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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Jablonka P.) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Jablonka P.)

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1.
  • de Jong, R. S., et al. (författare)
  • 4MOST : Project overview and information for the First Call for Proposals
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Messenger. - : European Southern Observatory. - 0722-6691. ; 175, s. 3-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • We introduce the 4-metre Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope (4MOST), a new high-multiplex, wide-field spectroscopic survey facility under development for the four-metre-class Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) at Paranal. Its key specifications are: a large field of view (FoV) of 4.2 square degrees and a high multiplex capability, with 1624 fibres feeding two low-resolution spectrographs (R = λ/Δλ ~ 6500), and 812 fibres transferring light to the high-resolution spectrograph (R ~ 20 000). After a description of the instrument and its expected performance, a short overview is given of its operational scheme and planned 4MOST Consortium science; these aspects are covered in more detail in other articles in this edition of The Messenger. Finally, the processes, schedules, and policies concerning the selection of ESO Community Surveys are presented, commencing with a singular opportunity to submit Letters of Intent for Public Surveys during the first five years of 4MOST operations.
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2.
  • Wilman, H. R., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic studies of abdominal MRI data identify genes regulating hepcidin as major determinants of liver iron concentration
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hepatology. - : Elsevier. - 0168-8278 .- 1600-0641. ; 71:3, s. 594-602
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & Aims: Excess liver iron content is common and is linked to the risk of hepatic and extrahepatic diseases. We aimed to identify genetic variants influencing liver iron content and use genetics to understand its link to other traits and diseases. Methods: First, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 8,289 individuals from UK Biobank, whose liver iron level had been quantified by magnetic resonance imaging, before validating our findings in an independent cohort (n = 1,513 from IMI DIRECT). Second, we used Mendelian randomisation to test the causal effects of 25 predominantly metabolic traits on liver iron content. Third, we tested phenome-wide associations between liver iron variants and 770 traits and disease outcomes. Results: We identified 3 independent genetic variants (rs1800562 [C282Y] and rs1799945 [H63D] in HFE and rs855791 [V736A] in TMPRSS6) associated with liver iron content that reached the GWAS significance threshold (p <5 × 10−8). The 2 HFE variants account for ∼85% of all cases of hereditary haemochromatosis. Mendelian randomisation analysis provided evidence that higher central obesity plays a causal role in increased liver iron content. Phenome-wide association analysis demonstrated shared aetiopathogenic mechanisms for elevated liver iron, high blood pressure, cirrhosis, malignancies, neuropsychiatric and rheumatological conditions, while also highlighting inverse associations with anaemias, lipidaemias and ischaemic heart disease. Conclusion: Our study provides genetic evidence that mechanisms underlying higher liver iron content are likely systemic rather than organ specific, that higher central obesity is causally associated with higher liver iron, and that liver iron shares common aetiology with multiple metabolic and non-metabolic diseases. Lay summary: Excess liver iron content is common and is associated with liver diseases and metabolic diseases including diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease. We identified 3 genetic variants that are linked to an increased risk of developing higher liver iron content. We show that the same genetic variants are linked to higher risk of many diseases, but they may also be associated with some health advantages. Finally, we use genetic variants associated with waist-to-hip ratio as a tool to show that central obesity is causally associated with increased liver iron content.
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3.
  • Penston, M. V., et al. (författare)
  • The extended narrow line region of NGC 4151. I. Emission line ratios and their implications
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 236:1, s. 53-6262
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The paper presents the first results from long-slit spectra of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 which give average diagnostic ratios of weak lines in the extended narrow line region (ENLR) of that galaxy and the first direct density measurement in an ENLR. These data confirm that the ENLR is kinematically undisturbed gas in the disc of the galaxy which is illuminated by an ionizing continuum stronger by a factor of 13 than a power law interpolated between observed ultraviolet and X-ray fluxes. Explanations of this apparent excess include a hot thermal continuum, time variations and an anisotropic radiation field. The authors give reasons for favouring anisotropy which might be caused by shadowing by a thick accretion disc or by relativistic beaming. Shadowing by a molecular torus is unlikely, given the absence of an infrared signal from the reradiated flux absorbed by any torus. Anisotropy would have important implications for the bolometric luminosity and nature of active galactic nuclei
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4.
