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Sökning: WFRF:(Iso Hiroyasu)

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1.
  • Kaptoge, S., et al. (författare)
  • C-Reactive Protein, Fibrinogen, and Cardiovascular Disease Prediction
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 367:14, s. 1310-1320
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background There is debate about the value of assessing levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and other biomarkers of inflammation for the prediction of first cardiovascular events. Methods We analyzed data from 52 prospective studies that included 246,669 participants without a history of cardiovascular disease to investigate the value of adding CRP or fibrinogen levels to conventional risk factors for the prediction of cardiovascular risk. We calculated measures of discrimination and reclassification during follow-up and modeled the clinical implications of initiation of statin therapy after the assessment of CRP or fibrinogen. Results The addition of information on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a prognostic model for cardiovascular disease that included age, sex, smoking status, blood pressure, history of diabetes, and total cholesterol level increased the C-index, a measure of risk discrimination, by 0.0050. The further addition to this model of information on CRP or fibrinogen increased the C-index by 0.0039 and 0.0027, respectively (P < 0.001), and yielded a net reclassification improvement of 1.52% and 0.83%, respectively, for the predicted 10-year risk categories of "low" (< 10%), " intermediate" (10% to < 20%), and "high" (>= 20%) (P < 0.02 for both comparisons). We estimated that among 100,000 adults 40 years of age or older, 15,025 persons would initially be classified as being at intermediate risk for a cardiovascular event if conventional risk factors alone were used to calculate risk. Assuming that statin therapy would be initiated in accordance with Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines (i.e., for persons with a predicted risk of >= 20% and for those with certain other risk factors, such as diabetes, irrespective of their 10-year predicted risk), additional targeted assessment of CRP or fibrinogen levels in the 13,199 remaining participants at intermediate risk could help prevent approximately 30 additional cardiovascular events over the course of 10 years. Conclusions In a study of people without known cardiovascular disease, we estimated that under current treatment guidelines, assessment of the CRP or fibrinogen level in people at intermediate risk for a cardiovascular event could help prevent one additional event over a period of 10 years for every 400 to 500 people screened. (Funded by the British Heart Foundation and others.)
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2.
  • Di Angelantonio, E., et al. (författare)
  • Association of Cardiometabolic Multimorbidity With Mortality
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: JAMA. - : American Medical Association. - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 314:1, s. 52-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE: The prevalence of cardiometabolic multimorbidity is increasing. OBJECTIVE: To estimate reductions in life expectancy associated with cardiometabolic multimorbidity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Age- and sex-adjusted mortality rates and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using individual participant data from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (689,300 participants; 91 cohorts; years of baseline surveys: 1960-2007; latest mortality follow-up: April 2013; 128,843 deaths). The HRs from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration were compared with those from the UK Biobank (499,808 participants; years of baseline surveys: 2006-2010; latest mortality follow-up: November 2013; 7995 deaths). Cumulative survival was estimated by applying calculated age-specific HRs for mortality to contemporary US age-specific death rates. EXPOSURES: A history of 2 or more of the following: diabetes mellitus, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: All-cause mortality and estimated reductions in life expectancy. RESULTS: In participants in the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration without a history of diabetes, stroke, or MI at baseline (reference group), the all-cause mortality rate adjusted to the age of 60 years was 6.8 per 1000 person-years. Mortality rates per 1000 person-years were 15.6 in participants with a history of diabetes, 16.1 in those with stroke, 16.8 in those with MI, 32.0 in those with both diabetes and MI, 32.5 in those with both diabetes and stroke, 32.8 in those with both stroke and MI, and 59.5 in those with diabetes, stroke, and MI. Compared with the reference group, the HRs for all-cause mortality were 1.9 (95% CI, 1.8-2.0) in participants with a history of diabetes, 2.1 (95% CI, 2.0-2.2) in those with stroke, 2.0 (95% CI, 1.9-2.2) in those with MI, 3.7 (95% CI, 3.3-4.1) in those with both diabetes and MI, 3.8 (95% CI, 3.5-4.2) in those with both diabetes and stroke, 3.5 (95% CI, 3.1-4.0) in those with both stroke and MI, and 6.9 (95% CI, 5.7-8.3) in those with diabetes, stroke, and MI. The HRs from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration were similar to those from the more recently recruited UK Biobank. The HRs were little changed after further adjustment for markers of established intermediate pathways (eg, levels of lipids and blood pressure) and lifestyle factors (eg, smoking, diet). At the age of 60 years, a history of any 2 of these conditions was associated with 12 years of reduced life expectancy and a history of all 3 of these conditions was associated with 15 years of reduced life expectancy. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Mortality associated with a history of diabetes, stroke, or MI was similar for each condition. Because any combination of these conditions was associated with multiplicative mortality risk, life expectancy was substantially lower in people with multimorbidity.
