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Sökning: WFRF:(Jögi Rain)

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1.
  • Accordini, S., et al. (författare)
  • A three-generation study on the association of tobacco smoking with asthma
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 47:4, s. 1106-1117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Mothers' smoking during pregnancy increases asthma risk in their offspring. There is some evidence that grandmothers' smoking may have a similar effect, and biological plausibility that fathers' smoking during adolescence may influence offspring's health through transmittable epigenetic changes in sperm precursor cells. We evaluated the three-generation associations of tobacco smoking with asthma. Methods: Between 2010 and 2013, at the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III clinical interview, 2233 mothers and 1964 fathers from 26 centres reported whether their offspring (aged <= 51 years) had ever had asthma and whether it had coexisted with nasal allergies or not. Mothers and fathers also provided information on their parents' (grandparents) and their own asthma, education and smoking history. Multilevel mediation models within a multicentre three-generation framework were fitted separately within the maternal (4666 offspring) and paternal (4192 offspring) lines. Results: Fathers' smoking before they were 15 [relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-2.01] and mothers' smoking during pregnancy (RRR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01-1.59) were associated with asthma without nasal allergies in their offspring. Grandmothers' smoking during pregnancy was associated with asthma in their daughters [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.17-2.06] and with asthma with nasal allergies in their grandchildren within the maternal line (RRR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.55). Conclusions: Fathers' smoking during early adolescence and grandmothers' and mothers' smoking during pregnancy may independently increase asthma risk in offspring. Thus, risk factors for asthma should be sought in both parents and before conception.
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2.
  • Carsin, Anne-Elie, et al. (författare)
  • Regular Physical Activity Levels and Incidence of Restrictive Spirometry Pattern : A Longitudinal Analysis of Two Population-based Cohorts
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 189:12, s. 1521-1528
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We estimated the association between regular physical activity and the incidence of restrictive spirometry pattern. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and physical activity were assessed in 2 population-based European cohorts (European Community Respiratory Health Survey: n = 2,757, aged 39–67 years; and Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults: n = 2,610, aged 36–82 years) first in 2000–2002 and again approximately 10 years later (2010–2013). Subjects with restrictive or obstructive spirometry pattern at baseline were excluded. We assessed the association of being active at baseline (defined as being physically active at least 2–3 times/week for ≥1 hour) with restrictive spirometry pattern at follow-up (defined as a postbronchodilation FEV1/FVC ratio of at least the lower limit of normal and FVC of <80% predicted) using modified Poisson regression, adjusting for relevant confounders. After 10 years of follow-up, 3.3% of participants had developed restrictive spirometry pattern. Being physically active was associated with a lower risk of developing this phenotype (relative risk = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.98). This association was stronger among those who were overweight and obese than among those of normal weight (P for interaction = 0.06). In 2 large European studies, adults practicing regular physical activity were at lower risk of developing restrictive spirometry pattern over 10 years.
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3.
  • Holm, Mathias, 1969, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence and prevalence of chronic bronchitis: impact of smoking and welding. The RHINE study.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. - Paris, France : International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. - 1815-7920 .- 1027-3719. ; 16:4, s. 553-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To investigate the prevalence and incidence rate of chronic bronchitis (CB) in relation to smoking habits and exposure to welding fumes in a general population sample.
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4.
  • Holm, M, et al. (författare)
  • Remission of asthma : a prospective longitudinal study from northern Europe (RHINE study).
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 30:1, s. 62-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the present study was to investigate the remission rate of adult asthma in a general population sample in relation to age, sex, asthma symptoms, allergic rhinitis and smoking. A follow-up of the random population samples from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey in Northern Europe was conducted from 1999-2001 on 1,153 individuals (aged 2653 yrs) with reported asthma. Remission was defined as no asthmatic symptoms in two consecutive years and no current use of asthma medication. Remission rates per 1,000 personyrs were calculated and Cox regression models, adjusting for confounders, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (Cl). An average remission rate of 20.2 per 1,000 person-yrs was found. There was no significant difference according to sex; the remission rates were 21.7 and 17.8 per 1,000 person-yrs in females and males, respectively. An increased remission rate was observed among subjects who quit smoking during the observation period. Subjects not reporting any asthma symptom at baseline had an increased remission rate. In the Cox regression model, ex-smoking (HR 1.65, 95% Cl 1.01-2.71) was associated with increased remission rate, and reporting any asthma symptom at baseline was associated with decreased remission rate (HR 0.7, 95% Cl 0.40-0.90). In conclusion, the present prospective longitudinal study showed that quitting smoking and the presence of mild disease appeared to favour remission. 