  • Obura, M., et al. (författare)
  • Clinical profiles of post-load glucose subgroups and their association with glycaemic traits over time : An IMI-DIRECT study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Diabetic Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0742-3071. ; 38:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To examine the hypothesis that, based on their glucose curves during a seven-point oral glucose tolerance test, people at elevated type 2 diabetes risk can be divided into subgroups with different clinical profiles at baseline and different degrees of subsequent glycaemic deterioration. Methods: We included 2126 participants at elevated type 2 diabetes risk from the Diabetes Research on Patient Stratification (IMI-DIRECT) study. Latent class trajectory analysis was used to identify subgroups from a seven-point oral glucose tolerance test at baseline and follow-up. Linear models quantified the associations between the subgroups with glycaemic traits at baseline and 18 months. Results: At baseline, we identified four glucose curve subgroups, labelled in order of increasing peak levels as 1–4. Participants in Subgroups 2–4, were more likely to have higher insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment) and a lower Matsuda index, than those in Subgroup 1. Overall, participants in Subgroups 3 and 4, had higher glycaemic trait values, with the exception of the Matsuda and insulinogenic indices. At 18 months, change in homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance was higher in Subgroup 4 (β = 0.36, 95% CI 0.13–0.58), Subgroup 3 (β = 0.30; 95% CI 0.10–0.50) and Subgroup 2 (β = 0.18; 95% CI 0.04–0.32), compared to Subgroup 1. The same was observed for C-peptide and insulin. Five subgroups were identified at follow-up, and the majority of participants remained in the same subgroup or progressed to higher peak subgroups after 18 months. Conclusions: Using data from a frequently sampled oral glucose tolerance test, glucose curve patterns associated with different clinical characteristics and different rates of subsequent glycaemic deterioration can be identified.
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5.
  • Koivula, Robert W., et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of biomarkers for glycaemic deterioration before and after the onset of type 2 diabetes : descriptive characteristics of the epidemiological studies within the IMI DIRECT Consortium
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 62:9, s. 1601-1615
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: Here, we describe the characteristics of the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) Diabetes Research on Patient Stratification (DIRECT) epidemiological cohorts at baseline and follow-up examinations (18, 36 and 48 months of follow-up).Methods: From a sampling frame of 24,682 adults of European ancestry enrolled in population-based cohorts across Europe, participants at varying risk of glycaemic deterioration were identified using a risk prediction algorithm (based on age, BMI, waist circumference, use of antihypertensive medication, smoking status and parental history of type 2 diabetes) and enrolled into a prospective cohort study (n = 2127) (cohort 1, prediabetes risk). We also recruited people from clinical registries with type 2 diabetes diagnosed 6-24 months previously (n = 789) into a second cohort study (cohort 2, diabetes). Follow-up examinations took place at similar to 18 months (both cohorts) and at similar to 48 months (cohort 1) or similar to 36 months (cohort 2) after baseline examinations. The cohorts were studied in parallel using matched protocols across seven clinical centres in northern Europe.Results: Using ADA 2011 glycaemic categories, 33% (n = 693) of cohort 1 (prediabetes risk) had normal glucose regulation and 67% (n = 1419) had impaired glucose regulation. Seventy-six per cent of participants in cohort 1 was male. Cohort 1 participants had the following characteristics (mean +/- SD) at baseline: age 62 (6.2) years; BMI 27.9 (4.0) kg/m(2); fasting glucose 5.7 (0.6) mmol/l; 2 h glucose 5.9 (1.6) mmol/l. At the final follow-up examination the participants' clinical characteristics were as follows: fasting glucose 6.0 (0.6) mmol/l; 2 h OGTT glucose 6.5 (2.0) mmol/l. In cohort 2 (diabetes), 66% (n = 517) were treated by lifestyle modification and 34% (n = 272) were treated with metformin plus lifestyle modification at enrolment. Fifty-eight per cent of participants in cohort 2 was male. Cohort 2 participants had the following characteristics at baseline: age 62 (8.1) years; BMI 30.5 (5.0) kg/m(2); fasting glucose 7.2 (1.4) mmol/l; 2 h glucose 8.6 (2.8) mmol/l. At the final follow-up examination, the participants' clinical characteristics were as follows: fasting glucose 7.9 (2.0) mmol/l; 2 h mixed-meal tolerance test glucose 9.9 (3.4) mmol/l.Conclusions/interpretation: The IMI DIRECT cohorts are intensely characterised, with a wide-variety of metabolically relevant measures assessed prospectively. We anticipate that the cohorts, made available through managed access, will provide a powerful resource for biomarker discovery, multivariate aetiological analyses and reclassification of patients for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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