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  • Asperholm, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • The magnitude of sex differences in verbal episodic memory increases with social progress : Data from 54 countries across 40 years
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 14:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sex differences in episodic memory have been reported. We investigate (1) the existence of sex differences in verbal and other episodic memory tasks in 54 countries, and (2) the association between the time-and country-specific social progress indicators (a) female to male ratio in education and labor force participation, (b) population education and employment, and (c) GDP per capita, and magnitude of sex differences in verbal episodic memory tasks. Data were retrieved from 612 studies, published 1973-2013. Results showed that females outperformed (Cohen's d > 0) males in verbal (42 out of 45 countries) and other (28 out of 45 countries) episodic memory tasks. Although all three social progress indicators were, separately, positively associated with the female advantage in verbal episodic memory performance, only population education and employment remained significant when considering the social indicators together. Results suggest that women's verbal episodic memory performance benefits more than men's from education and employment.
  • Asperholm, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • What Did You Do Yesterday? A Meta-Analysis of Sex Differences in Episodic Memory
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Psychological bulletin. - 0033-2909 .- 1939-1455. ; 145:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To remember what one did yesterday is an example of an everyday episodic memory task, in which a female advantage has sometimes been reported. Here, we quantify the impact of sex on episodic memory performance and investigate whether the magnitude of the sex difference is modified by study-, task-, and sample-specific moderators. Analyses were based on 617 studies conducted between 1973 and 2013 with 1,233,921 participants. A 5-level random-effects meta-analysis showed an overall female advantage in episodic memory (g = 0.19, 95% CI [0.17, 0.21]). The material to be remembered affected the magnitude of this advantage, with a female advantage for more verbal tasks, such as words, sentences, and prose (g = 0.28, 95% CI [0.25, 0.30]), nameable images (g = 0.16, 95% CI [0.11, 0.22]), and locations (g = 0.16, 95% CI [0.11, 0.21]). and a male advantage in more spatial tasks, such as abstract images (g = -0.20, 95% CI [-0.35, -0.05]) and routes (g = -0.24, 95% CI (-0.35, -0.12]). Furthermore, there was a female advantage for materials that cannot easily be placed along the verbal-spatial continuum, such as faces (g = 0.26, 95% CI [0.20, 0.33]), and odor, taste, and color (g = 0.37, 95% CI [0.18, 0.55]). These differences have remained stable since 1973. For verbal episodic memory tasks, differences were larger in Europe, North America, Oceania. and South America than in Asia, and smaller in childhood and old age than for other ages. Taken together. results suggest that men may use their spatial advantage in spatially demanding episodic memory tasks, whereas women do well in episodic memory tasks that are verbalizable and tasks that are neither verbal nor spatial, such as remembering faces and odors/tastes/colors.
  • Bagøien Hustad, Ingvill, et al. (författare)
  • Occupational Attributes and Occupational Gender Segregation in Sweden : Does It Change Over Time?
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology. - 1664-1078 .- 1664-1078. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sweden consistently ranks at the top of international assessments of gender equality, but paradoxically exhibits marked horizontal gender segregation in the labor market. By combining administrative and respondent-collected data, this study investigates whether occupational attributes are associated with sex distribution in Swedish occupations over a 10-year period between 2002 and 2011. Results show that the proportion of women was higher, on average, in occupations high in people orientation and verbal demands and lower in occupations high in things orientation and numerical demands. Mixed linear models showed a trend for desegregation during this period, as the proportion of women in people-oriented occupations has declined and a trend for an increase in the proportion of women in numerically demanding occupations was observed. Occupational attributes aid the understanding of gender segregation but patterns of segregation seem to change over time.
