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Sökning: WFRF:(Helgadottir Hildur)

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  • Helgadóttir, Hildur Björg (författare)
  • Cancer risks and prognosis in familial melanoma kindreds
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Malignant melanoma of the skin is one of the most rapidly increasing cancers in many western countries, including Sweden. This incidence rise is mainly attributed to sun-seeking habits with increased intermittent UVR exposure, a major risk factor for melanoma. Family history is another important risk factor for melanoma, approximately 10% of all cases occur in melanoma families. Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene CDKN2A occur in 5–25% of familial melanoma cases. A single founder mutation, p.Arg112dup, accounts for the majority of CDKN2A mutations in Swedish carriers. Individuals with p.Arg112dup and several other CDKN2A mutations also have an increased risk of developing pancreatic carcinoma, but less has been known about carriers’ risks of other cancers. High-risk melanoma associated mutations, other than CDKN2A have yet only been identified in a small number of families, in the majority of melanoma families, the cause for heredity still remains unsolved. So far, there have been no studies investigating cancer risks in CDKN2A wild type (wt) melanoma families. Also research addressing survival functions in melanoma families have until now been lacking. Compared to cutaneous melanoma, uveal melanoma is a much rarer disease, where no incidence rise or any strong association with UVR exposure has been observed. Familial uveal melanoma cases exist, but are rare. Until 2-3 years ago, there was no germline gene mutation known to be associated with uveal melanoma. In papers I-III cancer risks and prognosis in familial melanoma kindreds, depending on CDKN2A mutation status is estimated by linkage of personal identity numbers of familial melanoma kindreds to several Swedish Registries, including the Multi-generation Registry and the Cancer Registry. Paper IV is a family-based association study employing whole-exome sequencing to identify a disease associated mutation in a rare uveal melanoma family. Carriers of the Swedish founder mutation in CDKN2A and also carriers’ un-genotyped first- and second-degree relatives were found to have significantly increased risks of melanoma, pancreatic cancer, and cancers in respiratory and upper digestive tissues. Ever-smoking carriers had, compared to never-smoking carriers, significantly higher risks of these non-melanoma cancers. Familial melanoma cases with no CDKN2A mutation and their first-degree relatives had significant increased risk of melanoma and of sqaumous cell skin cancer, but not of other cancers. CDKN2A mutated melanoma cases had compared to CDKN2A wt cases, after adjusting for age, sex and tumor thickness, significantly increased mortality from melanoma and from non-melanoma cancers. Compared to matched sporadic melanoma cases, CDKN2A mutated cases had significantly increased mortality from both melanoma and non-melanoma cancers, while CDKN2A wt cases had no mortality increase compared to sporadic cases. In the uveal melanoma family, a disease segregating mutation was found in the BAP1 tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 3p21. These studies demonstrate different risk spectra among familial melanoma kindreds. CDKN2A mutation carriers have besides from melanoma high risks of tobacco-related cancers and have worse survival from both melanoma and other cancers compared to non-carriers. Familial melanoma cases with no CDKN2A mutation have increased risks only of skin cancers and have survival comparable to sporadic melanoma cases. BAP1 mutation carriers have high risks of uveal melanoma and also of cutaneous melanoma and of other cancers. These findings further justify CDKN2A mutation testing of melanoma family members in the clinical setting where the mutation status should determine the follow-up routines in affected families. Members of CDKN2A wt melanoma families require counseling and screening aimed at prevention and earlier detection of skin cancers while CDKN2A mutation carriers require in addition to dermatologic surveillance, follow-up for non-skin cancers and also close follow-up for melanoma recurrences. BAP1 mutation carriers require ophthalmologic, oncologic and dermatologic surveillance.
  • Helgadottir, Hildur, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer risks and survival in patients with multiple primary melanomas : Association with family history of melanoma and germline CDKN2A mutation status
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. - : Elsevier. - 0190-9622 .- 1097-6787. ; 77:5, s. 893-901
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Worse outcomes have been noted in patients with multiple primary melanomas (MPMs) than in patients with single primary melanomas. Objective We investigated how family history of melanoma and germline CDKN2A mutation status of MPM patients affects risks of developing subsequent melanomas and other cancers and survival outcomes. Methods Comprehensive data on cancer diagnoses and deaths of MPM patients, their first-degree relatives, and matched controls were obtained through Swedish national health care and population registries. Results Familial MPM cases with germline CDKN2A mutations were youngest at the diagnosis of their second melanoma (median age 42 years) and had among the MPM cohorts the highest relative risks (RR) compared to controls of developing >2 melanomas (RR 238.4, 95% CI 74.8-759.9). CDKN2A mutated MPM cases and their first-degree relatives were the only cohorts with increased risks of nonskin cancers compared to controls (RR 3.6, 95% CI 1.9-147.1 and RR 3.2, 95% CI 1.9-5.6, respectively). In addition, CDKN2A mutated MPM cases had worse survival compared with both cases with familial (HR 3.0, 95% CI 1.3-8.1) and sporadic wild-type MPM (HR 2.63, 95% CI 1.3-5.4). Limitations Our study examined outcomes in subgroups of MPM patients, which affected the sample size of the study groups. Conclusion This study demonstrates that CDKN2A mutation status and family history of melanoma significantly affects outcomes of MPM patients.
