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Sökning: WFRF:(Holtzman David M)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 19
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1.
  • Abolfathi, Bela, et al. (författare)
  • The fourteenth data release of the sloan digital sky survey : First spectroscopic data from the extended baryon oscillation spectroscopic survey and from the second phase of the apache point observatory galactic evolution experiment
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series. - : IOP Publishing. - 0067-0049. ; 235:2
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The fourth generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) has been in operation since 2014 July. This paper describes the second data release from this phase, and the 14th from SDSS overall (making this Data Release Fourteen or DR14). This release makes the data taken by SDSS-IV in its first two years of operation (2014-2016 July) public. Like all previous SDSS releases, DR14 is cumulative, including the most recent reductions and calibrations of all data taken by SDSS since the first phase began operations in 2000. New in DR14 is the first public release of data from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey; the first data from the second phase of the Apache Point Observatory (APO) Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-2), including stellar parameter estimates from an innovative data-driven machine-learning algorithm known as "The Cannon"; and almost twice as many data cubes from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) survey as were in the previous release (N = 2812 in total). This paper describes the location and format of the publicly available data from the SDSS-IV surveys. We provide references to the important technical papers describing how these data have been taken (both targeting and observation details) and processed for scientific use. The SDSS web site (www.sdss.org) has been updated for this release and provides links to data downloads, as well as tutorials and examples of data use. SDSS-IV is planning to continue to collect astronomical data until 2020 and will be followed by SDSS-V.
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2.
  • Mattsson, Niklas, 1979, et al. (författare)
  • The Alzheimer's Association external quality control program for cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. - 1552-5279. ; 7:4, s. 386-395.e6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers amyloid β (Aβ)-42, total-tau (T-tau), and phosphorylated-tau (P-tau) demonstrate good diagnostic accuracy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there are large variations in biomarker measurements between studies, and between and within laboratories. The Alzheimer's Association has initiated a global quality control program to estimate and monitor variability of measurements, quantify batch-to-batch assay variations, and identify sources of variability. In this article, we present the results from the first two rounds of the program.
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3.
  • Deming, Yuetiva, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies four novel loci associated with Alzheimer's endophenotypes and disease modifiers.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Acta neuropathologica. - 1432-0533. ; 133:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • More than 20 genetic loci have been associated with risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but reported genome-wide significant loci do not account for all the estimated heritability and provide little information about underlying biological mechanisms. Genetic studies using intermediate quantitative traits such as biomarkers, or endophenotypes, benefit from increased statistical power to identify variants that may not pass the stringent multiple test correction in case-control studies. Endophenotypes also contain additional information helpful for identifying variants and genes associated with other aspects of disease, such as rate of progression or onset, and provide context to interpret the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We conducted GWAS of amyloid beta (Aβ42), tau, and phosphorylated tau (ptau181) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 3146 participants across nine studies to identify novel variants associated with AD. Five genome-wide significant loci (two novel) were associated with ptau181, including loci that have also been associated with AD risk or brain-related phenotypes. Two novel loci associated with Aβ42 near GLIS1 on 1p32.3 (β = -0.059, P = 2.08 × 10(-8)) and within SERPINB1 on 6p25 (β = -0.025, P = 1.72 × 10(-8)) were also associated with AD risk (GLIS1: OR = 1.105, P = 3.43 × 10(-2)), disease progression (GLIS1: β = 0.277, P = 1.92 × 10(-2)), and age at onset (SERPINB1: β = 0.043, P = 4.62 × 10(-3)). Bioinformatics indicate that the intronic SERPINB1 variant (rs316341) affects expression of SERPINB1 in various tissues, including the hippocampus, suggesting that SERPINB1 influences AD through an Aβ-associated mechanism. Analyses of known AD risk loci suggest CLU and FERMT2 may influence CSF Aβ42 (P = 0.001 and P = 0.009, respectively) and the INPP5D locus may affect ptau181 levels (P = 0.009); larger studies are necessary to verify these results. Together the findings from this study can be used to inform future AD studies.
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4.
