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Sökning: WFRF:(Jenster Guido)

  • Resultat 1-9 av 9
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  • Kalra, H., et al. (författare)
  • Vesiclepedia: A Compendium for Extracellular Vesicles with Continuous Community Annotation
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Plos Biology. - : Public library of science. - 1545-7885 .- 1544-9173. ; 10:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membraneous vesicles released by a variety of cells into their microenvironment. Recent studies have elucidated the role of EVs in intercellular communication, pathogenesis, drug, vaccine and gene-vector delivery, and as possible reservoirs of biomarkers. These findings have generated immense interest, along with an exponential increase in molecular data pertaining to EVs. Here, we describe Vesiclepedia, a manually curated compendium of molecular data (lipid, RNA, and protein) identified in different classes of EVs from more than 300 independent studies published over the past several years. Even though databases are indispensable resources for the scientific community, recent studies have shown that more than 50% of the databases are not regularly updated. In addition, more than 20% of the database links are inactive. To prevent such database and link decay, we have initiated a continuous community annotation project with the active involvement of EV researchers. The EV research community can set a gold standard in data sharing with Vesiclepedia, which could evolve as a primary resource for the field.
  • Dadaev, Tokhir, et al. (författare)
  • Fine-mapping of prostate cancer susceptibility loci in a large meta-analysis identifies candidate causal variants.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prostate cancer is a polygenic disease with a large heritable component. A number of common, low-penetrance prostate cancer risk loci have been identified through GWAS. Here we apply the Bayesian multivariate variable selection algorithm JAM to fine-map 84 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, using summary data from a large European ancestry meta-analysis. We observe evidence for multiple independent signals at 12 regions and 99 risk signals overall. Only 15 original GWAS tag SNPs remain among the catalogue of candidate variants identified; the remainder are replaced by more likely candidates. Biological annotation of our credible set of variants indicates significant enrichment within promoter and enhancer elements, and transcription factor-binding sites, including AR, ERG and FOXA1. In 40 regions at least one variant is colocalised with an eQTL in prostate cancer tissue. The refined set of candidate variants substantially increase the proportion of familial relative risk explained by these known susceptibility regions, which highlights the importance of fine-mapping studies and has implications for clinical risk profiling.
  • Iglesias-Gato, Diego, et al. (författare)
  • SOCS2 mediates the cross talk between androgen and growth hormone signaling in prostate cancer
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - : Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334 .- 1460-2180. ; 35:1, s. 24-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Anabolic signals such as androgens and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF-1) axis play an essential role in the normal development of the prostate but also in its malignant transformation. In this study, we investigated the role of suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) as mediator of the cross talk between androgens and GH signals in the prostate and its potential role as tumor suppressor in prostate cancer (PCa). We observed that SOCS2 protein levels assayed by immunohistochemistry are elevated in hormone therapy-naive localized prostatic adenocarcinoma in comparison with benign tissue. In contrast, however, castration-resistant bone metastases exhibit reduced levels of SOCS2 in comparison with localized or hormone naive, untreated metastatic tumors. In PCa cells, SOCS2 expression is induced by androgens through a mechanism that requires signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 protein (STAT5) and androgen receptor-dependent transcription. Consequentially, SOCS2 inhibits GH activation of Janus kinase 2, Src and STAT5 as well as both cell invasion and cell proliferation in vitro. In vivo, SOCS2 limits proliferation and production of IGF-1 in the prostate in response to GH. Our results suggest that the use of GH-signaling inhibitors could be of value as a complementary treatment for castration-resistant PCa. Summary: Androgen induced SOCS2 ubiquitin ligase expression and inhibited GH signaling as well as cell proliferation and invasion in PCa, whereas reduced SOCS2 was present in castration-resistant cases. GH-signaling inhibitors might be a complementary therapeutic option for advanced PCa.
  • Fabris, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • The Potential of MicroRNAs as Prostate Cancer Biomarkers.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - : Elsevier. - 1873-7560. ; 70:2, s. 312-322
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Short noncoding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs) control protein expression through the degradation of RNA or the inhibition of protein translation. The miRNAs influence a wide range of biologic processes and are often deregulated in cancer. This family of small RNAs constitutes potentially valuable markers for the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic choices in prostate cancer (PCa) patients, as well as potential drugs (miRNA mimics) or drug targets (anti-miRNAs) in PCa management.
