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Sökning: WFRF:(Higgins Scott N.)

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  • Axfors, Cathrine, et al. (författare)
  • Association between convalescent plasma treatment and mortality in COVID-19 : a collaborative systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: BMC Infectious Diseases. - : Springer Nature. - 1471-2334 .- 1471-2334. ; 21:1
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Convalescent plasma has been widely used to treat COVID-19 and is under investigation in numerous randomized clinical trials, but results are publicly available only for a small number of trials. The objective of this study was to assess the benefits of convalescent plasma treatment compared to placebo or no treatment and all-cause mortality in patients with COVID-19, using data from all available randomized clinical trials, including unpublished and ongoing trials (Open Science Framework, ). Methods: In this collaborative systematic review and meta-analysis, clinical trial registries (ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform), the Cochrane COVID-19 register, the LOVE database, and PubMed were searched until April 8, 2021. Investigators of trials registered by March 1, 2021, without published results were contacted via email. Eligible were ongoing, discontinued and completed randomized clinical trials that compared convalescent plasma with placebo or no treatment in COVID-19 patients, regardless of setting or treatment schedule. Aggregated mortality data were extracted from publications or provided by investigators of unpublished trials and combined using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman random effects model. We investigated the contribution of unpublished trials to the overall evidence. Results: A total of 16,477 patients were included in 33 trials (20 unpublished with 3190 patients, 13 published with 13,287 patients). 32 trials enrolled only hospitalized patients (including 3 with only intensive care unit patients). Risk of bias was low for 29/33 trials. Of 8495 patients who received convalescent plasma, 1997 died (23%), and of 7982 control patients, 1952 died (24%). The combined risk ratio for all-cause mortality was 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.92; 1.02) with between-study heterogeneity not beyond chance (I-2 = 0%). The RECOVERY trial had 69.8% and the unpublished evidence 25.3% of the weight in the meta-analysis. Conclusions: Convalescent plasma treatment of patients with COVID-19 did not reduce all-cause mortality. These results provide strong evidence that convalescent plasma treatment for patients with COVID-19 should not be used outside of randomized trials. Evidence synthesis from collaborations among trial investigators can inform both evidence generation and evidence application in patient care.
  • Wu, X. N., et al. (författare)
  • Increased EZH2 expression in prostate cancer is associated with metastatic recurrence following external beam radiotherapy
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Prostate. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 0270-4137. ; 79:10, s. 1079-1089
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2) promotes prostate cancer progression. We hypothesized that increased EZH2 expression is associated with postradiotherapy metastatic disease recurrence, and may promote radioresistance. Methods EZH2 expression was investigated using immunohistochemistry in diagnostic prostate biopsies of 113 prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy with curative intent. Associations between EZH2 expression in malignant and benign tissue in prostate biopsy cores and outcomes were investigated using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. LNCaP and PC3 cell radiosensitivity was investigated using colony formation and gamma H2AX assays following UNC1999 chemical probe-mediated EZH2 inhibition. Results While there was no significant association between EZH2 expression and biochemical recurrence following radiotherapy, univariate analysis revealed that prostate cancer cytoplasmic and total EZH2 expression were significantly associated with metastasis development postradiotherapy (P = 0.034 and P = 0.003, respectively). On multivariate analysis, the prostate cancer total EZH2 expression score remained statistically significant (P = 0.003), while cytoplasmic EZH2 expression did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.053). No association was observed between normal adjacent prostate EZH2 expression and biochemical recurrence or metastasis. LNCaP and PC3 cell treatment with UNC1999 reduced histone H3 lysine 27 tri-methylation levels. Irradiation of LNCaP or PC3 cells with a single 2 Gy fraction with UNC1999-mediated EZH2 inhibition resulted in a statistically significant, though modest, reduction in cell colony number for both cell lines. Increased gamma H2AX foci were observed 24 hours after ionizing irradiation in LNCaP cells, but not in PC3, following UNC1999-mediated EZH2 inhibition vs controls. Conclusions Taken together, these results reveal that high pretreatment EZH2 expression in prostate cancer in diagnostic biopsies is associated with an increased risk of postradiotherapy metastatic disease recurrence, but EZH2 function may only at most play a modest role in promoting prostate cancer cell radioresistance.
  • Pilla, Rachel M., et al. (författare)
  • Deeper waters are changing less consistently than surface waters in a global analysis of 102 lakes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Globally, lake surface water temperatures have warmed rapidly relative to air temperatures, but changes in deepwater temperatures and vertical thermal structure are still largely unknown. We have compiled the most comprehensive data set to date of long-term (1970–2009) summertime vertical temperature profiles in lakes across the world to examine trends and drivers of whole-lake vertical thermal structure. We found significant increases in surface water temperatures across lakes at an average rate of + 0.37 °C decade−1, comparable to changes reported previously for other lakes, and similarly consistent trends of increasing water column stability (+ 0.08 kg m−3 decade−1). In contrast, however, deepwater temperature trends showed little change on average (+ 0.06 °C decade−1), but had high variability across lakes, with trends in individual lakes ranging from − 0.68 °C decade−1 to + 0.65 °C decade−1. The variability in deepwater temperature trends was not explained by trends in either surface water temperatures or thermal stability within lakes, and only 8.4% was explained by lake thermal region or local lake characteristics in a random forest analysis. These findings suggest that external drivers beyond our tested lake characteristics are important in explaining long-term trends in thermal structure, such as local to regional climate patterns or additional external anthropogenic influences.
