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1.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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2.
  • Erlinge, David, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of vulnerable plaques and patients by intracoronary near-infrared spectroscopy and ultrasound (PROSPECT II) : a prospective natural history study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 397:10278, s. 985-995
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and intravascular ultrasound are promising imaging modalities to identify non-obstructive plaques likely to cause coronary-related events. We aimed to assess whether combined NIRS and intravascular ultrasound can identify high-risk plaques and patients that are at risk for future major adverse cardiac events (MACEs).Methods: PROSPECT II is an investigator-sponsored, multicentre, prospective natural history study done at 14 university hospitals and two community hospitals in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. We recruited patients of any age with recent (within past 4 weeks) myocardial infarction. After treatment of all flow-limiting coronary lesions, three-vessel imaging was done with a combined NIRS and intravascular ultrasound catheter. Untreated lesions (also known as non-culprit lesions) were identified by intravascular ultrasound and their lipid content was assessed by NIRS. The primary outcome was the covariate-adjusted rate of MACEs (the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or progressive angina) arising from untreated non-culprit lesions during follow-up. The relations between plaques with high lipid content, large plaque burden, and small lumen areas and patient-level and lesion-level events were determined. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02171065.Findings: Between June 10, 2014, and Dec 20, 2017, 3629 non-culprit lesions were characterised in 898 patients (153 [17%] women, 745 [83%] men; median age 63 [IQR 55-70] years). Median follow-up was 3.7 (IQR 3.0-4.4) years. Adverse events within 4 years occurred in 112 (13.2%, 95% CI 11.0-15.6) of 898 patients, with 66 (8.0%, 95% CI 6.2-10.0) arising from 78 untreated non-culprit lesions (mean baseline angiographic diameter stenosis 46.9% [SD 15.9]). Highly lipidic lesions (851 [24%] of 3500 lesions, present in 520 [59%] of 884 patients) were an independent predictor of patient-level non-culprit lesion-related MACEs (adjusted odds ratio 2.27, 95% CI 1.25-4.13) and nonculprit lesion-specific MACEs (7.83, 4.12-14.89). Large plaque burden (787 [22%] of 3629 lesions, present in 530 [59%] of 898 patients) was also an independent predictor of non-culprit lesion-related MACEs. Lesions with both large plaque burden by intravascular ultrasound and large lipid-rich cores by NIRS had a 4-year non-culprit lesion-related MACE rate of 7.0% (95% CI 4.0-10.0). Patients in whom one or more such lesions were identified had a 4-year non-culprit lesion-related MACE rate of 13.2% (95% CI 9.4-17.6).Interpretation: Combined NIRS and intravascular ultrasound detects angiographically non-obstructive lesions with a high lipid content and large plaque burden that are at increased risk for future adverse cardiac outcomes.
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3.
  • Mohammad, Moman A., et al. (författare)
  • Incidence and outcome of myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention during COVID-19 pandemic.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Heart (British Cardiac Society). - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 1468-201X .- 1355-6037. ; 106, s. 1812-1818
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most reports on the declining incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) during the COVID-19 have either been anecdotal, survey results or geographically limited to areas with lockdowns. We examined the incidence of MI during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden, which has remained an open society with a different public health approach fighting COVID-19.We assessed the incidence rate (IR) as well as the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of all MI referred for coronary angiography in Sweden using the nationwide Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry (SCAAR), during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden (1 March 2020-7 May 2020) in relation to the same days 2015-2019.A total of 2443 MIs were referred for coronary angiography during the COVID-19 pandemic resulting in an IR 36 MIs/day (204 MIs/100 000 per year) compared with 15 213 MIs during the reference period with an IR of 45 MIs/day (254 MIs/100 000 per year) resulting in IRR of 0.80, 95% CI (0.74 to 0.86), p<0.001. Results were consistent in all investigated patient subgroups, indicating no change in patient category seeking cardiac care. Kaplan-Meier event rates for 7-day case fatality were 439 (2.3%) compared with 37 (2.9%) (HR: 0.81, 95% CI (0.58 to 1.13), p=0.21). Time to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was shorter during the pandemic and PCI was equally performed, indicating no change in quality of care during the pandemic.The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly reduced the incidence of MI referred for invasive treatment strategy. No differences in overall short-term case fatality or quality of care indicators were observed.
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4.