  • Helgadottir, Hildur, et al. (författare)
  • CDKN2a mutation-negative melanoma families have increased risk exclusively for skin cancers but not for other malignancies.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 137:9, s. 2220-2226
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Germline CDKN2A mutations are found in 5-20% of melanoma families. Numerous studies have shown that carriers of CDKN2A mutations have increased risks of non-melanoma cancers, but so far there have been no studies investigating cancer risks in CDKN2A wild type (wt) melanoma families. In this prospective cohort study, index melanoma cases (n = 224) and their first-degree relatives (n = 944) were identified from 154 confirmed CDKN2A wt melanoma families. Cancer diagnoses in family members and matched controls were obtained from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Relative risks (RR), odds ratios (OR) and two-sided 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. In index cases and first-degree relatives, the prospective RR for melanoma was 56.9 (95% CI 31.4-102.1) and 7.0 (95% CI 4.2-11.4), respectively, and for squamous cell skin cancers 9.1 (95% CI 6.0-13.7) and 3.4 (95% CI 2.2-5.2), respectively. In neither group, elevated risks were seen for non-skin cancers. In a subgroup analysis, CDKN2A wt melanoma families with young (<40 years) melanoma cases were found to have increased risk of non-skin cancers (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-1.5). Further, MC1R gene variants were increased in familial melanoma cases compared to controls (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.6-3.4). Our findings suggest that in the majority of CDKN2A wt melanoma families, a segregation of variants in low-risk melanoma genes such as MC1R causes increased skin cancer susceptibility, rather than mutations in high-risk cancer predisposing genes, such mutations are more probable to be found in melanoma families with young melanoma cases. This study further supports an implication of CDKN2A mutation screening as a clinical test that determines counseling and follows up routines of melanoma families.
  • Helgadottir, Hildur, et al. (författare)
  • Germline CDKN2A Mutation Status and Survival in Familial Melanoma Cases
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - : Oxford University Press. - 1460-2105 .- 0027-8874. ; 108:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in CDKN2A have been associated with increased risk of melanoma and tobacco-related cancers in respiratory and upper digestive tissues. In CDKN2A wild-type (wt) melanoma families, other known high-risk, melanoma-predisposing mutations are rare, and no increased risk has been observed for nonskin cancers in this group. This study is the first to compare survival in germline CDKN2A mutated (mut) and nonmutated melanoma cases.METHODS: Melanoma-prone families participating in this study were identified through a nationwide predictive program starting in 1987. Information on cancer diagnoses (types, stages, and dates) and deaths (causes and dates) were obtained through the Swedish Cancer Registry and Cause of Death Registry. Kaplan Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess survival in CDKN2A(mut) (n = 96) and CDKN2A(wt) (n = 377) familial melanoma cases and in matched sporadic melanoma cases (n = 1042). All statistical tests were two-sided.RESULTS: When comparing CDKN2A(mut) and CDKN2A(wt) melanoma cases, after adjusting for age, sex, and T classification, CDKN2A(mut) had worse survival than melanoma (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49 to 4.21) and than nonmelanoma cancers (HR = 7.77, 95% CI = 3.65 to 16.51). Compared with matched sporadic cases, CDKN2A(mut) cases had statistically significantly worse survival from both melanoma and nonmelanoma cancers while no differences in survival were seen in CDKN2A(wt) compared with sporadic cases.CONCLUSIONS: CDKN2A(mut) cases had statistically significantly worse survival than nonmelanoma cancers and, intriguingly, also from melanoma, compared with melanoma cases with no CDKN2A mutations. Further studies are required to elucidate possible mechanisms behind increased carcinogen susceptibility and the more aggressive melanoma phenotype in CDKN2A mutation carriers.
  • Helgadottir, Hildur, et al. (författare)
  • High risk of tobacco-related cancers in CDKN2A mutation-positive melanoma families.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 51:8, s. 545-552
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Germline mutations in the tumour suppressor gene CDKN2A occur in 5-20% of familial melanoma cases. A single founder mutation, p.Arg112dup, accounts for the majority of CDKN2A mutations in Swedish carriers. In a national program, carriers of p.Arg112dup mutation have been identified. The aim of this study was to assess cancer risks in p.Arg112dup carriers and their first degree relatives (FDRs) and second degree relatives (SDRs).
