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Sökning: WFRF:(Hellstrand M)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 71
  • [1]234567...8Nästa
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  • Lindh, Magnus, 1960, et al. (författare)
  • Dynamic tailoring of treatment durations improves efficiency of hepatitis C treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Viral Hepatitis. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1352-0504 .- 1365-2893. ; 20:4, s. e82-e89
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The treatment durations for hepatitis C are guided by the analysis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in blood at certain time points. This multicentre, randomized open label trial evaluated the utility and performance of individualized treatment durations guided by viral decline rates in 103 patients with HCV genotype 1 infection. Pegylated interferon 2a and ribavirin were given as standard of care (SOC) for 24, 48 or 72 weeks or as dynamic treatment (DT) for 24–72 weeks. The DT duration was based on the time point when log HCV RNA would reach 0 log copies/mL, as estimated by the second-phase decline. The rate of sustained virologic response was 63% for SOC and 54% for DT, but this difference was not significant in multiple regression analysis taking predictive factors such as interleukin-28B genotypes, age and baseline viremia into account (P = 0.45). The mean required treatment time per cured patient was 51 weeks for DT as compared with 58 weeks for SOC (P = 0.22) when given per protocol (n = 95) and was significantly shorter (42 vs 51 weeks) among patients who achieved undetectable HCV RNA (P = 0.01). We conclude that DT was feasible and increased efficiency. The estimated time point for 0 log viral copies/mL is a new and quantitative response variable, which may be used as a complement to the qualitative variable rapid virologic response. The outcome parameter treatment weeks per cured patient could become a useful tool for comparing treatment efficiency also in the era of directly acting antivirals.
  • Brunkwall, Louise, et al. (författare)
  • The Malmö Offspring Study (MOS) : design, methods and first results.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - : Springer Nature. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 36, s. 103-116
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As cardio metabolic disease manifestations tend to cluster in families there is a need to better understand the underlying mechanisms in order to further develop preventive strategies. In fact, genetic markers used in genetic risk scores, important as they are, will not be able alone to explain these family clusters. Therefore, the search goes on for the so called missing heritability to better explain these associations. Shared lifestyle and social conditions in families, but also early life influences may be of importance. Gene-environmental interactions should be explored. In recent years interest has grown for the role of diet-microbiota associations, as microbiota patterns may be shared by family members. In the Malmö Offspring Study that started in 2013, we have so far been able to examine about 4700 subjects (18-71 years) representing children and grandchildren of index subjects from the first generation, examined in the Malmö Diet Cancer Study during 1991 to 1996. This will provide rich data and opportunities to analyse family traits of chronic disease across three generations. We will provide extensive genotyping and phenotyping including cardiovascular and respiratory function, as well as markers of glucose metabolism. In addition, also cognitive function will be assessed. A 4-day online dietary recall will be conducted and gut as well as oral microbiota analysed. The ambition is to provide one of the first large-scale European family studies with individual data across three generations, which could deepen our knowledge about the role of family traits for chronic disease and its underlying mechanisms.
  • Westberg, Lars, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms of the androgen receptor gene and the estrogen receptor beta gene are associated with androgen levels in women.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 0021-972X. ; 86:6, s. 2562-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To elucidate the possible role of genetic variation in androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), and ER beta on serum androgen levels in premenopausal women, the CAG repeat polymorphism of the AR gene, the TA repeat polymorphism of the ER alpha gene, and the CA repeat polymorphism of the ER beta gene were studied in a population-based cohort of 270 women. Total testosterone, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 3 alpha-androstanediol glucuronide, 17 beta-estradiol, LH, FSH, and sex steroid hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in serum samples obtained in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Women with relatively few CAG repeats in the AR gene, resulting in higher transcriptional activity of the receptor, displayed higher levels of serum androgens, but lower levels of LH, than women with longer CAG repeat sequences. The CA repeat of the ER beta gene also was associated with androgen and SHBG levels; women with relatively short repeat regions hence displayed higher hormone levels and lower SHBG levels than those with many CA repeats. In contrast, the TA repeat of the ER alpha gene was not associated with the levels of any of the hormones measured. Our results suggest that the serum levels of androgens in premenopausal women may be influenced by variants of the AR gene and the ER beta gene, respectively.