  • Patel, Riyaz S., et al. (författare)
  • Association of Chromosome 9p21 With Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease Events : A GENIUS-CHD Study of Individual Participant Data
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 2574-8300. ; 12:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Genetic variation at chromosome 9p21 is a recognized risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, its effect on disease progression and subsequent events is unclear, raising questions about its value for stratification of residual risk.METHODS: A variant at chromosome 9p21 (rs1333049) was tested for association with subsequent events during follow-up in 103 357 Europeans with established CHD at baseline from the GENIUS-CHD (Genetics of Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease) Consortium (73.1% male, mean age 62.9 years). The primary outcome, subsequent CHD death or myocardial infarction (CHD death/myocardial infarction), occurred in 13 040 of the 93 115 participants with available outcome data. Effect estimates were compared with case/control risk obtained from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium (Coronary Artery Disease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-analysis [CARDIoGRAM] plus The Coronary Artery Disease [C4D] Genetics) including 47 222 CHD cases and 122 264 controls free of CHD.RESULTS: Meta-analyses revealed no significant association between chromosome 9p21 and the primary outcome of CHD death/myocardial infarction among those with established CHD at baseline (GENIUSCHD odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.99-1.05). This contrasted with a strong association in CARDIoGRAMPlusC4D odds ratio 1.20; 95% CI, 1.18-1.22; P for interaction < 0.001 compared with the GENIUS-CHD estimate. Similarly, no clear associations were identified for additional subsequent outcomes, including all-cause death, although we found a modest positive association between chromosome 9p21 and subsequent revascularization (odds ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.09).CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to studies comparing individuals with CHD to disease-free controls, we found no clear association between genetic variation at chromosome 9p21 and risk of subsequent acute CHD events when all individuals had CHD at baseline. However, the association with subsequent revascularization may support the postulated mechanism of chromosome 9p21 for promoting atheroma development.
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5.
  • Patel, Riyaz S., et al. (författare)
  • Subsequent Event Risk in Individuals With Established Coronary Heart Disease : Design and Rationale of the GENIUS-CHD Consortium
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 2574-8300. ; 12:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The Genetics of Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease (GENIUS-CHD) consortium was established to facilitate discovery and validation of genetic variants and biomarkers for risk of subsequent CHD events, in individuals with established CHD.METHODS: The consortium currently includes 57 studies from 18 countries, recruiting 185 614 participants with either acute coronary syndrome, stable CHD, or a mixture of both at baseline. All studies collected biological samples and followed-up study participants prospectively for subsequent events.RESULTS: Enrollment into the individual studies took place between 1985 to present day with a duration of follow-up ranging from 9 months to 15 years. Within each study, participants with CHD are predominantly of self-reported European descent (38%-100%), mostly male (44%-91%) with mean ages at recruitment ranging from 40 to 75 years. Initial feasibility analyses, using a federated analysis approach, yielded expected associations between age (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.14-1.16) per 5-year increase, male sex (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.13-1.21) and smoking (hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.35-1.51) with risk of subsequent CHD death or myocardial infarction and differing associations with other individual and composite cardiovascular endpoints.CONCLUSIONS: GENIUS-CHD is a global collaboration seeking to elucidate genetic and nongenetic determinants of subsequent event risk in individuals with established CHD, to improve residual risk prediction and identify novel drug targets for secondary prevention. Initial analyses demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of a federated analysis approach. The consortium now plans to initiate and test novel hypotheses as well as supporting replication and validation analyses for other investigators.
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6.
  • Schunk, Stefan J., et al. (författare)
  • Genetically determined NLRP3 inflammasome activation associates with systemic inflammation and cardiovascular mortality
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 42:18, s. 1742-1756
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AimsInflammation plays an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. The NOD-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome contributes to the development of atherosclerosis in animal models. Components of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway such as interleukin-1β can therapeutically be targeted. Associations of genetically determined inflammasome-mediated systemic inflammation with CVD and mortality in humans are unknown.Methods and resultsWe explored the association of genetic NLRP3 variants with prevalent CVD and cardiovascular mortality in 538 167 subjects on the individual participant level in an explorative gene-centric approach without performing multiple testing. Functional relevance of single-nucleotide polymorphisms on NLRP3 inflammasome activation has been evaluated in monocyte-enriched peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Genetic analyses identified the highly prevalent (minor allele frequency 39.9%) intronic NLRP3 variant rs10754555 to affect NLRP3 gene expression. rs10754555 carriers showed significantly higher C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A plasma levels. Carriers of the G allele showed higher NLRP3 inflammasome activation in isolated human PBMCs. In carriers of the rs10754555 variant, the prevalence of coronary artery disease was significantly higher as compared to non-carriers with a significant interaction between rs10754555 and age. Importantly, rs10754555 carriers had significantly higher risk for cardiovascular mortality during follow-up. Inflammasome inducers (e.g. urate, triglycerides, apolipoprotein C3) modulated the association between rs10754555 and mortality.ConclusionThe NLRP3 intronic variant rs10754555 is associated with increased systemic inflammation, inflammasome activation, prevalent coronary artery disease, and mortality. This study provides evidence for a substantial role of genetically driven systemic inflammation in CVD and highlights the NLRP3 inflammasome as a therapeutic target.
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7.
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8.
