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  • Herwald, Heiko, et al. (författare)
  • Foreword
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Sepsis - Pro-Inflammatory and Anti-Inflammatory Responses : Good, Bad or Ugly? - Good, Bad or Ugly?. - : Karger. - 1420-9519 .- 1662-291X. - 9783805597111 - 9783805597104 ; 17
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Agar, Cetin, et al. (författare)
  • beta(2)-Glycoprotein I: a novel component of innate immunity
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Blood. - : American Society of Hematology. - 1528-0020. ; 117:25, s. 6939-6947
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sepsis is a systemic host response to invasive infection by bacteria. Despite treatment with antibiotics, current mortality rates are in the range of 20%-25%, which makes sepsis the most important cause of death in intensive care. Gram-negative bacteria are a prominent cause of sepsis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), one of the major constituents of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, plays a major role in activating the host's immune response by binding to monocytes and other cells. Several proteins are involved in neutralization and clearance of LPS from the bloodstream. Here, we provide evidence that beta(2)-glycoprotein I (beta(2)GPI) is a scavenger of LPS. In vitro, beta(2)GPI inhibited LPS-induced expression of tissue factor and IL-6 from monocytes and endothelial cells. Binding of beta(2)GPI to LPS caused a conformational change in beta(2)GPI that led to binding of the beta(2)GPI-LPS complex to monocytes and ultimately clearance of this complex. Furthermore, plasma levels of beta(2)GPI were inversely correlated with temperature rise and the response of inflammatory markers after a bolus injection of LPS in healthy individuals. Together, these observations provide evidence that beta(2)GPI is involved in the neutralization and clearance of LPS and identify beta(2)GPI as a component of innate immunity. (Blood. 2011;117(25):6939-6947)
  • Ali, Mohamad N., et al. (författare)
  • TFPI-2 protects against gram-negative bacterial infection
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology. - : Frontiers Media S. A.. - 1664-3224. ; 9:SEP
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2) has previously been characterized as an endogenous anticoagulant. TFPI-2 is expressed in the vast majority of cells, mainly secreted into the extracellular matrix. Recently we reported that EDC34, a C-terminal peptide derived from TFPI-2, exerts a broad antimicrobial activity. In the present study, we describe a previously unknown antimicrobial mode of action for the human TFPI-2 C-terminal peptide EDC34, mediated via binding to immunoglobulins of the classes IgG, IgA, IgE, and IgM. In particular the interaction of EDC34 with the Fc part of IgG is of importance since this boosts interaction between the immunoglobulin and complement factor C1q. Moreover, we find that the binding increases the C1q engagement of the antigen-antibody interaction, leading to enhanced activation of the classical complement pathway during bacterial infection. In experimental murine models of infection and endotoxin challenge, we show that TFPI-2 is up-regulated in several organs, including the lung. Correspondingly, TFPI-2-/- mice are more susceptible to pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial infection. No anti-coagulant role of TFPI-2 was observed in these models in vivo. Furthermore, in vivo, the mouse TFPI-2-derived C-terminal peptide VKG24, a homolog to human EDC34 is protective against systemic Escherichia coli bacterial infection. Moreover, in sputum from cystic fibrosis patients TFPI-2 C-terminal fragments are generated and found associated with immunoglobulins. Together our data describe a previously unknown host defense mechanism and therapeutic importance of TFPI-2 against invading Gram-negative bacterial pathogens.