  • Hermans, Karin G, et al. (författare)
  • Overexpression of prostate-specific TMPRSS2(exon 0)-ERG fusion transcripts corresponds with favorable prognosis of prostate cancer.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432. ; 15:20, s. 6398-403
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To gain insight in the mechanism and clinical relevance of TMPRSS2-ERG expression in prostate cancer, we determined the specific characteristics of fusion transcripts starting at TMPRSS2 exon 1 and at a more upstream and less characterized exon 0.We used quantitative PCR analysis to investigate expression of wild-type TMPRSS2(exon 0) and TMPRSS2(exon 1) and of ERG fusion transcripts. Expression was tested in normal tissue samples, in prostate cancer cell lines and xenografts, and in fresh-frozen clinical prostate cancer samples (primary tumors and recurrences). Expression in clinical samples was correlated with disease progression.TMPRSS2(exon 0) and TMPRSS2(exon 1) transcripts were similarly androgen regulated in prostate cancer cell lines, but the expression levels of TMPRSS2(exon 1) were much higher. Comparison of expression in different tissues showed TMPRSS2(exon 0) expression to be much more prostate specific. In androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer xenografts, TMPRSS2(exon 1) transcripts were expressed at similar levels, but TMPRSS2(exon 0) transcripts were expressed at very variable levels. The same phenomenon was observed for TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcripts. In clinical prostate cancers, the expression of TMPRSS2(exon 0)-ERG was even more variable. Expression of TMPRSS2(exon 0)-ERG transcripts was detected in 55% (24 of 44) of gene fusion-positive primary tumors but only in 15% (4 of 27) of gene fusion-positive recurrences and at much lower levels. Furthermore, in primary tumors, expression of TMPRSS2(exon 0)-ERG transcripts was an independent predictor of biochemical progression-free survival.The expression of TMPRSS2(exon 0)-ERG fusion transcripts in prostate cancer is associated with a less-aggressive biological behavior.
  • Larne, Olivia, et al. (författare)
  • miQ - a novel microRNA based diagnostic and prognostic tool for prostate cancer.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 132:12, s. 2867-2875
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Today, the majority of prostate tumours are detected at early stages with uncertain prognosis. Therefore, we set out to identify early predictive markers of prostate cancer with aggressive progression characteristics. We measured the expression of microRNAs (miRNA) using qRT-PCR in FFPE prostatic tissue samples from a Swedish cohort of 49 patients with prostate cancer and 25 without cancer and found eight of 14 preselected miRNAs to discriminate between the two groups. Subsequently four discriminatory miRNAs were combined to a quota, denoted the miRNA index quote (miQ); ((miR-96-5p x miR-183-5p)/(miR-145-5p x miR221-5p)). The advantage using a quote is increased discrimination, no need for house-keepings, and most important it may be an advantage considering the heterogeneity of the disease. miQ was found to successfully predict diagnosis (p<0.0001) with high accuracy (AUC=0.931) that was verified in an independent Dutch cohort and three external cohorts, and significantly outperforming PSA. Importantly, miQ also has prognostic power to predict aggressiveness of tumours (AUC=0.895), metastatic statues (AUC=0.827), and overall survival (p=0.0013, Wilcoxon test HR=6.5, median survival 2 versus 5 years), verified in the Dutch cohort. In this preliminary study we propose that miQ has potential to be used as a clinical tool for prostate cancer diagnosis and as a prognostic marker of disease progression. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • Tomlins, Scott A., et al. (författare)
  • ETS Gene Fusions in Prostate Cancer: From Discovery to Daily Clinical Practice
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - : Elsevier. - 1873-7560. ; 56:2, s. 275-286
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. In 2005, fusions between the androgen-regulated transmembrane protease serine 2 gene, TMPRSS2, and E twenty-six (ETS) transcription factors were discovered in prostate cancer. Objective: To review advances in our understanding of ETS gene fusions, focusing on challenges affecting translation to clinical application. Evidence acquisition: The PubMed database was searched for reports on ETS fusions in prostate cancer. Evidence synthesis: Since the discovery of ETS fusions, novel 5' and 3' fusion partners and multiple splice isoforms have been reported. The most common fusion, TMPRSS2:ERG, is present in approximately 50% of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-screened localized prostate cancers and in 15-35% of population-based cohorts. ETS fusions can be detected noninvasively in the urine of men with prostate cancer, with a specificity rate in PSA-screened cohorts of >90%. Reports from untreated population-based cohorts suggest an association between ETS fusions and cancer-specific death and metastatic spread. In retrospective prostatectomy cohorts, conflicting results have been published regarding associations between ETS fusions and cancer aggressiveness. In addition to serving as a potential biomarker, tissue and functional studies suggest a specific role for ETS fusions in the transition to carcinoma. Finally, recent results suggest that the 5' and 3' ends of ETS fusions as well as downstream targets may be targeted therapeutically. Conclusions: Recent studies suggest that the first clinical applications of ETS fusions are likely to be in noninvasive detection of prostate cancer and in aiding with difficult diagnostic cases. Additional studies are needed to clarify the association between gene fusions and cancer aggressiveness, particularly those studies that take into account the multifocal and heterogeneous nature of localized prostate cancer. Multiple promising strategies have been identified to potentially target ETS fusions. Together, these results suggest that ETS fusions will affect multiple aspects of prostate cancer diagnosis and management. (C) 2009 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • Resultat 1-9 av 9

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