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Sökning: WFRF:(Huttunen T)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 21
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  • Saliba-Gustafsson, P., et al. (författare)
  • Subclinical atherosclerosis and its progression are modulated by PLIN2 through a feed-forward loop between LXR and autophagy
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 286:6, s. 660-675
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Hyperlipidaemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of both myocardial infarction and stroke. We have previously shown that the Pro251 variant of perilipin-2 reduces plasma triglycerides and may therefore be beneficial to reduce atherosclerosis development. Objective We sought to delineate putative beneficial effects of the Pro251 variant of perlipin-2 on subclinical atherosclerosis and the mechanism by which it acts. Methods A pan-European cohort of high-risk individuals where carotid intima-media thickness has been assessed was adopted. Human primary monocyte-derived macrophages were prepared from whole blood from individuals recruited by perilipin-2 genotype or from buffy coats from the Karolinska University hospital blood central. Results The Pro251 variant of perilipin-2 is associated with decreased intima-media thickness at baseline and over 30 months of follow-up. Using human primary monocyte-derived macrophages from carriers of the beneficial Pro251 variant, we show that this variant increases autophagy activity, cholesterol efflux and a controlled inflammatory response. Through extensive mechanistic studies, we demonstrate that increase in autophagy activity is accompanied with an increase in liver-X-receptor (LXR) activity and that LXR and autophagy reciprocally activate each other in a feed-forward loop, regulated by CYP27A1 and 27OH-cholesterol. Conclusions For the first time, we show that perilipin-2 affects susceptibility to human atherosclerosis through activation of autophagy and stimulation of cholesterol efflux. We demonstrate that perilipin-2 modulates levels of the LXR ligand 27OH-cholesterol and initiates a feed-forward loop where LXR and autophagy reciprocally activate each other; the mechanism by which perilipin-2 exerts its beneficial effects on subclinical atherosclerosis.
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  • Joensuu, Heikki, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of Adjuvant Trastuzumab for a Duration of 9 Weeks vs 1 Year With Concomitant Chemotherapy for Early Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Breast Cancer The SOLD Randomized Clinical Trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JAMA Oncology. - : AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 2374-2437 .- 2374-2445. ; 4:9, s. 1199-1206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: Trastuzumab plus chemotherapy is the standard adjuvant treatment for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive early breast cancer. While the standard duration of trastuzumab treatment is 12 months, the benefits and harms of trastuzumab continued beyond the chemotherapy are unclear.Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjuvant trastuzumab continued beyond chemotherapy in women treated with up-front chemotherapy containing a taxane and trastuzumab.Design, Setting, and Participants: Open-label, randomized (1:1) clinical trial including women with HER2-positive breast cancer. Chemotherapy was identical in the 2 groups, consisting of 3 cycles of 3-weekly docetaxel (either 80 or 100 mg/m2) plus trastuzumab for 9 weeks, followed by 3 cycles of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide. Thereafter, no trastuzumab was administered in the 9-week group, whereas controls received trastuzumab to complete 1 year of administration. Disease-free survival (DFS) was compared between the groups using a Cox model and the noninferiority approach. The estimated sample size was 2168 patients (1-sided testing, with a relative noninferiority margin of 1.3). From January 3, 2008, to December 16, 2014, 2176 patients were accrued from 7 countries.Intervention: Docetaxel plus trastuzumab for 9 weeks, followed by 3 cycles of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide in both groups. Controls continued trastuzumab to 1 year.Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary objective was DFS; secondary objectives included distant disease–free survival, overall survival, cardiac DFS, and safety.Results: In the 2174 women analyzed, median age was 56 (interquartile range [IQR], 48-64) years. The median follow-up was 5.2 (IQR, 3.8-6.7) years. Noninferiority of the 9-week treatment could not be demonstrated for DFS (hazard ratio, 1.39; 2-sided 90% CI, 1.12-1.72). Distant disease–free survival and overall survival did not differ substantially between the groups. Thirty-six (3%) and 21 (2%) patients in the 1-year and the 9-week groups, respectively, had cardiac failure; the left ventricle ejection fraction was better maintained in the 9-week group. An interaction was detected between the docetaxel dose and DFS; patients in the 9-week group treated with 80 mg/m2 had inferior and those treated with 100 mg/m2 had similar DFS as patients in the 1-year group.Conclusions and Relevance: Nine weeks of trastuzumab was not noninferior to 1 year of trastuzumab when given with similar chemotherapy. Cardiac safety was better in the 9-week group. The docetaxel dosing with trastuzumab requires further study.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00593697
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  • Oresic, Matej, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • Phospholipids and insulin resistance in psychosis : A lipidomics study of twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Genome Medicine. - : BioMed Central. - 1756-994X .- 1756-994X. ; 4:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Several theories have been proposed to conceptualize the pathological processes inherent to schizophrenia. The 'prostaglandin deficiency' hypothesis postulates that defective enzyme systems converting essential fatty acids to prostaglandins lead to diminished levels of prostaglandins, which in turn affect synaptic transmission.Methods: Here we sought to determine the lipidomic profiles associated with schizophrenia in twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia as well as unaffected twin pairs. The study included serum samples from 19 twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia (mean age 51 +/- 10 years; 7 monozygotic pairs; 13 female pairs) and 34 age and gender matched healthy twins as controls. Neurocognitive assessment data and gray matter density measurements taken from high-resolution magnetic resonance images were also obtained. A lipidomics platform using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied for the analysis of serum samples.Results: In comparison to their healthy co-twins, the patients had elevated triglycerides and were more insulin resistant. They had diminished lysophosphatidylcholine levels, which associated with decreased cognitive speed.Conclusions: Our findings may be of pathophysiological relevance since lysophosphatidylcholines, byproducts of phospholipase A2-catalyzed phospholipid hydrolysis, are preferred carriers of polyunsaturated fatty acids across the blood-brain barrier. Furthermore, diminishment of lysophosphatidylcholines suggests that subjects at risk of schizophrenia may be more susceptible to infections. Their association with cognitive speed supports the view that altered neurotransmission in schizophrenia may be in part mediated by reactive lipids such as prostaglandins.