  • Helgadottir, Hildur, et al. (författare)
  • Multiple primary melanoma incidence trends over five decades, a nation-wide population-based study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - : Oxford University Press. - 1460-2105 .- 0027-8874. ; 113:3, s. 318-328
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Over the past decades many regions have experienced a steady increase in the incidence of cutaneous melanoma. Here, we report on incidence trends for subsequent primary melanoma.METHODS: In this nationwide population-based study, patients diagnosed with a first primary cutaneous melanoma reported to the Swedish Cancer Registry, were followed for up to ten years for a diagnosis of subsequent primary melanoma. Patients were grouped with patients diagnosed with first melanoma in the same decade (1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, respectively). Frequencies, incidence rates (IRs), standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for second melanomas were calculated. All tests of statistical significance were two-sided.RESULTS: 54,884 patients with melanoma were included and 2,469 were diagnosed, within ten years, with subsequent melanomas. Over the five decades there was a statistically significant steady increase in the frequency, IR and SIR for second primary melanoma. For example, in the 1960s cohort, <1% (1.0 (95% CI = 0.5-1.7) and 1.1 (95% CI = 0.5-1.9) per 1,000 person-years in women and men, respectively) had second primary melanoma and this rose to 6.4% (7.5 (95% CI = 6.8-8.3) per 1,000 person-years) in the women and 7.9% (10.3 (95% CI = 9.3-11.2) per 1,000 person-years) in the men in the 2000s cohort. This rise was seen, independent of age, sex, invasiveness or site of the melanoma. Further, in patients diagnosed with a second melanoma, the frequency of those having >2 melanomas increased statistically significantly and was 0.0% in the 1960s and rose to 18.0% in the 2000s (P <.001).CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to evaluate and report on a rising trend for subsequent primary melanoma. Additional primary melanomas worsen the patients' survival and precautions are needed to turn this steep upgoing trend.
  • Helgadottir, Hildur, et al. (författare)
  • Phenocopies in melanoma-prone families with germ-line CDKN2A mutations
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Genetics in Medicine. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1098-3600. ; 20:9, s. 1087-1090
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Carriers of CDKN2A mutations have high risks of melanoma and certain other cancers. In this study we examined the occurrence of tumors among CDKN2A wild type (wt) members of melanoma-prone families with CDKN2A mutations. Methods: Swedish and US melanoma-prone families with CDKN2A mutations were included. Data was collected on tumors diagnosed among family members. Among the CDKN2A mutated families, members with CDKN2A wt status who were diagnosed with melanoma were designated phenocopies. Results: Of patients with melanoma in the CDKN2A mutated families (n = 266), 7.1%, were seen among members with CDKN2A wt status (phenocopy rate). Among the CDKN2A wt family members of the CDKN2A mutated families (n = 256), 7.4% were diagnosed with melanoma. The prospective relative risk for melanomas was significantly higher among the CDKN2A wt subjects compared with population-based controls (7.4 (95% confidence interval 1.7–33.2)), while no elevated risks of nonmelanoma cancers were seen and their offspring did not have significantly elevated risks of melanoma or other cancers. Conclusion: Members of CDKN2A mutation carrying families who test negative for their family’s mutation have moderately increased risk for melanoma and should, in addition to being considered for continuing dermatologic surveillance, be encouraged to follow sun safety recommendations and practice skin self-exams.
  • Helgadottir, Hildur, et al. (författare)
  • Ökad kunskap om familjärt melanom och de bakomliggande generna
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Läkartidningen. - : Swedish Medical Association. - 0023-7205. ; 2017:19, s. 900-903
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Approximately 5-10 % of all melanoma patients have close relatives with melanoma. 5-20% of melanoma families have germline mutations in the CDKN2A gene. Swedish CDKN2A mutation carriers have a young median age of onset of melanoma, increased risks of multiple primary melanoma and of tobacco-associated cancers in respiratory and upper digestive tissues, and also worse survival compared to non-carriers. In up to 80% of melanoma families no high risk melanoma associated germline mutations are found. In a few (non-Swedish) melanoma families, mutations in other genes have been found, including CDK4, TERT, POT1, ACD and TERF2IP. In some families with multiple cases of uveal and cutaneous melanoma (including a few Swedish families), mutations in the BAP1 gene have been found. In genes that regulate cellular pigmentation pathways, including MC1R, ASIP, IRF4, TYR, TYRP1 and OCA, there are different common variants that determine complexion traits, and those variants are also associated with different risks of melanoma. Members belonging to identified melanoma families require close follow-up with dermatologic exams. Individuals with known mutations in tumor suppressor genes such as CDKN2A and BAP1 require, in addition, follow up for other cancers.
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