  • Baghaei, Fariba, 1964, et al. (författare)
  • The lean woman.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Obesity research. - 1071-7323. ; 10:2, s. 115-21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: In the current obesity epidemic, the ability to remain lean is beginning to be uncommon. Therefore, it was considered of interest to characterize such subjects. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: From a population of premenopausal women (n = 270), all 40 years of age, those with a similar body mass index (BMI) as women at the age of 21 years, born the same year (BMI = 21.1 kg/m(2)) were selected among nonsmokers and compared with the remaining nonsmoking women. RESULTS: Lean women showed, as expected, low waist-to-hip circumference ratio and abdominal sagittal diameter as well as absence of other disease risk factors. Compared with the remaining women, 17 beta-estradiol was high and androgens were low, whereas insulin-like growth factor I and thyroid hormones showed no differences. Dihydroepiandrosterone sulfate was lower, whereas cortisol, measured in saliva repeatedly over a day, and adrenocorticotropin hormone were not different. Results from questionnaires indicated higher education and socioeconomic status, frequent sports activities, and better psychosocial adaptation and psychological health. A tetranucleotide repeat polymorphism in the fourth [corrected] intron of the aromatase P450 gene was longer among the lean (187 base pairs) than the rest of the women. Women with opposite phylogenetic characteristic have a short microsatellite (168 base pairs) in this gene locus. DISCUSSION: Lean, nonsmoking women enjoy an excellent health in not only anthropometric and metabolic factors, but also in neuroendocrine, endocrine, and psychological variables. The endocrine measurements suggest a well-functioning aromatase, which in turn might have a genetic background, contributing to health. The aromatase gene might be important for regulation of body fat mass.
  • Forte, A, et al. (författare)
  • c-Myc antisense oligonucleotides preserve smooth muscle differentiation and reduce negative remodelling following rat carotid arteriotomy
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Vascular Research. - : Karger. - 1423-0135. ; 42:3, s. 214-225
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: The vascular biology of restenosis is complex and not fully understood, thus explaining the lack of effective therapy for its prevention in clinical settings. The role of c-Myc in arteriotomy-induced stenosis, smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation and apoptosis was investigated in rat carotids applying full phosphorothioate antisense ( AS) oligonucleotides (ODNs). Methods: Carotid arteries from WKY rats were submitted to arteriotomy and to local application of ODNs through pluronic gel. Apoptosis ( deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling), SMC differentiation (SM22 immunofluorescence) and vessel morphology and morphometry ( image analysis) were determined 2, 5 and 30 days after injury, respectively. Results: AS ODNs induced a 60% decrease of target c-Myc mRNA 4 h after surgery in comparison to control sense ( S) and scrambled ODN-treated carotids (p < 0.05). A significant 37 and 50% decrease in SM22 protein in the media of S ODN-treated and untreated carotids was detected when compared to uninjured contralateral arteries (p < 0.05). This reduction in SM22 expression was prevented in AS ODN-treated carotids. Stenosis was mainly due to adventitial constrictive remodelling. Lumen area in AS ODN-treated carotids was 35% greater than in control arteries 30 days after surgery (p < 0.05). TUNEL assay revealed increased apoptosis in AS ODN-treated carotids (p < 0.05). Conclusions: c-Myc AS ODNs reduce arteriotomy-induced negative remodelling. This is accompanied by maintained SMC differentiation and greater apoptosis. The combination of reduced c-Myc-induced proliferation and increased apoptosis may thus underlie the less severe remodelling upon treatment with c-Myc mRNA AS ODN.
