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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Hertz Picciotto I) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Hertz Picciotto I)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 14
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1.
  • Weiner, D. J., et al. (författare)
  • Polygenic transmission disequilibrium confirms that common and rare variation act additively to create risk for autism spectrum disorders
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 49:7, s. 978-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk is influenced by common polygenic and de novo variation. We aimed to clarify the influence of polygenic risk for ASD and to identify subgroups of ASD cases, including those with strongly acting de novo variants, in which polygenic risk is relevant. Using a novel approach called the polygenic transmission disequilibrium test and data from 6,454 families with a child with ASD, we show that polygenic risk for ASD, schizophrenia, and greater educational attainment is over-transmitted to children with ASD. These findings hold independent of proband IQ. We find that polygenic variation contributes additively to risk in ASD cases who carry a strongly acting de novo variant. Lastly, we show that elements of polygenic risk are independent and differ in their relationship with phenotype. These results confirm that the genetic influences on ASD are additive and suggest that they create risk through at least partially distinct etiologic pathways.
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2.
  • Anney, R. J. L., et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis of GWAS of over 16,000 individuals with autism spectrum disorder highlights a novel locus at 10q24.32 and a significant overlap with schizophrenia
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Molecular Autism. - 2040-2392. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Over the past decade genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been applied to aid in the understanding of the biology of traits. The success of this approach is governed by the underlying effect sizes carried by the true risk variants and the corresponding statistical power to observe such effects given the study design and sample size under investigation. Previous ASD GWAS have identified genome-wide significant (GWS) risk loci; however, these studies were of only of low statistical power to identify GWS loci at the lower effect sizes (odds ratio (OR) < 1.15). Methods: We conducted a large-scale coordinated international collaboration to combine independent genotyping data to improve the statistical power and aid in robust discovery of GWS loci. This study uses genome-wide genotyping data from a discovery sample (7387 ASD cases and 8567 controls) followed by meta-analysis of summary statistics from two replication sets (7783 ASD cases and 11359 controls; and 1369 ASD cases and 137308 controls). Results: We observe a GWS locus at 10q24.32 that overlaps several genes including PITX3, which encodes a transcription factor identified as playing a role in neuronal differentiation and CUEDC2 previously reported to be associated with social skills in an independent population cohort. We also observe overlap with regions previously implicated in schizophrenia which was further supported by a strong genetic correlation between these disorders (Rg = 0.23; P= 9 x10(-6)). We further combined these Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) ASD GWAS data with the recent PGC schizophrenia GWAS to identify additional regions which may be important in a common neurodevelopmental phenotype and identified 12 novel GWS loci. These include loci previously implicated in ASD such as FOXP1 at 3p13, ATP2B2 at 3p25.3, and a 'neurodevelopmental hub' on chromosome 8p11.23. Conclusions: This study is an important step in the ongoing endeavour to identify the loci which underpin the common variant signal in ASD. In addition to novel GWS loci, we have identified a significant genetic correlation with schizophrenia and association of ASD with several neurodevelopmental- related genes such as EXT1, ASTN2, MACROD2, and HDAC4.
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3.
  • Stemann Larsen, Pernille, et al. (författare)
  • Pregnancy and Birth Cohort Resources in Europe: a Large Opportunity for Aetiological Child Health Research
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0269-5022 .- 1365-3016. ; 27:4, s. 393-414
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background During the past 25 years, many pregnancy and birth cohorts have been established. Each cohort provides unique opportunities for examining associations of early-life exposures with child development and health. However, to fully exploit the large amount of available resources and to facilitate cross-cohort collaboration, it is necessary to have accessible information on each cohort and its individual characteristics. The aim of this work was to provide an overview of European pregnancy and birth cohorts registered in a freely accessible database located at http://www.birthcohorts.net. Methods European pregnancy and birth cohorts initiated in 1980 or later with at least 300 mother-child pairs enrolled during pregnancy or at birth, and with postnatal data, were eligible for inclusion. Eligible cohorts were invited to provide information on the data and biological samples collected, as well as the timing of data collection. Results In total, 70 cohorts were identified. Of these, 56 fulfilled the inclusion criteria encompassing a total of more than 500000 live-born European children. The cohorts represented 19 countries with the majority of cohorts located in Northern and Western Europe. Some cohorts were general with multiple aims, whilst others focused on specific health or exposure-related research questions. Conclusion This work demonstrates a great potential for cross-cohort collaboration addressing important aspects of child health. The web site, http://www.birthcohorts.net, proved to be a useful tool for accessing information on European pregnancy and birth cohorts and their characteristics.
