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1.
  • Dajti, I, et al. (författare)
  • 2021
  • swepub:Mat__t
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2.
  • Tabiri, S, et al. (författare)
  • 2021
  • swepub:Mat__t
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3.
  • Murray, Christopher J. L., et al. (författare)
  • Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 1474-547X .- 0140-6736. ; 386:10009, s. 2145-2191
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary measures such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) that make possible comparative assessments of broad epidemiological patterns across countries and time. These summary measures can also be used to quantify the component of variation in epidemiology that is related to sociodemographic development. Methods We used the published GBD 2013 data for age-specific mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) to calculate DALYs and HALE for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 for 188 countries. We calculated HALE using the Sullivan method; 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) represent uncertainty in age-specific death rates and YLDs per person for each country, age, sex, and year. We estimated DALYs for 306 causes for each country as the sum of YLLs and YLDs; 95% UIs represent uncertainty in YLL and YLD rates. We quantified patterns of the epidemiological transition with a composite indicator of sociodemographic status, which we constructed from income per person, average years of schooling after age 15 years, and the total fertility rate and mean age of the population. We applied hierarchical regression to DALY rates by cause across countries to decompose variance related to the sociodemographic status variable, country, and time. Findings Worldwide, from 1990 to 2013, life expectancy at birth rose by 6.2 years (95% UI 5.6-6.6), from 65.3 years (65.0-65.6) in 1990 to 71.5 years (71.0-71.9) in 2013, HALE at birth rose by 5.4 years (4.9-5.8), from 56.9 years (54.5-59.1) to 62.3 years (59.7-64.8), total DALYs fell by 3.6% (0.3-7.4), and age-standardised DALY rates per 100 000 people fell by 26.7% (24.6-29.1). For communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders, global DALY numbers, crude rates, and age-standardised rates have all declined between 1990 and 2013, whereas for non-communicable diseases, global DALYs have been increasing, DALY rates have remained nearly constant, and age-standardised DALY rates declined during the same period. From 2005 to 2013, the number of DALYs increased for most specific non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, in addition to dengue, food-borne trematodes, and leishmaniasis; DALYs decreased for nearly all other causes. By 2013, the five leading causes of DALYs were ischaemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, cerebrovascular disease, low back and neck pain, and road injuries. Sociodemographic status explained more than 50% of the variance between countries and over time for diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; maternal disorders; neonatal disorders; nutritional deficiencies; other communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases; musculoskeletal disorders; and other non-communicable diseases. However, sociodemographic status explained less than 10% of the variance in DALY rates for cardiovascular diseases; chronic respiratory diseases; cirrhosis; diabetes, urogenital, blood, and endocrine diseases; unintentional injuries; and self-harm and interpersonal violence. Predictably, increased sociodemographic status was associated with a shift in burden from YLLs to YLDs, driven by declines in YLLs and increases in YLDs from musculoskeletal disorders, neurological disorders, and mental and substance use disorders. In most country-specific estimates, the increase in life expectancy was greater than that in HALE. Leading causes of DALYs are highly variable across countries. Interpretation Global health is improving. Population growth and ageing have driven up numbers of DALYs, but crude rates have remained relatively constant, showing that progress in health does not mean fewer demands on health systems. The notion of an epidemiological transition-in which increasing sociodemographic status brings structured change in disease burden-is useful, but there is tremendous variation in burden of disease that is not associated with sociodemographic status. This further underscores the need for country-specific assessments of DALYs and HALE to appropriately inform health policy decisions and attendant actions.
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5.