  • Deming, Yuetiva, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies four novel loci associated with Alzheimer’s endophenotypes and disease modifiers
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - : Springer. - 0001-6322. ; 133:5, s. 839-856
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • More than 20 genetic loci have been associated with risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but reported genome-wide significant loci do not account for all the estimated heritability and provide little information about underlying biological mechanisms. Genetic studies using intermediate quantitative traits such as biomarkers, or endophenotypes, benefit from increased statistical power to identify variants that may not pass the stringent multiple test correction in case–control studies. Endophenotypes also contain additional information helpful for identifying variants and genes associated with other aspects of disease, such as rate of progression or onset, and provide context to interpret the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We conducted GWAS of amyloid beta (Aβ42), tau, and phosphorylated tau (ptau181) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 3146 participants across nine studies to identify novel variants associated with AD. Five genome-wide significant loci (two novel) were associated with ptau181, including loci that have also been associated with AD risk or brain-related phenotypes. Two novel loci associated with Aβ42 near GLIS1 on 1p32.3 (β = −0.059, P = 2.08 × 10−8) and within SERPINB1 on 6p25 (β = −0.025, P = 1.72 × 10−8) were also associated with AD risk (GLIS1: OR = 1.105, P = 3.43 × 10−2), disease progression (GLIS1: β = 0.277, P = 1.92 × 10−2), and age at onset (SERPINB1: β = 0.043, P = 4.62 × 10−3). Bioinformatics indicate that the intronic SERPINB1 variant (rs316341) affects expression of SERPINB1 in various tissues, including the hippocampus, suggesting that SERPINB1 influences AD through an Aβ-associated mechanism. Analyses of known AD risk loci suggest CLU and FERMT2 may influence CSF Aβ42 (P = 0.001 and P = 0.009, respectively) and the INPP5D locus may affect ptau181 levels (P = 0.009); larger studies are necessary to verify these results. Together the findings from this study can be used to inform future AD studies.
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5.
  • Dubois, Bruno, et al. (författare)
  • Preclinical Alzheimer's disease: Definition, natural history, and diagnostic criteria.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. - 1552-5279. ; 12:3, s. 292-323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During the past decade, a conceptual shift occurred in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) considering the disease as a continuum. Thanks to evolving biomarker research and substantial discoveries, it is now possible to identify the disease even at the preclinical stage before the occurrence of the first clinical symptoms. This preclinical stage of AD has become a major research focus as the field postulates that early intervention may offer the best chance of therapeutic success. To date, very little evidence is established on this "silent" stage of the disease. A clarification is needed about the definitions and lexicon, the limits, the natural history, the markers of progression, and the ethical consequence of detecting the disease at this asymptomatic stage. This article is aimed at addressing all the different issues by providing for each of them an updated review of the literature and evidence, with practical recommendations.
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6.
  • Kauwe, John S K, et al. (författare)
  • Fine mapping of genetic variants in BIN1, CLU, CR1 and PICALM for association with cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PloS one. - 1932-6203. ; 6:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent genome-wide association studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have identified variants in BIN1, CLU, CR1 and PICALM that show replicable association with risk for disease. We have thoroughly sampled common variation in these genes, genotyping 355 variants in over 600 individuals for whom measurements of two AD biomarkers, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 42 amino acid amyloid beta fragments (Aβ(42)) and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (ptau(181)), have been obtained. Association analyses were performed to determine whether variants in BIN1, CLU, CR1 or PICALM are associated with changes in the CSF levels of these biomarkers. Despite adequate power to detect effects as small as a 1.05 fold difference, we have failed to detect evidence for association between SNPs in these genes and CSF Aβ(42) or ptau(181) levels in our sample. Our results suggest that these variants do not affect risk via a mechanism that results in a strong additive effect on CSF levels of Aβ(42) or ptau(181).
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7.
