1. 
 Schael, S, et al.
(författare)

Precision electroweak measurements on the Z resonance
 2006

Ingår i: Physics Reports.  : Elsevier.  03701573 . 18736270. ; 427:56, s. 257454

Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
 We report on the final electroweak measurements performed with data taken at the Z resonance by the experiments operating at the electronpositron colliders SLC and LEP. The data consist of 17 million Z decays accumulated by the ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL experiments at LEP, and 600 thousand Z decays by the SLID experiment using a polarised beam at SLC. The measurements include crosssections, forwardbackward asymmetries and polarised asymmetries. The mass and width of the Z boson, m(Z) and Gamma(Z), and its couplings to fermions, for example the p parameter and the effective electroweak mixing angle for leptons, are precisely measured: m(Z) = 91.1875 +/ 0.0021 GeV, Gamma(Z) = 2.4952 +/ 0.0023 GeV, rho(l) = 1.0050 +/ 0.0010, sin(2)theta(eff)(lept) = 0.23153 +/ 0.00016. The number of light neutrino species is determined to be 2.9840 +/ 0.0082, in agreement with the three observed generations of fundamental fermions. The results are compared to the predictions of the Standard Model (SM). At the Zpole, electroweak radiative corrections beyond the running of the QED and QCD coupling constants are observed with a significance of five standard deviations, and in agreement with the Standard Model. Of the many Zpole measurements, the forwardbackward asymmetry in bquark production shows the largest difference with respect to its SM expectation, at the level of 2.8 standard deviations. Through radiative corrections evaluated in the framework of the Standard Model, the Zpole data are also used to predict the mass of the top quark, m(t) = 173(+10)(+13) GeV, and the mass of the W boson, m(W) = 80.363 +/ 0.032 GeV. These indirect constraints are compared to the direct measurements, providing a stringent test of the SM. Using in addition the direct measurements of m(t) and m(W), the mass of the as yet unobserved SM Higgs boson is predicted with a relative uncertainty of about 50% and found to be less than 285 GeV at 95% confidence level. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


2. 
 Romanelli, F, et al.
(författare)

Overview of the JET results
 2011

Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion.  00295515. ; 51:9

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 Since the last IAEA Conference JET has been in operation for one year with a programmatic focus on the qualification of ITER operating scenarios, the consolidation of ITER design choices and preparation for plasma operation with the ITERlike wall presently being installed in JET. Good progress has been achieved, including stationary ELMy Hmode operation at 4.5 MA. The high confinement hybrid scenario has been extended to high triangularity, lower ρ*and to pulse lengths comparable to the resistive time. The steadystate scenario has also been extended to lower ρ*and ν*and optimized to simultaneously achieve, under stationary conditions, ITERlike values of all other relevant normalized parameters. A dedicated helium campaign has allowed key aspects of plasma control and Hmode operation for the ITER nonactivated phase to be evaluated. Effective sawtooth control by fast ions has been demonstrated with3He minority ICRH, a scenario with negligible minority current drive. Edge localized mode (ELM) control studies using external n = 1 and n = 2 perturbation fields have found a resonance effect in ELM frequency for specific q95values. Complete ELM suppression has, however, not been observed, even with an edge Chirikov parameter larger than 1. Pellet ELM pacing has been demonstrated and the minimum pellet size needed to trigger an ELM has been estimated. For both natural and mitigated ELMs a broadening of the divertor ELMwetted area with increasing ELM size has been found. In disruption studies with massive gas injection up to 50% of the thermal energy could be radiated before, and 20% during, the thermal quench. Halo currents could be reduced by 60% and, using argon/deuterium and neon/deuterium gas mixtures, runaway electron generation could be avoided. Most objectives of the ITERlike ICRH antenna have been demonstrated; matching with closely packed straps, ELM resilience, scattering matrix arc detection and operation at high power density (6.2 MW m2) and antenna strap voltages (42 kV). Coupling measurements are in very good agreement with TOPICA modelling. © 2011 IAEA, Vienna.