  • Forouzanfar, Mohammad H, et al. (författare)
  • Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 386:10010, s. 2287-2323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution.METHODS: Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk-outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990-2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organised into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: handwashing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesised with a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body-mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol.FINDINGS: All risks combined account for 57·2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 55·8-58·5) of deaths and 41·6% (40·1-43·0) of DALYs. Risks quantified account for 87·9% (86·5-89·3) of cardiovascular disease DALYs, ranging to a low of 0% for neonatal disorders and neglected tropical diseases and malaria. In terms of global DALYs in 2013, six risks or clusters of risks each caused more than 5% of DALYs: dietary risks accounting for 11·3 million deaths and 241·4 million DALYs, high systolic blood pressure for 10·4 million deaths and 208·1 million DALYs, child and maternal malnutrition for 1·7 million deaths and 176·9 million DALYs, tobacco smoke for 6·1 million deaths and 143·5 million DALYs, air pollution for 5·5 million deaths and 141·5 million DALYs, and high BMI for 4·4 million deaths and 134·0 million DALYs. Risk factor patterns vary across regions and countries and with time. In sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risk factors are child and maternal malnutrition, unsafe sex, and unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing. In women, in nearly all countries in the Americas, north Africa, and the Middle East, and in many other high-income countries, high BMI is the leading risk factor, with high systolic blood pressure as the leading risk in most of Central and Eastern Europe and south and east Asia. For men, high systolic blood pressure or tobacco use are the leading risks in nearly all high-income countries, in north Africa and the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. For men and women, unsafe sex is the leading risk in a corridor from Kenya to South Africa.INTERPRETATION: Behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks can explain half of global mortality and more than one-third of global DALYs providing many opportunities for prevention. Of the larger risks, the attributable burden of high BMI has increased in the past 23 years. In view of the prominence of behavioural risk factors, behavioural and social science research on interventions for these risks should be strengthened. Many prevention and primary care policy options are available now to act on key risks.FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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6.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Direct observation of the strange b baryon Xi(-)(b)
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 99:5, s. 052001-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the first direct observation of the strange b baryon Xi(-)(b)(Xi) over bar (+)(b)). We reconstruct the decay Xi(-)(b)-->J/psi Xi(-), with J/psi-->mu(+)mu(-), and Xi(-)-->Lambda pi(-)-->p pi(-)pi(-) in p (p) over bar collisions at root s = 1.96 TeV. Using 1.3 fb(-1) of data collected by the D0 detector, we observe 15.2 +/- 4.4(stat)(-0.4)(+1.9)(syst) Xi(-)(b) candidates at a mass of 5.774 +/- 0.011(stat) +/- 0.015(syst) GeV. The significance of the observed signal is 5.5 sigma, equivalent to a probability of 3.3 x 10(-8) of it arising from a background fluctuation. Normalizing to the decay Lambda(b)-->J/psi Lambda, we measure the relative rate sigma(Xi(-)(b))xB(Xi(-)(b)-->J/psi Xi)/ sigma(Lambda(b))xB(Lambda(b)-->J/psi Lambda) = 0.28 +/- 0.09(stat)(-0.08)(+0.09)(syst).
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7.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the Lambda(0)(b) lifetime using semileptonic decays
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 99:18, s. 182001-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report a measurement of the Lambda(0)(b) lifetime using a sample corresponding to 1.3 fb(-1) of data collected by the D0 experiment in 2002-2006 during run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The Lambda(0)(b) baryon is reconstructed via the decay Lambda(0)(b)->mu(nu) over bar Lambda X-+(c). Using 4437 +/- 329 signal candidates, we measure the Lambda(0)(b) lifetime to be tau(Lambda(0)(b))=1.290(-0.110)(+0.119)(stat)(-0.091)(+0.087)(syst) ps, which is among the most precise measurements in semileptonic Lambda(0)(b) decays. This result is in good agreement with the world average value.
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8.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the Lambda(b) lifetime in the exclusive decay Lambda(b)-> J/psi Lambda
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 99:14, s. 142001-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have measured the Lambda(b) lifetime using the exclusive decay Lambda(b)-> J/psi Lambda, based on 1.2 fb(-1) of data collected with the D0 detector during 2002-2006. From 171 reconstructed Lambda(b) decays, where the J/psi and Lambda are identified via the decays J/psi ->mu(+)mu(-) and Lambda -> p pi, we measured the Lambda(b) lifetime to be tau(Lambda(b))=1.218(-0.115)(+0.130)(stat)+/- 0.042(syst) ps. We also measured the B-0 lifetime in the decay B-0 -> J/psi(mu(+)mu(-))K-S(0)(pi(+)pi(-)) to be tau(B-0)=1.501(-0.074)(+0.078)(stat)+/- 0.050(syst) ps, yielding a lifetime ratio of tau(Lambda(b))/tau(B-0)=0.811(-0.087)(+0.096)(stat)+/- 0.034(syst).
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9.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the muon charge asymmetry from W boson decays
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology. - 1550-7998. ; D:77, s. 011106-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a measurement of the muon charge asymmetry from W boson decays using 0.3 fb(-1) of data collected at root s =1.96 GeV between 2002 and 2004 with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron (p) over bar Collider. We compare our findings with expectations from next-to-leading-order calculations performed using the CTEQ6.1M and MRST04 NLO parton distribution functions. Our findings can be used to constrain future parton distribution function fits.
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10.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the p(p)over-bar -> WZ+X cross section at root s=1.96 TeV and limits on WWZ trilinear gauge couplings
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - 1550-7998 .- 1550-2368. ; 76:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present measurements of the process p (P) over bar -> WZ + X -> l 'nu(l ')l (l) over bar at root s = 1:96 TeV,where l and l ' are electrons or muons. Using 1 fb(-1) of data from the D0 experiment, we observe 13 candidates with an expected background of 4.5 +/- 0.6 events and measure a cross section sigma(WZ) = 2.7(-1.3)(+1.7) pb. From the number of observed events and the Z boson transverse momentum distribution, we limit the trilinear WWZ gauge couplings to -0: 17 <= lambda(Z) <= 0.21 (Delta k(Z) <= 0.29(lambda(Z) = 0) at the 95% C.L. for a form factor scale Lambda = 2 TeV. Further, assuming that Delta g(1)(Z) = Delta k(Z), we find -0.12 <= Delta k(Z) <= 0.29(lambda(Z) = 0) at the 95% C. L. These are the most restrictive limits on the WWZ couplings available to date.
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