  • Henningsson, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Sex steroid-related genes and male-to-female transsexualism
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - Oxford : Pergamon Press. - 0306-4530 .- 1873-3360. ; 30:7, s. 657-664
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Transsexualism is characterised by Lifelong discomfort with the assigned sex and a strong identification with the opposite sex. The cause of transsexualism is unknown, but it has been suggested that an aberration in the early sexual differentiation of various brain structures may be involved. Animal experiments have revealed that the sexual differentiation of the brain is mainly due to an influence of testosterone, acting both via androgen receptors (ARs) and-after aromatase-catalyzed conversion to estradiol-via estrogen receptors (ERs). The present study examined the possible importance of three polymorphisms and their pairwise interactions for the development of male-to-female transsexualism: a CAG repeat sequence in the first exon of the AR gene, a tetra nucleotide repeat polymorphism in intron 4 of the aromatase gene, and a CA repeat polymorphism in intron 5 of the ER beta gene. Subjects were 29 Caucasian male-to-female transsexuals and 229 healthy mate controls. Transsexuals differed from controls with respect to the mean Length of the ER repeat polymorphism, but not with respect to the length of the other two studied polymorphisms. However, binary logistic regression analysis revealed significant partial effects for all three polymorphisms, as well as for the interaction between the AR and aromatase gene polymorphisms, on the risk of developing transsexualism. Given the small number of transsexuals in the study, the results should be interpreted with the utmost caution. Further study of the putative role of these and other sex steroid-related genes for the development of transsexualism may, however, be worthwhile.
  • Kumar, B, et al. (författare)
  • Upregulated TRPC1 Channel in Vascular Injury In Vivo and Its Role in Human Neointimal Hyperplasia.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Circulation Research. - : American Heart Association. - 0009-7330. ; 98:4, s. 557-563
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Occlusive vascular disease is a widespread abnormality leading to lethal or debilitating outcomes such as myocardial infarction and stroke. It is part of atherosclerosis and is evoked by clinical procedures including angioplasty and grafting of saphenous vein in bypass surgery. A causative factor is the switch in smooth muscle cells to an invasive and proliferative mode, leading to neointimal hyperplasia. Here we reveal the importance to this process of TRPC1, a homolog of Drosophila transient receptor potential. Using 2 different in vivo models of vascular injury in rodents we show hyperplasic smooth muscle cells have upregulated TRPC1 associated with enhanced calcium entry and cell cycle activity. Neointimal smooth muscle cells after balloon angioplasty of pig coronary artery also express TRPC1. Furthermore, human vein samples obtained during coronary artery bypass graft surgery commonly exhibit an intimal structure containing smooth muscle cells that expressed more TRPC1 than the medial layer cells. Veins were organ cultured to allow growth of neointimal smooth muscle cells over a 2-week period. To explore the functional relevance of TRPC1, we used a specific E3-targeted antibody to TRPC1 and chemical blocker 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate. Both agents significantly reduced neointimal growth in human vein, as well as calcium entry and proliferation of smooth muscle cells in culture. The data suggest upregulated TRPC1 is a general feature of smooth muscle cells in occlusive vascular disease and that TRPC1 inhibitors have potential as protective agents against human vascular failure.
  • Melke, Jonas, 1971, et al. (författare)
  • Serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms are associated with anxiety-related personality traits in women.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: American journal of medical genetics. - 0148-7299. ; 105:5, s. 458-63
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several studies have reported an association between anxiety-related personality traits and a promoter polymorphism in the human serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene (5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region, 5-HTTLPR). In the present study, a population of 251 subjects was assessed with the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) and genotyped both for the 5-HTTLPR and for a variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism in the second intron of the same gene. The interpretation of previous studies has to some extent been confounded by the studied subjects differing with respect to ethnicity, sex, and age. To circumvent this problem, all included subjects were Caucasians, women, and born in the same year (1956). Associations were found between the 5-HTTLPR and four of the five anxiety-related KSP scales (psychic anxiety, muscular tension, psychasthenia, and lack of assertiveness), subjects being homozygous for the short allele displaying higher anxiety scores than those of the long/long or long/short genotype. In addition, an association was found between the intron 2 polymorphism and one anxiety-related personality trait (somatic anxiety).
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