  • Pilla, Rachel M., et al. (författare)
  • Global data set of long-term summertime vertical temperature profiles in 153 lakes
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Scientific Data. - : Springer Nature. - 2052-4463. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Climate change and other anthropogenic stressors have led to long-term changes in the thermal structure, including surface temperatures, deepwater temperatures, and vertical thermal gradients, in many lakes around the world. Though many studies highlight warming of surface water temperatures in lakes worldwide, less is known about long-term trends in full vertical thermal structure and deepwater temperatures, which have been changing less consistently in both direction and magnitude. Here, we present a globally-expansive data set of summertime in-situ vertical temperature profiles from 153 lakes, with one time series beginning as early as 1894. We also compiled lake geographic, morphometric, and water quality variables that can influence vertical thermal structure through a variety of potential mechanisms in these lakes. These long-term time series of vertical temperature profiles and corresponding lake characteristics serve as valuable data to help understand changes and drivers of lake thermal structure in a time of rapid global and ecological change.
  • Tiegs, Scott D., et al. (författare)
  • Global patterns and drivers of ecosystem functioning in rivers and riparian zones
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science Advances. - Washington : American Association of Advancement in Science. - 2375-2548. ; 5:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • River ecosystems receive and process vast quantities of terrestrial organic carbon, the fate of which depends strongly on microbial activity. Variation in and controls of processing rates, however, are poorly characterized at the global scale. In response, we used a peer-sourced research network and a highly standardized carbon processing assay to conduct a global-scale field experiment in greater than 1000 river and riparian sites. We found that Earth's biomes have distinct carbon processing signatures. Slow processing is evident across latitudes, whereas rapid rates are restricted to lower latitudes. Both the mean rate and variability decline with latitude, suggesting temperature constraints toward the poles and greater roles for other environmental drivers (e.g., nutrient loading) toward the equator. These results and data set the stage for unprecedented "next-generation biomonitoring" by establishing baselines to help quantify environmental impacts to the functioning of ecosystems at a global scale.
  • Hampton, Stephanie E., et al. (författare)
  • Ecology under lake ice
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Ecology Letters. - 1461-023X .- 1461-0248. ; 20:1, s. 98-111
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experience periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems, due to a historical research focus on summer ‘growing seasons’. We executed the first global quantitative synthesis on under-ice lake ecology, including 36 abiotic and biotic variables from 42 research groups and 101 lakes, examining seasonal differences and connections as well as how seasonal differences vary with geophysical factors. Plankton were more abundant under ice than expected; mean winter values were 43.2% of summer values for chlorophyll a, 15.8% of summer phytoplankton biovolume and 25.3% of summer zooplankton density. Dissolved nitrogen concentrations were typically higher during winter, and these differences were exaggerated in smaller lakes. Lake size also influenced winter-summer patterns for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), with higher winter DOC in smaller lakes. At coarse levels of taxonomic aggregation, phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition showed few systematic differences between seasons, although literature suggests that seasonal differences are frequently lake-specific, species-specific, or occur at the level of functional group. Within the subset of lakes that had longer time series, winter influenced the subsequent summer for some nutrient variables and zooplankton biomass.
  • Kraemer, Benjamin M., et al. (författare)
  • Climate change drives widespread shifts in lake thermal habitat
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Climate Change. - 1758-678X .- 1758-6798. ; 11:6, s. 521-529
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lake surfaces are warming worldwide, raising concerns about lake organism responses to thermal habitat changes. Species may cope with temperature increases by shifting their seasonality or their depth to track suitable thermal habitats, but these responses may be constrained by ecological interactions, life histories or limiting resources. Here we use 32 million temperature measurements from 139 lakes to quantify thermal habitat change (percentage of non-overlap) and assess how this change is exacerbated by potential habitat constraints. Long-term temperature change resulted in an average 6.2% non-overlap between thermal habitats in baseline (1978-1995) and recent (1996-2013) time periods, with non-overlap increasing to 19.4% on average when habitats were restricted by season and depth. Tropical lakes exhibited substantially higher thermal non-overlap compared with lakes at other latitudes. Lakes with high thermal habitat change coincided with those having numerous endemic species, suggesting that conservation actions should consider thermal habitat change to preserve lake biodiversity. Using measurements from 139 global lakes, the authors demonstrate how long-term thermal habitat change in lakes is exacerbated by species' seasonal and depth-related constraints. They further reveal higher change in tropical lakes, and those with high biodiversity and endemism.
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