  • de Frias, Cindy, et al. (författare)
  • Sex differences in cognition are stable over a 10-year period in adulthood and old age.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition. - 1382-5585. ; 13:3-4, s. 574-587
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sex differences in declarative memory and visuospacial ability are robust in cross-sectional studies. The present longitudinal study examined whether sex differences in cognition were present over a 10-year period, and whether age modified the magnitude of sex differences. Tests assessing episodic and semantic memory, and visuospatial ability were administered to 625 nondemented adults (initially aged 35-80 years), participating in the population based Betula study at two follow-up occasions. There was stability of sex differences across five age groups and over a 10-year period. Women performed at a higher level than men on episodic recall, face and verbal recognition, and semantic fluency, whereas men performed better than women on a task assessing visuospatial ability. Sex differences in cognitive functions are stable over a 10-year period and from 35 to 90 years of age. Decreasing levels of estrogen in women and sex differences in age-related cortical atrophy do not seem to influence cognitive sex differences.
  • Dekhtyar, Serhiy, et al. (författare)
  • A Life-Course Study of Cognitive Reserve in Dementia-From Childhood to Old Age.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. - : Elsevier. - 1545-7214 .- 1064-7481. ; 23:9, s. 885-896
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To test a life-course model of cognitive reserve in dementia and examine if school grades around age 10 years, formal educational attainment, and lifetime occupational complexity affect the risk of dementia in old age. Methods 7,574 men and women from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study were followed for 21 years. Information on school performance, formal education, and occupational attainment was collected prospectively from elementary school archives and population censuses. Dementia diagnosis was extracted from the two Swedish registers. Discrete-time Cox proportional hazard models were estimated. Results Dementia was diagnosed in 950 individuals (12.5%). Dementia risk was lower among individuals with higher childhood school grades (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68 to 0.93) and was lower among individuals in data-complex occupations (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.92). Professional/university education predicted lower risk of dementia in minimally adjusted models (HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.91), although the effect faded with adjustment for occupational complexity. Lowest risk was found in the group with both higher childhood school performance and high occupational complexity with data (HR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.50 to 0.75). Importantly, high occupational complexity could not compensate for the effect of low childhood grades. In contrast, dementia risk was reduced in those with higher school grades, irrespective of occupational complexity. Conclusion Higher childhood school performance is protective of dementia risk, particularly when preserved through complex work environments in adulthood, although it will remain protective even in the absence of later-life educational or occupational stimulation.
  • Dekhtyar, Serhiy, et al. (författare)
  • Childhood school performance, education and occupational complexity : a life-course study of dementia in the Kungsholmen Project
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 45:4, s. 1207-1215
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Cognitive reserve hypothesis predicts that intellectually demanding activities over the life course protect against dementia. We investigate if childhood school performance remains associated with dementia once education and occupational complexity are taken into account. Methods: A cohort of 440 individuals aged 75+ from the Kungsholmen Project was followed up for 9 years to detect dementia. To measure early-life contributors to reserve, we used grades at age 9-10 extracted from the school archives. Data on formal education and occupational complexity were collected at baseline and first follow-up. Dementia was ascertained through comprehensive clinical examination. Cox models estimated the relationship between life-course cognitive reserve measures and dementia. Results: Dementia risk was elevated [hazard ratio (HR): 1.54, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03 to 2.29] in individuals with low early-life school grades after adjustment for formal educational attainment and occupational complexity. Secondary education was associated with a lower risk of dementia (HR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.50 to 1.03), although the effects of post-secondary and university degrees were indistinguishable from baseline. Occupational complexity with data and things was not related to dementia. However, an association was found between high occupational complexity with people and dementia, albeit only in women (HR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.99). The pattern of results remained unchanged after adjustment for genetic susceptibility, comorbidities and depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Low early-life school performance is associated with an elevated risk of dementia, independent of subsequent educational and occupational attainment.
