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Sökning: WFRF:(Iversen Peter)

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1.
  • Kattge, Jens, et al. (författare)
  • TRY plant trait database - enhanced coverage and open access
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 26:1, s. 119-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plant traits-the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants-determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits-almost complete coverage for 'plant growth form'. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait-environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives.
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  • Bentham, James, et al. (författare)
  • A century of trends in adult human height
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: eLIFE. - 2050-084X. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.522.7) and 16.5 cm (13.319.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.
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  • Hedlund, P. O., et al. (författare)
  • Parenteral estrogen versus combined androgen deprivation in the treatment of metastatic prostatic cancer : Part 2. Final evaluation of the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group (SPCG) Study No. 5
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - 0036-5599 .- 1651-2065. ; 42:3, s. 220-229
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. To compare parenteral estrogen therapy in the form of high-dose polyestradiol phosphate (PEP, Estradurin®) with combined androgen deprivation (CAD) in the treatment of prostate cancer patients with skeletal metastases. The aim of the study was to compare anticancer efficacy and adverse events, especially cardiovascular events. Material and methods. In total, 910 eligible patients with T0-4, NX, M1, G1-3 prostate cancer with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 were randomized to treatment with either PEP 240mg i.m. twice a month for 2months and thereafter monthly, or flutamide (Eulexin®) 250mg t.i.d. per os in combination with either triptorelin (Decapeptyl®) 3.75mg i.m. per month or on an optional basis bilateral orchidectomy. Results. At this final evaluation of the trial 855 of the 910 patients were dead. There was no difference between the treatment groups in terms of biochemical or clinical progression-free survival or in overall or disease-specific survival. There was no difference in cardiovascular mortality, but a significant increase in non-fatal cardiovascular events in the PEP arm (p<0.05) predominantly caused by an increase in ischemic heart and heart decompensation events. There were 18 grave skeletal events in the CAD group but none in the PEP group (p=0.001). Conclusions. PEP has an anticancer efficacy equal to CAD and does not increase cardiovascular mortality in metastasized patients, but carries a significant risk of non-fatal cardiovascular events, which should be balanced against the skeletal complications in the CAD group. It is feasible to use Estradurin in the primary or secondary endocrine treatment of metastasized patients without prominent cardiac risk factors and especially those with osteoporosis. © 2008 Taylor & Francis.
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  • Hedlund, Per Olov, et al. (författare)
  • Significance of pretreatment cardiovascular morbidity as a risk factor during treatment with parenteral oestrogen or combined androgen deprivation of 915 patients with metastasized prostate cancer : Evaluation of cardiovascular events in a randomized trial
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - London : Taylor & Francis. - 0036-5599 .- 1651-2065. ; 45:5, s. 346-353
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. This study aimed to evaluate prognostic risk factors for cardiovascular events during treatment of metastatic prostate cancer patients with high-dose parenteral polyoestradiol phosphate (PEP, Estradurin (R)) or combined androgen deprivation (CAD) with special emphasis on pretreatment cardiovascular disease. Material and methods. Nine-hundred and fifteen patients with T0-4, Nx, M1, G1-3, hormone- naive prostate cancer were randomized to treatment with PEP 240 mg i.m. twice a month for 2 months and thereafter monthly, or to flutamide (Eulexin (R)) 250 mg per os three times daily in combination with either triptorelin (Decapeptyl (R)) 3.75 mg i.m. per month or on an optional basis with bilateral orchidectomy. Pretreatment cardiovascular morbidity was recorded and cardiovascular events during treatment were assessed by an experienced cardiologist. A multivariate analysis was done using logistic regression. Results. There was a significant increase in cardiovascular events during treatment with PEP in patients with previous ischaemic heart disease (p = 0.008), ischaemic cerebral disease (p = 0.002), intermittent claudication (p = 0.031) and especially when the whole group of patients with pretreatment cardiovascular diseases was analysed together (p < 0.001). In this group 33% of the patients had a cardiovascular event during PEP treatment. In the multivariate analysis PEP stood out as the most important risk factor for cardiac complications (p = 0.029). Even in the CAD group there was a significant increase in cardiovascular events in the group with all previous cardiovascular diseases taken together (p = 0.036). Conclusions. Patients with previous cardiovascular disease are at considerable risk of cardiovascular events during treatment with high-dose PEP and even during CAD therapy. Patients without pretreatment cardiovascular morbidity have a moderate cardiovascular risk during PEP treatment and could be considered for this treatment if the advantages of this therapy, e. g. avoidance of osteopenia and hot flushes and the low price, are given priority.
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  • Bjorkman, Anne D., et al. (författare)
  • Plant functional trait change across a warming tundra biome
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 562:7725, s. 57-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The tundra is warming more rapidly than any other biome on Earth, and the potential ramifications are far-reaching because of global feedback effects between vegetation and climate. A better understanding of how environmental factors shape plant structure and function is crucial for predicting the consequences of environmental change for ecosystem functioning. Here we explore the biome-wide relationships between temperature, moisture and seven key plant functional traits both across space and over three decades of warming at 117 tundra locations. Spatial temperature–trait relationships were generally strong but soil moisture had a marked influence on the strength and direction of these relationships, highlighting the potentially important influence of changes in water availability on future trait shifts in tundra plant communities. Community height increased with warming across all sites over the past three decades, but other traits lagged far behind predicted rates of change. Our findings highlight the challenge of using space-for-time substitution to predict the functional consequences of future warming and suggest that functions that are tied closely to plant height will experience the most rapid change. They also reveal the strength with which environmental factors shape biotic communities at the coldest extremes of the planet and will help to improve projections of functional changes in tundra ecosystems with climate warming.
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