect was similar. High total daily physical activity level was associated with lower risk of heart failure, although the effect was less pronounced than for leisure time physical activity (total effect hazard ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.69–0.95; fifth versus first quintile). A similar direct effect observed.Conclusions—Leisure time physical activity was inversely related to risk of developing heart failure in a dose–response fashion. This was reflected in a similar but less pronounced association of total physical activity with risk of heart failure. Only part of the effects appeared to be mediated by traditional risk factors.
  • Bahit, M. Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Non-major bleeding with apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Heart. - : BMJ. - 1355-6037 .- 1468-201X. ; 103:8, s. 623-628
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective We describe the incidence, location and management of non-major bleeding, and assess the association between non-major bleeding and clinical outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) receiving anticoagulation therapy enrolled in Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE). Methods We included patients who received >= 1 dose of study drug (n= 18 140). Non-major bleeding was defined as the first bleeding event considered to be clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) or minor bleeding, and not preceded by a major bleeding event. Results Non-major bleeding was three times more common than major bleeding (12.1% vs 3.8%). Like major bleeding, non-major bleeding was less frequent with apixaban (6.4 per 100 patient-years) than warfarin (9.4 per 100 patient-years) (adjusted HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.75). The most frequent sites of non-major bleeding were haematuria (16.4%), epistaxis (14.8%), gastrointestinal (13.3%), haematoma (11.5%) and bruising/ecchymosis (10.1%). Medical or surgical intervention was similar among patients with non-major bleeding on warfarin versus apixaban (24.7% vs 24.5%). A change in antithrombotic therapy (58.6% vs 50.0%) and permanent study drug discontinuation (5.1% (61) vs 3.6% (30), p=0.10) was numerically higher with warfarin than apixaban. CRNM bleeding was independently associated with an increased risk of overall death (adjusted HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.18) and subsequent major bleeding (adjusted HR 2.18, 95% CI 1.56 to 3.04). Conclusions In ARISTOTLE, non-major bleeding was common and substantially less frequent with apixaban than with warfarin. CRNM bleeding was independently associated with a higher risk of death and subsequent major bleeding. Our results highlight the importance of any severity of bleeding in patients with AF treated with anticoagulation therapy and suggest that non-major bleeding, including minor bleeding, might not be minor.
  • Batra, Gorav, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarker-Based Prediction of Recurrent Ischemic Events in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : Elsevier. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 80:18, s. 1735-1747
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), there is residual and variable risk of recurrent ischemic events.OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop biomarker-based prediction models for 1-year risk of cardiovascular (CV) death and myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.METHODS: We included 10,713 patients from the PLATO (A Comparison of Ticagrelor [AZD6140] and Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome) trial in the development cohort and externally validated in 3,508 patients from the TRACER (Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome) trial. Variables contributing to risk of CV death/MI were assessed using Cox regression models, and a score was derived using subsets of variables approximating the full model.RESULTS: There were 632 and 190 episodes of CV death/MI in the development and validation cohorts. The most important predictors of CV death/MI were the biomarkers, growth differentiation factor 15, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, which had greater prognostic value than all candidate variables. The final model included 8 items: age (A), biomarkers (B) (growth differentiation factor 15 and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), and clinical variables (C) (extent of coronary artery disease, previous vascular disease, Killip class, ACS type, P2Y12 inhibitor). The model, named ABC-ACS ischemia, was well calibrated and showed good discriminatory ability for 1-year risk of CV death/MI with C-indices of 0.71 and 0.72 in the development and validation cohorts, respectively. For CV death, the score performed better, with C-indices of 0.80 and 0.84 in the development and validation cohorts, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: An 8-item score for the prediction of CV death/MI was developed and validated for patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The ABC-ACS ischemia score showed good calibration and discrimination and might be useful for risk prediction and decision support in patients with ACS. (A Comparison of Ticagrelor [AZD6140] and Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [PLATO]; NCT00391872; Trial to Assess the Effects of Vorapaxar [SCH 530348; MK-5348] in Preventing Heart Attack and Stroke in Participants With Acute Coronary Syndrome [TRACER]; NCT00527943)
  • Batra, Gorav, et al. (författare)
  • Interleukin 6 and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease and Chronic Coronary Syndrome
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: JAMA cardiology. - : American Medical Association (AMA). - 2380-6583 .- 2380-6591. ; 6:12, s. 1440-1445
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: Inflammation promotes cardiovascular disease and anti-inflammatory treatment reduces cardiovascular events in patients with chronic coronary syndrome. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is unclear how inflammation mediated by interleukin 6 (IL-6) in patients with CKD is linked to cardiovascular disease.Objective: To investigate associations between IL-6 and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with chronic coronary syndrome in association with kidney function.Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study included patients enrolled at 663 centers in 39 countries with chronic coronary syndrome who were included in the Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy (STABILITY) trial. Patients were enrolled between December 2008 and April 2010 and were followed up for a median length of 3.7 years. Analysis in this substudy began September 2020.Exposures: Exposures were IL-6 and creatinine estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR), which were collected at baseline. Associations between continuous and categorical levels (<2.0 ng/L vs ≥2.0 ng/L) of IL-6 and cardiovascular outcomes were tested in association with eGFR cutoffs (normal eGFR level [≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2], mildly decreased eGFR level [60-90 mL/min/1.73 m2], and moderately to severely decreased eGFR level [<60 mL/min/1.73 m2]).Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke.Results: This substudy of the STABILITY trial included 14 611 patients with available IL-6 levels at baseline. The median (interquartile range) age was 65 (59-71) years, and 2700 (18.5%) were female. During follow-up, MACE occurred in 1459 individuals (10.0%). Higher levels of IL-6 were in continuous models independently associated with risk of MACE (P < .001) in all CKD strata. Using predefined strata, elevated IL-6 level (≥2.0 vs <2.0 ng/L) was associated with increased risk of MACE at normal kidney function (2.9% vs 1.9% events/y [hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.02-1.78]), mild CKD (3.3% vs 1.9% [hazard ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.35-1.83]), and moderate to severe CKD (5.0% vs 2.9% [hazard ratio, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.28-1.99]).Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with chronic coronary syndrome, elevated levels of IL-6 were associated with risk of MACE in all CKD strata. Thus, IL-6 and CKD stage may help when identifying patients with chronic coronary syndrome for anti-inflammatory treatment.