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6.
  • Johannessen, Ane, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with sick leave 20 years later
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Little is known on outdoor air pollution in a long-term perspective and societal costs such as sick leave. In the Nordic countries, recent pollution health impact assessments have had to rely on outdated studies.Aims: To investigate if air pollution exposure is associated with sick leave 20 years later.Methods: We analysed self-reported sick leave (all-cause and respiratory) in 7 466 subjects from Bergen, Gothenburg, Umea, Uppsala in the RHINE3 study in 2010-12. Home addresses were geocoded and linked to annual average concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 at RHINE3, 10 years earlier and 20 years earlier, using existing land-use regression (LUR) models. We performed multilevel logistic regression clustered by centre, and adjusted for sex, smoking, education and previous health-related workplace change.Results: Age range in RHINE3 was 40-66 yrs, 34% and 4% reported all-cause and respiratory sick leave during the last year. In the adjusted analyses all-cause sick leave was associated with PM2.520 years earlier (OR per interquartile range (IQR) difference (2.6 µg/m³) 1.12 (95%CI 1.01, 1.24)), and borderline with NO2 (OR per IQR diff (8.1 µg/m³) 1.09 (95%CI 0.99, 1.19)). Respiratory sick leave was associated with PM10 20 years earlier (OR per IQR diff (3.92 µg/m³) 1.54 (95%CI 1.06, 2.25)), and borderline with PM2.5 (OR per IQR diff 1.31 (95%CI 0.97, 1.76)). Pollution exposures at present as well as 10 years earlier were not significantly associated with sick leave.Conclusions: Air pollution exposure in a general population is associated with sick leave in a 20-year perspective. Our findings suggest that even low air pollution levels such as in Northern Europe have societal costs over time.
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7.
  • Johansson, Henrik, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence, progression and impact of chronic cough on employment in Northern Europe
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS) Publications. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 57:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated the prevalence of chronic cough and its association with work ability and sick leave in the general population.Data were analysed from the Respiratory Health In Northern Europe (RHINE) III cohort (n=13 500), of which 11 252 participants had also participated in RHINE II 10 years earlier, a multicentre study in Northern Europe. Participants answered a questionnaire on chronic cough, employment factors, smoking and respiratory comorbidities.Nonproductive chronic cough was found in 7% and productive chronic cough in 9% of the participants. Participants with nonproductive cough were more often female and participants with productive cough were more often smokers and had a higher body mass index (BMI) than those without cough. Participants with chronic cough more often reported >7 days of sick leave in the preceding year than those without cough (“nonproductive cough” 21% and “productive cough” 24%; p<0.001 for comparisons with “no cough” 13%). This pattern was consistent after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, education level, smoking status and comorbidities. Participants with chronic cough at baseline reported lower work ability and more often had >7 days of sick leave at follow-up than those without cough. These associations remained significant after adjusting for cough at follow-up and other confounding factors.Chronic cough was found in around one in six participants and was associated with more sick leave. Chronic cough 10 years earlier was associated with lower work ability and sick leave at follow-up. These associations were not explained by studied comorbidities. This indication of negative effects on employment from chronic cough needs to be recognised.
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8.
  • Kuiper, Ingrid Nordeide, et al. (författare)
  • Lung health in adulthood after childhood exposure to air pollution and greenness
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Little is known on childhood exposure to air pollution and adult chronic respiratory outcomes.Aim: To investigate associations between air pollution and greenness in childhood and adult lung health.Methods: In selected centres of the RHINESSA study (age 18-52) we analysed the outcomes respiratory symptoms (≥3 symptoms), severe wheeze (wheeze last year with breathlessness, no cold) and late onset asthma (>10 years). We calculated mean annual exposures of PM2.5, PM10, NO2 (µg/m³) and greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, 100m buffer) from offspring's birth till age 18, categorised into mean exposure <10 years and 11-18 years. We performed multilevel logistic regression clustered by family, stratified by centre and adjusted for childhood passive smoke and parental asthma.Results: 12% had ≥3 respiratory symptoms, 7.7% severe wheeze, and 9.4% late onset asthma. Overall estimates: greenness was associated with less respiratory symptoms, PM2.5 and NO2 with more late onset asthma. Exposure <10 years: Greenness was associated with less wheeze in Tartu (OR 0.29, 95%CI 0.11-0.73). PM2.5 (OR 1.22, 95%CI 1.00-1.48) and NO2 (OR 1.06, 95%CI 1.01-1.11) were risk factors for late onset asthma in Bergen. PM10 was a risk factor for respiratory symptoms (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.04-1.41) in Uppsala and late onset asthma (OR 1.23, 95%CI 1.02-1.45) in Bergen. Exposure 11-18 years: Greenness was protective for respiratory symptoms (OR 0.29, 95%CI 0.10-0.86) and wheeze (OR 0.39, 95%CI 0.19-0.80) in Tartu.Conclusions: Childhood exposure to greenness was associated with less respiratory symptoms, while air pollutants were associated with more respiratory symptoms (some centres) and late onset asthma.