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5. 
 Tsilidis, Konstantinos K., et al.
(författare)

Genetically predicted circulating concentrations of micronutrients and risk of colorectal cancer among individuals of European descent : a Mendelian randomization study
 2021

Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  : Oxford University Press.  00029165 . 19383207. ; 113:6, s. 14901502

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 BACKGROUND: The literature on associations of circulating concentrations of minerals and vitamins with risk of colorectal cancer is limited and inconsistent. Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to support the efficacy of dietary modification or nutrient supplementation for colorectal cancer prevention is also limited.OBJECTIVES: To complement observational and RCT findings, we investigated associations of genetically predicted concentrations of 11 micronutrients (βcarotene, calcium, copper, folate, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and zinc) with colorectal cancer risk using Mendelian randomization (MR). METHODS: Twosample MR was conducted using 58,221 individuals with colorectal cancer and 67,694 controls from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry. Inverse varianceweighted MR analyses were performed with sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of potential violations of MR assumptions.RESULTS: Nominally significant associations were noted for genetically predicted iron concentration and higher risk of colon cancer [ORs per SD (ORSD): 1.08; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.17; P value = 0.05] and similarly for proximal colon cancer, and for vitamin B12 concentration and higher risk of colorectal cancer (ORSD: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21; P value = 0.01) and similarly for colon cancer. A nominally significant association was also noted for genetically predicted selenium concentration and lower risk of colon cancer (ORSD: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.00; P value = 0.05) and similarly for distal colon cancer. These associations were robust to sensitivity analyses. Nominally significant inverse associations were observed for zinc and risk of colorectal and distal colon cancers, but sensitivity analyses could not be performed. None of these findings survived correction for multiple testing. Genetically predicted concentrations of βcarotene, calcium, copper, folate, magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamin B6 were not associated with disease risk.CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest possible causal associations of circulating iron and vitamin B12 (positively) and selenium (inversely) with risk of colon cancer.


6. 

 2018

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)


7. 
 Dajti, I, et al.
(författare)

 2021

swepub:Mat__t


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9. 
 Dahal, Prabin, et al.
(författare)

Competing risk events in antimalarial drug trials in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria : a WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network individual participant data metaanalysis
 2019

Ingår i: Malaria Journal.  : BMC.  14752875 . 14752875. ; 18

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 Background: Therapeutic efficacy studies in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria are confounded by new infections, which constitute competing risk events since they can potentially preclude/preempt the detection of subsequent recrudescence of persistent, submicroscopic primary infections.Methods: Antimalarial studies typically report the risk of recrudescence derived using the KaplanMeier (KM) method, which considers new infections acquired during the followup period as censored. Cumulative Incidence Function (CIF) provides an alternative approach for handling new infections, which accounts for them as a competing risk event. The complement of the estimate derived using the KM method (1 minus KM), and the CIF were used to derive the risk of recrudescence at the end of the followup period using data from studies collated in the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network data repository. Absolute differences in the failure estimates derived using these two methods were quantified. In comparative studies, the equality of two KM curves was assessed using the logrank test, and the equality of CIFs using Gray's ksample test (both at 5% level of significance). Two different regression modelling strategies for recrudescence were considered: causespecific Cox model and Fine and Gray's subdistributional hazard model.Results: Data were available from 92 studies (233 treatment arms, 31,379 patients) conducted between 1996 and 2014. At the end of followup, the median absolute overestimation in the estimated risk of cumulative recrudescence by using 1 minus KM approach was 0.04% (interquartile range (IQR): 0.000.27%, Range: 0.003.60%). The overestimation was correlated positively with the proportion of patients with recrudescence [Pearson's correlation coefficient (rho): 0.38, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.300.46] or new infection [rho: 0.43; 95% CI 0.350.54]. In three study arms, the point estimates of failure were greater than 10% (the WHO threshold for withdrawing antimalarials) when the KM method was used, but remained below 10% when using the CIF approach, but the 95% confidence interval included this threshold.Conclusions: The 1 minus KM method resulted in a marginal overestimation of recrudescence that became increasingly pronounced as antimalarial efficacy declined, particularly when the observed proportion of new infection was high. The CIF approach provides an alternative approach for derivation of failure estimates in antimalarial trials, particularly in high transmission settings.


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