  • Batra, Gorav, et al. (författare)
  • Oral anticoagulants, time in therapeutic range and renal function over time in real-life patients with atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Open heart. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2053-3624. ; 9:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: To describe the use of warfarin and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), to evaluate changes in renal function over time and predictors of rapid decline, and to describe time in therapeutic range (TTR) and predictors of poor TTR among patients on warfarin.METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data from AuriculA, the Swedish oral anticoagulation registry, patients with AF on warfarin or DOAC were identified between 2013 and 2018 (N=6567). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated and categorised into normal (≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2), mild CKD (60-89 mL/min/1.73 m2), moderate CKD (30-59 mL/min/1.73 m2), severe CKD (15-29 mL/min/1.73 m2) and end-stage CKD (<15 mL/min/1.73 m2)/dialysis. TTR was estimated using international normalised ratio (INR) measurements. Predictors of eGFR decline over time and of poor TTR were estimated using regression analysis. Between 2013 and 2018, use of DOAC increased from 9.2% to 89.3%, with a corresponding decline in warfarin. A similar trend was observed in patients with mild to moderate CKD, while DOAC over warfarin increased slower among patients with severe to end-stage CKD/dialysis. In patients treated with warfarin, the median TTR was 77.1%. Worse TTR was observed among patients with severe CKD (70.0%) and end-stage CKD/dialysis (67.5%). A gradual annual decline in eGFR was observed (-1.1 mL/min/1.73 m2), with a more rapid decline among patients with older age, female sex, diabetes mellitus and/or heart failure.CONCLUSION: In patients with AF, use of DOAC has steadily increased across different CKD stages, but not in patients with severe to end-stage CKD/dialysis despite these patients having poor INR control. Patients with AF have a gradual decline in renal function, with a more rapid decline among a subgroup of patients.
  • Becker, Richard C, et al. (författare)
  • Bleeding complications with the P2Y12 receptor antagonists clopidogrel and ticagrelor in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 32:23, s. 2933-2944
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AimsMore intense platelet-directed therapy for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may increase bleeding risk. The aim of the current analysis was to determine the rate, clinical impact, and predictors of major and fatal bleeding complications in the PLATO study.Methods and resultsPLATO was a randomized, double-blind, active control international, phase 3 clinical trial in patients with acute ST elevation and non-ST-segment elevation ACS. A total of 18 624 patients were randomized to either ticagrelor, a non-thienopyridine, reversibly binding platelet P2Y(12) receptor antagonist, or clopidogrel in addition to aspirin. Patients randomized to ticagrelor and clopidogrel had similar rates of PLATO major bleeding (11.6 vs. 11.2%; P = 0.43), TIMI major bleeding (7.9 vs. 7.7%, P = 0.56) and GUSTO severe bleeding (2.9 vs. 3.1%, P = 0.22). Procedure-related bleeding rates were also similar. Non-CABG major bleeding (4.5 vs. 3.8%, P = 0.02) and non-procedure-related major bleeding (3.1 vs. 2.3%, P = 0.05) were more common in ticagrelor-treated patients, primarily after 30 days on treatment. Fatal bleeding and transfusion rates did not differ between groups. There were no significant interactions for major bleeding or combined minor plus major bleeding between treatment groups and age ≥75 years, weight <60 kg, region, chronic kidney disease, creatinine clearance <60 mL/min, aspirin dose >325 mg on the day of randomization, pre-randomization clopidogrel administration, or clopidogrel loading dose.Conclusion Ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel was associated with similar total major bleeding but increased non-CABG and non-procedure-related major bleeding, primarily after 30 days on study drug treatment. Fatal bleeding was low and did not differ between groups.
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