  • McCully, Curtis, et al. (författare)
  • HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE AND GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS OF THE TYPE Iax SUPERNOVAE SN 2005hk AND SN 2008A
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 786:2, s. 134-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2005hk and SN 2008A, typical members of the Type Iax class of supernovae (SNe). Here we focus on late-time observations, where these objects deviate most dramatically from all other SN types. Instead of the dominant nebular emission lines that are observed in other SNe at late phases, spectra of SNe 2005hk and 2008A show lines of Fe II, Ca II, and Fe I more than a year past maximum light, along with narrow [ Fe II] and [ Ca II] emission. We use spectral features to constrain the temperature and density of the ejecta, and find high densities at late times, with n(e) greater than or similar to 10(9) cm(-3). Such high densities should yield enhanced cooling of the ejecta, making these objects good candidates to observe the expected infrared catastrophe, a generic feature of SN Ia models. However, our HST photometry of SN 2008A does not match the predictions of an infrared catastrophe. Moreover, our HST observations rule out a complete deflagration that fully disrupts the white dwarf for these peculiar SNe, showing no evidence for unburned material at late times. Deflagration explosion models that leave behind a bound remnant can match some of the observed properties of SNe Iax, but no published model is consistent with all of our observations of SNe 2005hk and 2008A.
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8.
  • Wiseman, Frances K, et al. (författare)
  • Trisomy of human chromosome 21 enhances amyloid-β deposition independently of an extra copy of APP.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Brain : a journal of neurology. - 1460-2156. ; 141:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Down syndrome, caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, is the single most common risk factor for early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Worldwide approximately 6 million people have Down syndrome, and all these individuals will develop the hallmark amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's disease by the age of 40 and the vast majority will go on to develop dementia. Triplication of APP, a gene on chromosome 21, is sufficient to cause early-onset Alzheimer's disease in the absence of Down syndrome. However, whether triplication of other chromosome 21 genes influences disease pathogenesis in the context of Down syndrome is unclear. Here we show, in a mouse model, that triplication of chromosome 21 genes other than APP increases amyloid-β aggregation, deposition of amyloid-β plaques and worsens associated cognitive deficits. This indicates that triplication of chromosome 21 genes other than APP is likely to have an important role to play in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis in individuals who have Down syndrome. We go on to show that the effect of trisomy of chromosome 21 on amyloid-β aggregation correlates with an unexpected shift in soluble amyloid-β 40/42 ratio. This alteration in amyloid-β isoform ratio occurs independently of a change in the carboxypeptidase activity of the γ-secretase complex, which cleaves the peptide from APP, or the rate of extracellular clearance of amyloid-β. These new mechanistic insights into the role of triplication of genes on chromosome 21, other than APP, in the development of Alzheimer's disease in individuals who have Down syndrome may have implications for the treatment of this common cause of neurodegeneration.
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9.
  • Griffith, Emily, et al. (författare)
  • The Similarity of Abundance Ratio Trends and Nucleosynthetic Patterns in the Milky Way Disk and Bulge
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 909:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We compare abundance ratio trends in a sample of ∼11,000 Milky Way bulge stars (R GC < 3 kpc) from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) to those of APOGEE stars in the Galactic disk (5 kpc < R GC < 11 kpc). We divide each sample into low-Ia (high-[Mg/Fe]) and high-Ia (low-[Mg/Fe]) populations, and in each population, we examine the median trends of [X/Mg] versus [Mg/H] for elements X = Fe, O, Na, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Ce. To remove small systematic trends of APOGEE abundances with stellar log(g), we resample the disk stars to match the log(g) distributions of the bulge data. After doing so, we find nearly identical median trends for low-Ia disk and bulge stars for all elements. High-Ia trends are similar for most elements, with noticeable (0.05-0.1 dex) differences for Mn, Na, and Co. The close agreement of abundance trends (with typical differences ≲0.03 dex) implies that similar nucleosynthetic processes enriched bulge and disk stars despite the different star formation histories and physical conditions of these regions. For example, we infer that differences in the high-mass slope of the stellar initial mass function between disk and bulge must have been ≲0.30. This agreement, and the generally small scatter about the median sequences, means that one can predict all of a bulge star's APOGEE abundances with good accuracy knowing only its measured [Mg/Fe] and [Mg/H] and the observed trends of disk stars.
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10.
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