  • Anders, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • Globular C1q receptor (p33) binds and stabilizes pro-inflammatory MCP-1 : a novel mechanism for regulation of MCP-1 production and function
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - : Portland Press. - 0264-6021. ; 475:4, s. 775-786
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The protein gC1qR (globular C1q receptor), also named p33, was originally identified as a binding partner of the globular heads of C1q in the complement system. gC1qR/p33 is abundantly expressed in many cell types, but the functional importance of this protein is not completely understood. Here, we investigate the impact of gC1qR/p33 on the production and function of the pathophysiologically important chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Knockdown of gC1qR/p33 negatively regulated the production of MCP-1, but had no effect on the expression of transcript for MCP-1 in human periodontal ligament cells, suggesting a translational/post-translational mechanism of action. Laser scanning confocal microscopy showed considerable cytosolic co-localization of gC1qR/p33 and MCP-1, and co-immunoprecipitation disclosed direct physical interaction between gC1qR/p33 and MCP-1. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed a high-affinity binding (KD = 10.9 nM) between gC1qR/p33 and MCP-1. Using a transwell migration assay, we found that recombinant gC1qR/p33 enhances MCP-1-induced migration of human THP-1 monocytes, pointing to a functional importance of the interaction between gC1qR/p33 and MCP-1. An in vitro assay revealed a rapid turnover of the MCP-1 protein and that gC1qR/ p33 stabilizes MCP-1, hence preventing its degradation. We propose that endogenous gC1qR/p33 physically interacts with MCP-1 causing stabilization of the MCP-1 protein and stimulation of its activity in human periodontal ligament cells, suggesting a novel gC1qR/p33-mediated pro-inflammatory mechanism of action.
  • Ben Nasr, Abdelhakim, et al. (författare)
  • Absorption of kininogen from human plasma by Streptococcus pyogenes is followed by the release of bradykinin
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - : Portland Press. - 0264-6021. ; 326:3, s. 657-660
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • H-kininogen (high-molecular-mass kininogen, HK) is the precursor of the vasoactive peptide hormone bradykinin (BK). Previous work has demonstrated that HK binds to Streptococcus pyogenes through M-proteins, fibrous surface proteins and important virulence factors of these bacteria. Here we find that M-protein-expressing bacteria absorb HK from human plasma. The HK bound to the bacteria was found to be cleaved, and analysis of the degradation pattern suggested that the cleavage of HK at the bacterial surface is associated with the release of BK. Moreover, addition of activated plasma prekallikrein to bacteria preincubated with human plasma, resulted in BK release. This mechanism, by which a potent vasoactive and proinflammatory peptide is generated at the site of infection, should influence the host-parasite relationship during S. pyogenes infections.
  • Ben Nasr, Abdelhakim, et al. (författare)
  • Human kininogens interact with M protein, a bacterial surface protein and virulence determinant.
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - : Portland Press. - 0264-6021. ; 305:1, s. 80-173
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Streptococcus pyogenes, the most significant streptococcal species in clinical medicine, expresses surface proteins with affinity for several human plasma proteins. Here we report that kininogens, the precursors to the vasoactive kinins, bind to the surface of S. pyogenes. M protein, a surface molecule and a major virulence factor-in these bacteria, occurs in > 80 different serotypes. Among 49 strains of S. pyogenes, all of different M serotypes, 41 bound radiolabelled kininogens, whereas 6 M protein-negative mutant strains showed no affinity. M protein of most serotypes bind fibrinogen, and among the 55 strains tested, binding of kininogens was closely correlated to fibrinogen binding (r = 0.88, P < 0.0001). Western blotting, slot binding and enzyme immunoassay experiments demonstrated that M proteins isolated from S. pyogenes of three different M protein serotypes (M1, M6 and M46) bound kininogens. The affinity between kininogens and M1 protein was determined to be 5 x 10(7) M-1 and < or = 10(6) M-1 for high molecular weight (H-kininogen) and low molecular weight kininogen, respectively. The kininogen binding site was tentatively mapped to the N-terminal portion of M1 protein, and this site does not overlap the specific and separate binding sites for albumin, IgG and fibrinogen using monoclonal antibodies to, and synthetic peptides of, the kininogen sequence, the major M protein-binding site(s) was mapped to the C-terminal portion of the H-kininogen light chain. We anticipate that the kininogen-M protein interaction contributes to the host-parasite relationship in S. pyogenes infections.