  • Fischer, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • Brain activation while forming memories of fearful and neutral faces in women and men.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Emotion. - 1528-3542. ; 7:4, s. 767-773
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Event-related functional MRI (fMRI) was used to assess brain activity during encoding of fearful and neutral faces in 12 women and 12 men. In a subsequent memory analysis, the authors separated successful from unsuccessful encoding of both types of faces, based on whether they were remembered or forgotten in a later recognition memory test. Overall, women and men recruited overlapping neural circuitries. Both sexes activated right-sided medial-temporal regions during successful encoding of fearful faces. Successful encoding of neutral faces was associated with left-sided lateral prefrontal and right-sided superior frontal activation in both sexes. In women, relatively greater encoding related activity for neutral faces was seen in the superior parietal and parahippocampal cortices. By contrast, men activated the left and right superior/middle frontal cortex more than women during successful encoding of the same neutral faces. These findings suggest that women and men use similar neural networks to encode facial information, with only subtle sex differences observed for neutral faces.
  • From Attebring, Mona, 1947, et al. (författare)
  • Smoking habits and predictors of continued smoking in patients with acute coronary syndromes
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: J Adv Nurs. - : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd.. - 0309-2402 .- 1365-2648. ; 46:6, s. 614-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Most patients with acute coronary syndrome quit smoking when hospitalized, although several have been found to relapse and resume smoking within 3 months. AIM: This paper reports a study to identify factors that can predict who will resume smoking after hospitalization for an acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: Patients (n = 1320) below the age of 75 years, admitted to a Swedish university hospital coronary care unit with acute coronary syndromes, between September 1995 and September 1999, were consecutively included. Data were collected from hospital medical records and included information on previous clinical history, former illnesses and smoking. During their hospitalization, an experienced nurse interviewed the patients by using a structured questionnaire to obtain additional information. Patients were followed up 3 months after the discharge. Those who continued to smoke (non-quitters) were compared with those who had stopped (quitters) with regard to age, sex, medical history, clinical course, and intention to quit. To identify factors independently related to continued smoking, a logistical regression in a formal forward stepwise mode was used. RESULTS: Of the patients admitted, 33% were current smokers. Three months after discharge, 51% of these patients were still smoking. There were no significant differences in age, gender or marital status between non-quitters and quitters. In a multivariate analysis, independent predictors of continued smoking were: non-participation in the heart rehabilitation programme (P = 0.0008); use of sedatives/antidepressants at time of admission (P = 0.001); history of cerebral vascular disease (P = 0.002), history of previous cardiac event (P = 0.01); history of smoking-related pulmonary disease (P = 0.03) and cigarette consumption at index (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking patients who do not participate in a heart rehabilitation programme may need extra help with smoking cessation. The findings may provide means of identifying patients in need of special intervention.
  • Herlitz, Agneta, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive Sex Differences Are Not Magnified as a Function of Age, Sex Hormones, or Puberty Development During Early Adolescence
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Developmental Neuropsychology. - 8756-5641 .- 1532-6942. ; 38:3, s. 167-179
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Are cognitive sex differences magnified by individual differences in age, sex hormones, or puberty development? Cross-sectional samples of 12- to 14-year-old boys (n = 85) and girls (n = 102) completed tasks assessing episodic memory, face recognition, verbal fluency, and mental rotations. Blood estradiol, free testosterone, and self-rated puberty scores were obtained. Sex differences were found on all cognitive measures. However, the magnitude was not larger for older children, hormones and cognitive performance were not associated, and early maturers did not perform better than late maturers. Thus, cognitive sex differences were not associated with age, levels of sex hormones, or puberty development.
  • Hillerås, Pernilla, et al. (författare)
  • Activity patterns in very old people : a survey of cognitively intact subjects aged 90 years or older
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Age and Ageing. - 0002-0729 .- 1468-2834. ; 28:2, s. 147-152
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: to measure activity patterns in very old people, the factors related to this and the association of different types of activity with well-being. Methods: a study of 105 people, aged 90 years or older, who were not cognitively impaired, living in Stockholm. The activities carried out during the previous day were recorded and each activity was rated. Results and conclusions: the degrees of intellectual, social and physical activity are independent of each other. Very elderly people tended to have variable but relatively low activity levels over a day Good health and not moving home were associated with greater intellectual activity. Extraversion and negative Life events (such as death of close friend or family member) were associated with greater social activity, while relatively younger age and better health were associated with greater physical activity. There was positive association between physical activity and wellbeing.
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