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3.
  • Gregson, J., et al. (författare)
  • Cardiovascular Risk Factors Associated With Venous Thromboembolism
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JAMA Cardiology. - : AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 0965-2590 .- 2380-6583 .- 2380-6591. ; 4:2, s. 163-173
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE It is uncertain to what extent established cardiovascular risk factors are associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). OBJECTIVE To estimate the associations of major cardiovascular risk factors with VTE, ie, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This study included individual participant data mostly from essentially population-based cohort studies from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (ERFC; 731728 participants; 75 cohorts; years of baseline surveys, February 1960 to June 2008; latest date of follow-up, December 2015) and the UK Biobank (421537 participants; years of baseline surveys, March 2006 to September 2010; latest date of follow-up, February 2016). Participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline were included. Data were analyzed from June 2017 to September 2018. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Hazard ratios (HRs) per 1-SD higher usual risk factor levels (or presence/absence). Incident fatal outcomes in ERFC (VTE, 1041; coronary heart disease [CND], 25131) and incident fatal/nonfatal outcomes in UK Biobank (VTE, 2321; CHD, 3385). Hazard ratios were adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, diabetes, and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS Of the 731728 participants from the ERFC. 403 396 (55.1%) were female, and the mean (SD) age at the time of the survey was 51.9 (9.0) years; of the 421537 participants from the UK Biobank, 233 699 (55.4%) were female, and the mean (SD) age at the time of the survey was 56.4 (8.1) years. Risk factors for VTE included older age (ERFC: HR per decade, 2.67; 95% CI, 2.45-2.91; UK Biobank: HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.71-1.92), current smoking (ERFC: HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.20-1.58; UK Biobank: HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.08-1.40), and BMI (ERFC: HR per 1-SD higher BMI, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.35-1.50; UK Biobank: HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.32-1.41). For these factors, there were similar HRs for pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in UK Biobank (except adiposity was more strongly associated with pulmonary embolism) and similar HRs for unprovoked vs provoked VTE. Apart from adiposity, these risk factors were less strongly associated with VTE than CHD. There were inconsistent associations of VTEs with diabetes and blood pressure across ERFC and UK Biobank, and there was limited ability to study lipid and inflammation markers. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Older age, smoking, and adiposity were consistently associated with higher VTE risk.
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4.
  • Longinetti, Elisa, et al. (författare)
  • Heart rate, intelligence in adolescence, and Parkinson's disease later in life
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - : Springer. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To investigate whether physical and cognitive fitness measured in late adolescence was associated with future risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). The cohort included 1,259,485 Swedish men with physical fitness, body mass index (BMI), resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, intelligence quotient (IQ), and stress resilience measured at the age of 17-20 in relation to conscription. Incident cases of PD were ascertained from the Swedish Patient Register. Hazard ratios were estimated from Cox models, after controlling for multiple confounders. We further performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to assess the causality of the associations, using GWAS summary statistics with > 800,000 individuals. During follow-up, we identified 1,034 cases of PD (mean age at diagnosis = 53). Men with an RHR > 100 beats per minute had a higher risk of PD compared to men with an RHR of 60-100 beats per minute (HR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.08-1.99). Men with IQ above the highest tertile had a higher risk of PD compared to men with an IQ below the lowest tertile (HR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.19-1.79). We found no association for physical fitness, BMI, blood pressure, or stress resilience. A causal relationship was suggested by the MR analysis between IQ and PD, but not between RHR and PD. RHR and IQ in late adolescence were associated with a higher risk of PD diagnosed at relatively young age. The association of IQ with PD is likely causal, whereas the association of RHR with PD suggests that altered cardiac autonomic function might start before 20 years of age in PD.
