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Sökning: WFRF:(Ing A)

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1.
  • Schwarz, Emanuel, et al. (författare)
  • Reproducible grey matter patterns index a multivariate, global alteration of brain structure in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry. - : Springer Nature. - 2158-3188 .- 2158-3188. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by numerous subtle changes in brain structure and function. Machine learning allows exploring the utility of combining structural and functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures for diagnostic application, but this approach has been hampered by sample size limitations and lack of differential diagnostic data. Here, we performed a multi-site machine learning analysis to explore brain structural patterns of T1 MRI data in 2668 individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and healthy controls. We found reproducible changes of structural parameters in schizophrenia that yielded a classification accuracy of up to 76% and provided discrimination from ADHD, through it lacked specificity against bipolar disorder. The observed changes largely indexed distributed grey matter alterations that could be represented through a combination of several global brain-structural parameters. This multi-site machine learning study identified a brain-structural signature that could reproducibly differentiate schizophrenia patients from controls, but lacked specificity against bipolar disorder. While this currently limits the clinical utility of the identified signature, the present study highlights that the underlying alterations index substantial global grey matter changes in psychotic disorders, reflecting the biological similarity of these conditions, and provide a roadmap for future exploration of brain structural alterations in psychiatric patients.
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2.
  • Westberg, H., et al. (författare)
  • Inflammatory and coagulatory markers and exposure to different size fractions of particle mass, number and surface area air concentrations in Swedish iron foundries, in particular respirable quartz
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. - : Springer Berlin/Heidelberg. - 0340-0131 .- 1432-1246. ; 92:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To study the relationship between inhalation of airborne particles and quartz in Swedish iron foundries and markers of inflammation and coagulation in blood. Methods: Personal sampling of respirable dust and quartz was performed for 85 subjects in three Swedish iron foundries. Stationary measurements were used to study the concentrations of respirable dust and quartz, inhalable and total dust, PM10 and PM2.5, as well as the particle surface area and the particle number concentrations. Markers of inflammation, namely interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12), C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid A (SAA) were measured in plasma or serum, together with markers of coagulation including fibrinogen, factor VIII (FVIII), von Willebrand factor and d-dimer. Complete sampling was performed on the second or third day of a working week after a work-free weekend, and follow-up samples were collected 2 days later. A mixed model analysis was performed including sex, age, smoking, infections, blood group, sampling day and BMI as covariates. Results: The average 8-h time-weighted average air concentrations of respirable dust and quartz were 0.85 mg/m3 and 0.052 mg/m3, respectively. Participants in high-exposure groups with respect to some of the measured particle types exhibited significantly elevated levels of SAA, fibrinogen and FVIII. Conclusions: These observed relationships between particle exposure and inflammatory markers may indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease among foundry workers with high particulate exposure. © 2019, The Author(s).
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3.
  • Huis in 't Veld, Rianne MHA, et al. (författare)
  • A scenario guideline for designing new teletreatments : a multidisciplinary approach
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare. - : The Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd. - 1357-633X .- 1758-1109. ; 16:6, s. 302-307
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lack of user acceptance of telemedicine services is an important barrier to deployment and stresses the need for involving users, i.e. medical professionals. However, the involvement of users in the service development process of telemedicine services is difficult because of (a) the knowledge gap between the expertise of medical and technical experts; (b) the language gap, i.e. the use of different terminologies between the medical and the technical professions; and (c) the methodological gap in applying requirement methods to multidisciplinary scientific matters. We have developed a guideline in which the medical and technical domains meet. The guideline can be used to develop a scenario from which requirements can be elicited. In a retrospective analysis of a myofeedback-based teletreatment service, the technically-oriented People-Activities-Context-Technology (PACT) framework and medically-oriented principles of evidence-based medicine were incorporated into a guideline. The guideline was developed to construct the content of a scenario which describes the new teletreatment service. This allows the different stakeholders to come together and develop the service. Our approach provides an arena for different stakeholders to take part in the early stages of the design process. This should increase the chance of user acceptance and thus adoption of the service being developed.
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4.
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5.
  • Andersson, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Respiratory Health and Inflammatory Markers-Exposure to Cobalt in the Swedish Hard Metal Industry.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of occupational and environmental medicine. - 1536-5948. ; 62:10, s. 820-829
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To study the relationship between inhalable dust and cobalt, and respiratory symptoms, lung function, exhaled nitric oxide in expired air, and CC16 in the Swedish hard metal industry.Personal sampling of inhalable dust and cobalt, and medical examination including blood sampling was performed for 72 workers. Exposure-response relationships were determined using logistic, linear, and mixed-model analysis.The average inhalable dust and cobalt concentrations were 0.079 and 0.0017 mg/m, respectively. Statistically significant increased serum levels of CC16 were determined when the high and low cumulative exposures for cobalt were compared. Nonsignificant exposure-response relationships were observed between cross-shift inhalable dust or cobalt exposures and asthma, nose dripping, and bronchitis.Our findings suggest an exposure-response relationship between inhalable cumulative cobalt exposure and CC16 levels in blood, which may reflect an injury or a reparation process in the lungs.
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6.