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9.
  • Lillienberg, Linnéa, et al. (författare)
  • Occupational exposure and new-onset asthma in a population-based study in Northern Europe (RHINE)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene. - Oxford : Oxford University Press. - 0003-4878 .- 1475-3162. ; 57:4, s. 482-492
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: In a large population-based study among adults in northern Europe the relation between occupational exposure and new-onset asthma was studied.METHODS: The study comprised 13 284 subjects born between 1945 and 1973, who answered a questionnaire 1989-1992 and again 1999-2001. Asthma was defined as 'Asthma diagnosed by a physician' with reported year of diagnose. Hazard ratios (HR), for new-onset adult asthma during 1980-2000, were calculated using a modified job-exposure matrix as well as high-risk occupations in Cox regression models. The analyses were made separately for men and women and were also stratified for atopy.RESULTS: During the observation period there were 429 subjects with new-onset asthma with an asthma incidence of 1.3 cases per 1000 person-years for men and 2.4 for women. A significant increase in new-onset asthma was seen for men exposed to plant-associated antigens (HR = 3.6; 95% CI [confidence interval] = 1.4-9.0), epoxy (HR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.3-4.5), diisocyanates (HR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.2-3.7) and accidental peak exposures to irritants (HR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.3-4.7). Both men and women exposed to cleaning agents had an increased asthma risk. When stratifying for atopy an increased asthma risk were seen in non-atopic men exposed to acrylates (HR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.4-7.5), epoxy compounds (HR = 3.6; 95% CI = 1.6-7.9), diisocyanates and accidental peak exposures to irritants (HR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.2-7.2). Population attributable risk for occupational asthma was 14% for men and 7% for women.CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study showed that men exposed to epoxy, diisocyanates and acrylates had an increased risk of new-onset asthma. Non-atopics seemed to be at higher risk than atopics, except for exposure to high molecular weight agents. Increased asthma risks among cleaners, spray painters, plumbers, and hairdressers were confirmed.
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10.
  • Pape, Kathrine, et al. (författare)
  • Agreement of offspring-reported parental smoking status : the RHINESSA generation study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - : BMC. - 1471-2458 .- 1471-2458. ; 19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: With increasing interest in exposure effects across generations, it is crucial to assess the validity of information given on behalf of others.Aims: To compare adult's report of their parent’s smoking status against parent's own report and examine predictors for discrepant answers.Methods: We studied 7185 offspring (18-51 years) and one of their parents, n = 5307 (27-67 years) participating in the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) generation study. Information about parent's smoking status during offspring's childhood and mother's smoking status during pregnancy was obtained by questionnaires from parents and their offspring. We calculated sensitivity, specificity and Cohen's Kappa [κ] for agreement using parent's own report as the gold standard. We performed logistic regression to examine if offspring's sex, age, educational level, asthma status, own smoking status or parental status, as well as the parent's sex and amount of smoking during childhood predicted disagreement.Results: The sensitivity for offspring's correct report of parent's smoking status during childhood (0-10 years) was 0.82 (95% CI 0.81–0.84), specificity was 0.95 (95% CI 0.95–0.96) and a good agreement was observed, κ = 0.79 (95% CI 0.78–0.80). Offspring's report of mothers' smoking status during pregnancy showed a lower sensitivity, 0.66 (95% CI 0.60–0.71), a slightly lower specificity, 0.92 (95% CI 0.90–0.95) and a good agreement, κ = 0.61 (95% CI 0.55–0.67). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, offspring not having children was a predictor for discrepant answers (odds ratio [OR] 2.11 [95% CI 1.21–3.69]). Low amount of parents' tobacco consumption, < 10 cigarettes/day (OR 2.72 [95% CI 1.71–4.31]) also predicted disagreement compared to ≥10 cigarettes per day, and so did offspring's reports of fathers' smoking status (OR 1.73 [95% CI 1.09–2.74]) compared to mothers' smoking status. Offspring's sex, asthma status, educational level, smoking status or age was not related to discrepant answers.Conclusions: Adults report their parent's smoking status during their childhood, as well as their mothers' smoking status when pregnant with them, quite accurately. In the absence of parents' direct report, offspring's reports could be valuable.
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