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  • Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa, et al. (författare)
  • Docetaxel Versus Surveillance After Radical Radiotherapy for Intermediate- or High-risk Prostate Cancer-Results from the Prospective, Randomised, Open-label Phase III SPCG-13 Trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - : Elsevier. - 0302-2838 .- 1873-7560. ; 76:6, s. 823-830
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Docetaxel combined with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has improved patient survival for advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Objective: This randomised trial aimed to evaluate whether six courses of docetaxel improved biochemical disease-free survival (BDFS) after radical radiotherapy (RT) for intermediate- or high-risk PCa patients. Design, setting, and participants: A total of 376 patients were randomised in this multinational phase III study, and received either six cycles of adjuvant docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) every 3 wk without continuous prednisone (arm A, n =188) or surveillance (arm B, n = 188) after RT (NTC006653848). Neoadjuvant/adjuvant ADT was mandatory for all the patients. The primary endpoint was rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >= 2 ng/ml above the nadir PSA value. Intermediate- or high-risk PCa was defined as T2 with a Gleason score (GS) of 4 +3, PSA > 10; T2, GS 8-10, <= 70 ng/ml; or any T3. The patients were followed for 5 yr by assessing PSA levels every 3 mo for 2 yr and every 6 mo thereafter. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The study power was 89% to detect a difference in BDFS between groups, and the sample size calculation accounted for the T2/T3 distribution, where a 12%/15% difference in BDFS was assumed for the T2/T3 patients. Results and limitations: All six cycles were completed in 147 (78%) of the patients in arm A. The median age was 67 yr in both treatment groups, 75% had T3 disease, and 47% had GS 8-10. The median follow-up was 59 mo (range 1-111 mo). The primary endpoint was observed for 58 patients in arm A (docetaxel) and for 57 patients in arm B (surveillance). The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed no difference in the BDFS curves (p = 0.6) between the treatment groups. The 5-yr estimated biochemical progression rates were 31% for arm A and 28% for arm B. Febrile neutropenia occurred in 16% of the docetaxel patients.No deaths were related to the docetaxel treatment. There were 43 deaths during the trial, including 20 in arm A and 23 in arm B, of which nine and seven, respectively, were due to PCa. The hazard ratio from Cox multivariate analysis for PSA progression of arm A (docetaxel) versus arm B (surveillance) was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 0.79-1.64, p = 0.5). Conclusions: Adjuvant docetaxel without prednisone did not improve BDFS after radical RT with ADT for intermediate- or high-risk PCa. Patient summary: We compared six cycles of adjuvant docetaxel given after radical external radiotherapy plus androgen deprivation therapy to surveillance in intermediate- and high-risk localised prostate cancer. We found no overall benefit in this setting. (C) 2019 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • Barker, Roger A., et al. (författare)
  • GDNF and Parkinson's Disease : Where Next? A Summary from a Recent Workshop
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Parkinson's Disease. - : IOS Press. - 1877-7171. ; 10:3, s. 875-891
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The concept of repairing the brain with growth factors has been pursued for many years in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including primarily Parkinson's disease (PD) using glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). This neurotrophic factor was discovered in 1993 and shown to have selective effects on promoting survival and regeneration of certain populations of neurons including the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway. These observations led to a series of clinical trials in PD patients including using infusions or gene delivery of GDNF or the related growth factor, neurturin (NRTN). Initial studies, some of which were open label, suggested that this approach could be of value in PD when the agent was injected into the putamen rather than the cerebral ventricles. In subsequent double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, the most recent reporting in 2019, treatment with GDNF did not achieve its primary end point. As a result, there has been uncertainty as to whether GDNF (and by extrapolation, related GDNF family neurotrophic factors) has merit in the future treatment of PD. To critically appraise the existing work and its future, a special workshop was held to discuss and debate this issue. This paper is a summary of that meeting with recommendations on whether there is a future for this therapeutic approach and also what any future PD trial involving GDNF and other GDNF family neurotrophic factors should consider in its design.
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  • Huttunen, Roope J., et al. (författare)
  • Quantitative detection of cell surface protein expression by time-resolved fluorimetry
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Luminescence. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1522-7243. ; 22:3, s. 163-170
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A method is introduced for quantitative detection of cell surface protein expression. The method is based on immunocytochemistry, the use of long decay time europium(III) chelate and platinum(II) porphyrin labels, and detection of photoluminescence emission from adhered cells by time-resolved fluorimetry. After immunocytochemistry, the assay wells are evaporated to dryness and measured in the dry state. This protocol allows repeated and postponed analysis and microscopy imaging. In order to investigate the performance of the method, we chose expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) of endothelial cell line EAhy926 as a research target. The expression of ICAM-1 on the cells was enhanced by introduction of a cytokine, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha). The method gave signal: background ratios (S:B) of 20 and 9 for europium and platinum labels, respectively, whereas prompt fluorescent FITC label gave a S:13 of 3. Screening window coefficients (=Z'-factor) were >0.5 for all the three labels, thus indicating a score for an excellent screening assay. In conclusion, the method appears to be an appropriate choice for protein expression analysis, both in high-throughput screening applications, and for detailed sample investigation by fluorescent microscopy imaging. Copyright (C) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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