  • Milton, A, et al. (författare)
  • Development of an ICU discharge instrument predicting psychological morbidity : a multinational study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Intensive Care Medicine. - : Springer. - 0342-4642 .- 1432-1238. ; 44:12, s. 2038-2047
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To develop an instrument for use at ICU discharge for prediction of psychological problems in ICU survivors.METHODS: Multinational, prospective cohort study in ten general ICUs in secondary and tertiary care hospitals in Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands. Adult patients with an ICU stay ≥ 12 h were eligible for inclusion. Patients in need of neurointensive care, with documented cognitive impairment, unable to communicate in the local language, without a home address or with more than one limitation of therapy were excluded. Primary outcome was psychological morbidity 3 months after ICU discharge, defined as Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) subscale score ≥ 11 or Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms Checklist-14 (PTSS-14) part B score > 45.RESULTS: A total of 572 patients were included and 78% of patients alive at follow-up responded to questionnaires. Twenty percent were classified as having psychological problems post-ICU. Of 18 potential risk factors, four were included in the final prediction model after multivariable logistic regression analysis: symptoms of depression [odds ratio (OR) 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.50], traumatic memories (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.13-1.82), lack of social support (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.47-7.32) and age (age-dependent OR, peak risk at age 49-65 years). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) for the instrument was 0.76 (95% CI 0.70-0.81).CONCLUSIONS: We developed an instrument to predict individual patients' risk for psychological problems 3 months post-ICU, http://www.imm.ki.se/biostatistics/calculators/psychmorb/ . The instrument can be used for triage of patients for psychological ICU follow-up.TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02679157.
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7.
  • Calander, Ann-Marie, 1957, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of staphylococcal protease expression on the outcome of infectious arthritis
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Microbes Infect. - 1286-4579. ; 6:2, s. 202-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The exoproteases of Staphylococcus aureus have been proposed as virulence factors during S. aureus infections. To investigate this, we used the wild-type S. aureus strain 8325-4 and its mutants devoid of aureolysin, serine protease, and cysteine protease, respectively, in a well-established model of septic arthritis in mice. The inactivation of the exoprotease genes did not affect the frequency or the severity of joint disease. We conclude that in the model of haematogenously spread staphylococcal arthritis, the bacterial proteases studied do not act as virulence factors.
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8.
  • Hongxing, L., et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in Chinese adolescents compared to an age-matched Swedish population.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0305-182X .- 1365-2842. ; 43:4, s. 241-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17,015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample.
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9.
  • in''t Veld, Rianne M. H. A. Huis, et al. (författare)
  • A scenario guideline for designing new teletreatments: a multidisciplinary approach
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: JOURNAL OF TELEMEDICINE AND TELECARE. - 1357-633X. ; 16:6, s. 302-307
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lack of user acceptance of telemedicine services is an important barrier to deployment and stresses the need for involving users, i.e. medical professionals. However, the involvement of users in the service development process of telemedicine services is difficult because of (a) the knowledge gap between the expertise of medical and technical experts; (b) the language gap, i.e. the use of different terminologies between the medical and the technical professions; and (c) the methodological gap in applying requirement methods to multidisciplinary scientific matters. We have developed a guideline in which the medical and technical domains meet. The guideline can be used to develop a scenario from which requirements can be elicited. In a retrospective analysis of a myofeedback-based teletreatment service, the technically-oriented People-Activities-Context-Technology (PACT) framework and medically-oriented principles of evidence-based medicine were incorporated into a guideline. The guideline was developed to construct the content of a scenario which describes the new teletreatment service. This allows the different stakeholders to come together and develop the service. Our approach provides an arena for different stakeholders to take part in the early stages of the design process. This should increase the chance of user acceptance and thus adoption of the service being developed.
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10.
  • Tay, Nicole, et al. (författare)
  • Allele-Specific Methylation of SPDEF : A Novel Moderator of Psychosocial Stress and Substance Abuse
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Psychiatry. - : AMER PSYCHIATRIC PUBLISHING, INC. - 0002-953X .- 1535-7228. ; 176:2, s. 146-155
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Psychosocial stress is a key risk factor for substance abuse among adolescents. Recently, epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation have emerged as potential mechanisms that could mediate this relationship. The authors conducted a genome-wide methylation analysis to investigate whether differentially methylated regions are associated with psychosocial stress in an adolescent population.Methods: A methylome-wide analysis of differentially methylated regions was used to examine a sample of 1,287 14-year-old adolescents (50.7% of them female) from the European IMAGEN study. The Illumina 450k array was used to assess DNA methylation, pyrosequencing was used for technical replication, and linear regression analyses were used to identify associations with psychosocial stress and substance use (alcohol and tobacco). Findings were replicated by pyrosequencing a test sample of 413 participants from the IMAGEN study.Results: Hypermethylation in the sterile alpha motif/pointed domain containing the ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) gene locus was associated with a greater number of stressful life events in an allele-dependent way. Among individuals with the minor G-allele, SPDEF methylation moderated the association between psychosocial stress and substance abuse. SPDEF methylation interacted with lifetime stress in gray matter volume in the right cuneus, which in turn was associated with the frequency of alcohol and tobacco use. SPDEF was involved in the regulation of trans-genes linked to substance use.Conclusions: Taken together, the study findings describe a novel epigenetic mechanism that helps explain how psychosocial stress exposure influences adolescent substance abuse.
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