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6.
  • Wormser, David, et al. (författare)
  • Adult height and the risk of cause-specific death and vascular morbidity in 1 million people : individual participant meta-analysis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 41:5, s. 1419-1433
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundThe extent to which adult height, a biomarker of the interplay of genetic endowment and early-life experiences, is related to risk of chronic diseases in adulthood is uncertain.MethodsWe calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for height, assessed in increments of 6.5 cm, using individual-participant data on 174 374 deaths or major non-fatal vascular outcomes recorded among 1 085 949 people in 121 prospective studies.ResultsFor people born between 1900 and 1960, mean adult height increased 0.5-1 cm with each successive decade of birth. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking and year of birth, HRs per 6.5 cm greater height were 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.96-0.99) for death from any cause, 0.94 (0.93-0.96) for death from vascular causes, 1.04 (1.03-1.06) for death from cancer and 0.92 (0.90-0.94) for death from other causes. Height was negatively associated with death from coronary disease, stroke subtypes, heart failure, stomach and oral cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mental disorders, liver disease and external causes. In contrast, height was positively associated with death from ruptured aortic aneurysm, pulmonary embolism, melanoma and cancers of the pancreas, endocrine and nervous systems, ovary, breast, prostate, colorectum, blood and lung. HRs per 6.5 cm greater height ranged from 1.26 (1.12-1.42) for risk of melanoma death to 0.84 (0.80-0.89) for risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. HRs were not appreciably altered after further adjustment for adiposity, blood pressure, lipids, inflammation biomarkers, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption or socio-economic indicators.ConclusionAdult height has directionally opposing relationships with risk of death from several different major causes of chronic diseases.
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7.
  • Brunner, Eric J., et al. (författare)
  • Appetite disinhibition rather than hunger explains genetic effects on adult BMI trajectory
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0307-0565 .- 1476-5497. ; 45, s. 758-765
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The mediating role of eating behaviors in genetic susceptibility to weight gain during mid-adult life is not fully understood. This longitudinal study aims to help us understand contributions of genetic susceptibility and appetite to weight gain.SUBJECTS/METHODS: We followed the body-mass index (BMI) trajectories of 2464 adults from 45 to 65 years of age by measuring weight and height on four occasions at 5-year intervals. Genetic risk of obesity (gene risk score: GRS) was ascertained, comprising 92 BMI-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms and split at a median (=high and low risk). At the baseline, the Eating Inventory was used to assess appetite-related traits of 'disinhibition', indicative of opportunistic eating or overeating and 'hunger' which is susceptibility to/ability to cope with the sensation of hunger. Roles of the GRS and two appetite-related scores for BMI trajectories were examined using a mixed model adjusted for the cohort effect and sex.RESULTS: Disinhibition was associated with higher BMI (beta = 2.96; 95% CI: 2.66-3.25 kg/m(2)), and accounted for 34% of the genetically-linked BMI difference at age 45. Hunger was also associated with higher BMI (beta = 1.20; 0.82-1.59 kg/m(2)) during mid-life and slightly steeper weight gain, but did not attenuate the effect of disinhibition. CONCLUSIONS: Appetite disinhibition is most likely to be a defining characteristic of genetic susceptibility to obesity. High levels of appetite disinhibition, rather than hunger, may underlie genetic vulnerability to obesogenic environments in two-thirds of the population of European ancestry.
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8.
  • Brunner, Eric, et al. (författare)
  • Social epidemiology and Eastern wisdom
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Epidemiology. - Fukuoka, Japan : Japan Epidemiological Association. - 0917-5040 .- 1349-9092. ; 22:4, s. 291-294
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Social epidemiology is the field of study that attempts to understand the social determinants of health and the dynamics between societal settings and health. In the past 3 decades, large-scale studies in the West have accumulated a range of measures and methodologies to pursue this goal. We would like to suggest that there may be conceptual gaps in the science if Western research models are applied uncritically in East Asian studies of socioeconomic, gender, and ethnic inequalities in health. On one hand, there are common concerns, including population aging and gendered labor market participation. Further, international comparison must be built on shared concepts such as socioeconomic stratification in market economies. On the other hand, some aspects of health, such as common mental disorders, may have culturally specific manifestations that require development of perspectives (and perhaps novel measures) in order to reveal Eastern specifics. Exploring and debating commonalities and differences in the determinants of health in Oriental and Occidental cultures could offer fresh inspiration and insight for the next phase of social epidemiology in both regions.