  • Alfredsson, Joakim, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Randomized comparison of early supplemental oxygen versus ambient air in patients with confirmed myocardial infarction : Sex-related outcomes from DETO2X-AMI
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Mosby Inc.. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 237, s. 13-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of oxygen therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in relation to sex in patients with confirmed myocardial infarction (MI).Methods: The DETermination of the role of Oxygen in suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction trial randomized 6,629 patients to oxygen at 6 L/min for 6-12 hours or ambient air. In the present subgroup analysis including 5,010 patients (1,388 women and 3,622 men) with confirmed MI, we report the effect of supplemental oxygen on the composite of all-cause death, rehospitalization with MI, or heart failure at long-term follow-up, stratified according to sex.Results: Event rate for the composite endpoint was 18.1% in women allocated to oxygen, compared to 21.4% in women allocated to ambient air (hazard ratio [HR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.05). In men, the incidence was 13.6% in patients allocated to oxygen compared to 13.3% in patients allocated to ambient air (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.86-1.23). No significant interaction in relation to sex was found (P=.16). Irrespective of allocated treatment, the composite endpoint occurred more often in women compared to men (19.7 vs 13.4%, HR 1.51; 95% CI, 1.30-1.75). After adjustment for age alone, there was no difference between the sexes (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.91-1.24), which remained consistent after multivariate adjustment.Conclusion: Oxygen therapy in normoxemic MI patients did not significantly affect all-cause mortality or rehospitalization for MI or heart failure in women or men. The observed worse outcome in women was explained by differences in baseline characteristics, especially age
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9.
  • Andell, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • Intravascular Ultrasound Guidance Is Associated With Better Outcome in Patients Undergoing Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery Stenting Compared With Angiography Guidance Alone
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1941-7640 .- 1941-7632. ; 10:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Small observational studies have indicated better outcome with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance when performing unprotected left main coronary artery (LMCA) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but the overall picture remains inconclusive and warrants further investigation. We studied the impact of IVUS guidance on outcome in patients undergoing unprotected LMCA PCI in a Swedish nationwide observational study.Methods and Results: Patients who underwent unprotected LMCA PCI between 2005 and 2014 because of stable coronary artery disease or acute coronary syndrome were included from the nationwide SCAAR (Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry). Of 2468 patients, IVUS guidance was used in 621 (25.2%). The IVUS group was younger (median age, 70 versus 75 years) and had fewer comorbidities but more complex lesions. IVUS was associated with larger stent diameters (median, 4 mm versus 3.5 mm). After adjusting for potential confounders, IVUS was associated with significantly lower occurrence of the primary composite end point of all-cause mortality, restenosis, or definite stent thrombosis (hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.84) and all-cause mortality alone (hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.82). In 340 propensity score-matched pairs, IVUS was also associated with significantly lower occurrence of the primary end point (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.80).Conclusions: IVUS was associated with an independent and significant outcome benefit when performing unprotected LMCA PCI. Potential mediators of this benefit include larger and more appropriately sized stents, perhaps translating into lower risk of subsequent stent thrombosis. Although residual confounding cannot be ruled out, our findings indicate a possible hazard when performing unprotected LMCA PCI without IVUS guidance.
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10.
  • Angerås, Oskar, 1976, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of Thrombus Aspiration on Mortality, Stent Thrombosis, and Stroke in Patients with ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Report From the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 2047-9980. ; 7:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-Thrombus aspiration is still being used in a substantial number of patients despite 2 large randomized clinical trials showing no favorable effect of routine thrombus aspiration during primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with STsegment- elevation myocardial infarction. The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the impact of thrombus aspiration on mortality, stent thrombosis, and stroke using all available data from the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry (SCAAR). Methods and Results--We identified 42 829 consecutive patients registered in SCAAR between January 2005 and September 2014 who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Thrombus aspiration was used in 25% of the procedures. We used instrumental variable analysis with administrative healthcare region as the treatmentpreference instrumental variable to evaluate the effect of thrombus aspiration on mortality, stent thrombosis, and stroke. Thrombus aspiration was not associated with mortality at 30 days (risk reduction: -1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] , -5.4 to 3.0; P=0.57) and 1 year (risk reduction: -2.4; 95% CI, -7.6 to 3.0; P=0.37). Thrombus aspiration was associated with a lower risk of stent thrombosis both at 30 days (risk reduction: -2.7; 95% CI, -4.1 to -1.4; P < 0.001) and 1 year (risk reduction: -3.5; 95% CI, -5.3 to -1.7; P < 0.001). In-hospital stroke and neurologic complications did not differ between groups (risk reduction: 0.1; 95% CI, -0.8 to 1.1; P=0.76). Conclusions--Mortality was not different between the groups. Thrombus aspiration was associated with decreased risk of stent thrombosis. Our study provides important evidence for the external validity of previous randomized studies regarding mortality.
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