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4.
  • Pearce, Neil E, et al. (författare)
  • IARC Monographs : 40 Years of Evaluating Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 123:6, s. 507-514
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Recently the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that IARC Working Groups' failures to recognize study weaknesses and biases of Working Group members have led to inappropriate classification of a number of agents as carcinogenic to humans.OBJECTIVES: The authors of this paper are scientists from various disciplines relevant to the identification and hazard evaluation of human carcinogens. We have examined here criticisms of the IARC classification process to determine the validity of these concerns. We review the history of IARC evaluations and describe how the IARC evaluations are performed.DISCUSSION: We conclude that these recent criticisms are unconvincing. The procedures employed by IARC to assemble Working Groups of scientists from the various discipline and the techniques followed to review the literature and perform hazard assessment of various agents provide a balanced evaluation and an appropriate indication of the weight of the evidence. Some disagreement by individual scientists to some evaluations is not evidence of process failure. The review process has been modified over time and will undoubtedly be altered in the future to improve the process. Any process can in theory be improved, and we would support continued review and improvement of the IARC processes. This does not mean, however, that the current procedures are flawed.CONCLUSIONS: The IARC Monographs have made, and continue to make, major contributions to the scientific underpinning for societal actions to improve the public's health.
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5.
  • Grandjean, Philippe, et al. (författare)
  • The faroes statement : human health effects of developmental exposure to chemicals in our environment.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1742-7835 .- 1742-7843. ; 102:2, s. 73-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The periods of embryonic, foetal and infant developmentare remarkably susceptible to environmental hazards. Toxicexposures to chemical pollutants during these windows ofincreased susceptibility can cause disease and disability ininfants, children and across the entire span of human life.Among the effects of toxic exposures recognized in the pasthave been spontaneous abortion, congenital malformations,lowered birthweight and other adverse effects. These outcomesmay be readily apparent. However, even subtle changes causedby chemical exposures during early development may leadto important functional deficits and increased risks ofdisease later in life. The timing of exposure during early lifehas therefore become a crucial factor to be considered intoxicological assessments.During 20–24 May 2007, researchers in the fields of environmentalhealth, environmental chemistry, developmentalbiology, toxicology, epidemiology, nutrition and paediatricsgathered at the International Conference on Fetal Programmingand Developmental Toxicity, in Tórshavn, FaroeIslands. The conference goal was to highlight new insightsinto the effects of prenatal and early postnatal exposure tochemical agents, and their sustained effects on the individualthroughout the lifespan. The conference brought togetherresearchers to focus on human data and the translationof laboratory results to elucidate the environmental risks tohuman health.
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6.
  • Hertz-Picciotto, I., et al. (författare)
  • Polybrominated dipheny ehters in relation to autism and developmental delay : A case-control study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Environmental health. - 1476-069X .- 1476-069X. ; 10, s. 1-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used widely and in increasing amounts in the U.S. over the last few decades. PBDEs and their metabolites cross the placenta and studies in rodents demonstrate neurodevelopmental toxicity from prenatal exposures. PBDE exposures occur both via breastfeeding and hand-to-mouth activities in small children. Methods: Participants were 100 children from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risk from Genetics and the Environment) Study, a case-control epidemiologic investigation of children with autism/autism spectrum disorder, with developmental delay and from the general population. Diagnoses of autism were confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised, and of developmental delay using the Mullen's Scales of Early Learning and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Typically developing controls were those with no evidence of delay, autism, or autism spectrum disorder. Eleven PBDE congeners were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry from serum specimens collected after children were assessed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between plasma PBDEs and autism. Results: Children with autism/autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay were similar to typically developing controls for all PBDE congeners, but levels were high for all three groups. Conclusions: Plasma samples collected post-diagnosis in this study may not represent early life exposures due to changes in diet and introduction of new household products containing PBDEs. Studies with direct measurements of prenatal or infant exposures are needed to assess the possible causal role for these compounds in autism spectrum disorders.    
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