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9.
  • Lindberg, Gunnar, et al. (författare)
  • Serum sialic acid and its correlates in community samples from Akita, Japan and Minneapolis, USA
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 1464-3685. ; 26:1, s. 58-63
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The concentration of serum total sialic acid (S-TSA) is one recently investigated risk marker for cardiovascular mortality and atherosclerosis. Since the mortality from coronary heart disease is higher in the United States than in Japan, one could expect the S-TSA to be higher among Caucasian US citizens than among Japanese citizens, a hypothesis that is tested in this study. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of population-based samples of Japanese and US Caucasian men and women. SETTING: The rural community Akita, Japan, and the suburbs of Minneapolis, Minnesota. SUBJECTS: These were 75 consecutive men and women from Akita and Minneapolis respectively aged 47-69 years in 1990. People who had smoked cigarettes during the past 5 years; who had a history of diabetes mellitus, liver disease, coronary heart disease, or stroke; or who were taking anticoagulants were excluded. OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum total sialic acid levels in male and female Japanese and US Caucasian subjects with adjustment for age, systolic blood pressure, fibrinogen, triglycerides and in women also for menopausal status. Race and sex-specific correlations with serum total sialic acid for selected cardiovascular risk markers. RESULTS: The entire sialic acid distributions were shifted to the right in Caucasian men and women compared to Japanese men and women. The mean +/- standard deviation concentrations of S-TSA were 54.1 +/- 5.3 mg/dl in Japanese men and 58.7 +/- 5.6 mg/dl in Caucasian men (P < 0.001). In women, the concentrations were 54.8 +/- 5.1 and 63.1 +/- 6.0 mg/dl respectively (P < 0.001). S-TSA level correlated significantly and positively with fibrinogen levels in Caucasian and Japanese men and women and with triglyceride levels in Caucasian and Japanese men and in Caucasian women but not in Japanese women. After adjustment for age, systolic blood pressure, fibrinogen, triglycerides and menopausal status, the sialic acid levels were 2.2 (P = 0.009) and 6.2 (P < 0.001) mg/dl higher in Caucasian compared to Japanese men and women respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Higher S-TSA levels in Caucasians living in Minneapolis compared to Japanese living in Akita, Japan is in concordance with the higher cardiovascular mortality in the US. Differences in S-TSA levels may reflect international differences in the prevalence of atherosclerosis.
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10.
  • Paige, Ellie, et al. (författare)
  • Use of Repeated Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Measurements to Improve Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction : An Individual-Participant-Data Meta-Analysis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 186:8, s. 899-907
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The added value of incorporating information from repeated blood pressure and cholesterol measurements to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has not been rigorously assessed. We used data on 191,445 adults from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (38 cohorts from 17 countries with data encompassing 1962-2014) with more than 1 million measurements of systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Over a median 12 years of follow-up, 21,170 CVD events occurred. Risk prediction models using cumulative mean values of repeated measurements and summary measures from longitudinal modeling of the repeated measurements were compared with models using measurements from a single time point. Risk discrimination (C-index) and net reclassification were calculated, and changes in C-indices were meta-analyzed across studies. Compared with the single-time-point model, the cumulative means and longitudinal models increased the C-index by 0.0040 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0023, 0.0057) and 0.0023 (95% CI: 0.0005, 0.0042), respectively. Reclassification was also improved in both models; compared with the single-time-point model, overall net reclassification improvements were 0.0369 (95% CI: 0.0303, 0.0436) for the cumulative-means model and 0.0177 (95% CI: 0.0110, 0.0243) for the longitudinal model. In conclusion, incorporating repeated measurements of blood pressure and cholesterol into CVD risk prediction models slightly improves risk prediction.
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