  • Bengtson, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Activation of TAFI on the Surface of Streptococcus pyogenes Evokes Inflammatory Reactions by Modulating the Kallikrein/Kinin System
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Innate Immunity. - : Karger. - 1662-811X. ; 1:1, s. 18-28
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bacteria-controlled regulation of host responses to infection is an important virulence mechanism that has been demonstrated to contribute to disease progression. Here we report that the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes employs the procarboxypeptidase TAR (thrombin-activatablefibrinolysis inhibitor) to modulate the kallikrein/kinin system. To this end, bacteria initiate a chain of events starting with the recruitment and activation of TAFI. This is followed by the assembly and induction of the contact system at the streptococcal surface, eventually triggering the release of bradykinin (BK). BK is then carboxyterminally truncated by activated TAFI, which converts the peptide from a kinin B-2 receptor ligand to a kinin B-1 receptor (B1R) agonist. Finally, we show that streptococcal supernatants indirectly amplify the B1R response as they act on peripheral blood mononuclear cells to secrete inflammatory cytokines that in turn stimulate upregulation of the B1R on human fibroblasts. Taken together our findings implicate a critical and novel role for streptococci-bound TAR, as it processes BK to a B1R agonist at the bacterial surface and thereby may redirect inflammation from a transient to a chronic state. Copyright (C) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • Bengtson, Sara H, et al. (författare)
  • Kinin receptor expression during Staphylococcus aureus infection.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Blood. - : American Society of Hematology. - 1528-0020. ; 108:6, s. 2055-2063
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An inappropriate host response to invading bacteria is a critical parameter that often aggravates the outcome of an infection. Staphylococcus aureus is a major human Gram-positive pathogen that causes a wide array of community- and hospital-acquired diseases ranging from superficial skin infections to severe conditions such as staphylococcal toxic shock. Here we find that S aureus induces inflammatory reactions by modulating the expression and response of the B1 and B2 receptors, respectively. This process is initiated by a chain of events, involving staphylococcal-induced cytokine release from monocytes, bacteria-triggered contact activation, and conversion of bradykinin to its metabolite desArg9bradykinin. The data of the present study implicate an important and previously unknown role for kinin receptor regulation in S aureus infections.
  • Bengtson, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Regulation of kinin B(2) receptors by bradykinin in human lung cells.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Biological Chemistry. - : De Gruyter. - 1437-4315. ; 389, s. 1435-1440
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract Bradykinin is a potent mediator of inflammation that has been shown to participate in allergic airway inflammation. The biologic effects of bradykinin are mediated by binding and activating its cognate receptor, the B(2) receptor (B(2)R). In the lung fibroblast cell line IMR-90, binding of bradykinin to the B(2)R triggers down-regulation of the receptor surface expression, suggesting that bradykinin-induced inflammation is transient and self-limited. Notably, subjects with chronic airway inflammation continue to respond to BK following a first challenge. B(2)Rs are expressed on many different lung cell types, including airway epithelial cells. We therefore compared IMR-90 cells with the human lung epithelial cell line BEAS2B and found that B2R expression in the two cell types is differently regulated by BK. While BK induces a down-regulation of B(2)R in IMR-90 cells, the same treatment leads to an up-regulation of the receptor in BEAS2B cells. These results provide a possible explanation for the potency of bradykinin in inducing ongoing airway inflammation.
  • Beran, Ondrej, et al. (författare)
  • Heparin-binding protein as a biomarker of circulatory failure during severe infections: A report of three cases
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. - : Informa Healthcare. - 1651-1980. ; 42:8, s. 634-636
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • We report 3 cases of disease - leptospirosis, tropical malaria and fulminant meningococcaemia - associated with high serum concentrations of heparin-binding protein (HBP) and haemodynamic instability. Furthermore, HBP kinetics were observed for the first 3 days in survivors and were correlated with improvement in clinical condition.
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