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  • Pan, E., et al. (författare)
  • Low rate of reoperations after acute type A aortic dissection repair from The Nordic Consortium Registry
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. - : Elsevier. - 0022-5223 .- 1097-685X. ; 156:3, s. 939-948
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To describe the relationship between the extent of primary aortic repair and the incidence of reoperations after surgery for type A aortic dissection. Methods: A retrospective cohort of 1159 patients treated for type A aortic dissection at eight Nordic low-to medium-sized cardiothoracic centers from 2005 to 2014. Data were gathered from patient records and national registries. Patients were separately divided into 3 groups according to the distal anastomoses technique (ascending aorta [n = 791], hemiarch [n = 247], and total arch [n = 66]), and into 2 groups for proximal repair (aortic root replacement [n = 285] and supracoronary repair [n = 832]). Freedom from reoperation was estimated with cumulative incidence survival and Fine-Gray competing risk regression model was used to identify independent risk factors for reoperation. Results: The median follow-up was 2.7 years (range, 0-10 years). Altogether 51 out of 911 patients underwent reoperation. Freedom from distal reoperation at 5 years was 96.9%, with no significant difference between the groups (P = .22). Freedom from proximal reoperation at 5 years was 97.8%, with no difference between the groups (P = .84). Neither DeBakey classification nor the extent of proximal or distal repair predicted freedom from a later reoperation. The only independent risk factor associated with a later proximal reoperation was a history of connective tissue disease. Conclusions: Type A aortic dissection repair in low-to medium-volume centers was associated with a low reoperation rate and satisfactory midterm survival. The extent of the primary repair had no significant influence on reoperation rate or midterm survival.
  • Ragnarsson, Sigurdur, et al. (författare)
  • No-touch saphenous vein grafts in coronary artery surgery (SWEDEGRAFT): Rationale and design of a multicenter, prospective, registry-based randomized clinical trial.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: American heart journal. - : MOSBY-ELSEVIER. - 1097-6744 .- 0002-8703. ; 224, s. 17-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The SWEDEGRAFT study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03501303) tests the hypothesis that saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) harvested with the "no-touch" technique improves patency of coronary artery bypass grafts compared with the conventional open skeletonized technique. This article describes the rationale and design of the randomized trial and baseline characteristics of the population enrolled during the first 9 months of enrollment. The SWEDEGRAFT study is a prospective, binational multicenter, open-label, registry-based trial in patients undergoing first isolated nonemergent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), randomized 1:1 to no-touch or conventional open skeletonized vein harvesting technique, with a planned enrollment of 900 patients. The primary end point is the proportion of patients with graft failure defined as SVGs occluded or stenosed >50% on coronary computed tomography angiography at 2 years after CABG, earlier clinically driven coronary angiography demonstrating an occluded or stenosed >50% vein graft, or death within 2 years. High-quality health registries and coronary computed tomography angiography are used to assess the primary end point. The secondary end points include wound healing in the vein graft sites and the composite outcome of major adverse cardiac events during the first 2 years based on registry data. Demographics of the first 200 patients enrolled in the trial and other CABG patients operated in Sweden during the same time period are comparable when the exclusion criteria are taken into consideration. RCT# NCT03501303.
  • Dworeck, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Pretreatment With P2Y12 Receptor Antagonists Preceding Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes With Outcomes.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JAMA network open. - 2574-3805. ; 3:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pretreatment of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) with P2Y12 receptor antagonists is a common practice despite the lack of definite evidence for its benefit.To investigate the association of P2Y12 receptor antagonist pretreatment vs no pretreatment with mortality, stent thrombosis, and in-hospital bleeding in patients with NSTE-ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).This cohort study used prospective data from the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry of 64 857 patients who underwent procedures between 2010 and 2018. All patients who underwent PCI owing to NSTE-ACS in Sweden were stratified by whether they were pretreated with P2Y12 receptor antagonists. Associations of pretreatment with P2Y12 receptor antagonists with the risks of adverse outcomes were investigated using instrumental variable analysis and propensity score matching. Data were analyzed from March to June 2019.Pretreatment with P2Y12 receptor antagonists.The primary end point was all-cause mortality within 30 days. Secondary end points were 1-year mortality, stent thrombosis within 30 days, and in-hospital bleeding.In total, 64 857 patients (mean [SD] age, 64.7 [10.9] years; 46 809 [72.2%] men) were included. A total of 59 894 patients (92.4%) were pretreated with a P2Y12 receptor antagonist, including 27 867 (43.7%) pretreated with clopidogrel, 34 785 (54.5%) pretreated with ticagrelor, and 1148 (1.8%) pretreated with prasugrel. At 30 days, there were 971 deaths (1.5%) and 101 definite stent thromboses (0.2%) in the full cohort. Pretreatment was not associated with better survival at 30 days (odds ratio [OR], 1.17; 95% CI, 0.66-2.11; P = .58), survival at 1 year (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.77-2.34; P = .30), or decreased stent thrombosis (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.42-1.55; P = .52). However, pretreatment was associated with increased risk of in-hospital bleeding (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.06-2.12; P = .02).This cohort study found that pretreatment of patients with NSTE-ACS with P2Y12 receptor antagonists was not associated with improved clinical outcomes but was associated with increased risk of bleeding. These findings support the argument that pretreatment with P2Y12 receptor antagonists should not be routinely used in patients with NSTE-ACS.
  • Gudbjartsson, T., et al. (författare)
  • Acute type-A aortic dissection - a review
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1401-7431 .- 1651-2006. ; 54:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives. Acute type-A aortic dissection (ATAAD) is still one of the most challenging diseases that cardiac surgeons encounter. Design. This review is based on the current literature and includes the results from the Nordic Consortium for Acute Type-A Aortic Dissection (NORCAAD) database. It covers different aspects of ATAAD and concentrates on the outcome of surgical repair. Results and conclusions. The diagnosis is occasionally delayed, and ATAAD is usually lethal if prompt repair is not performed. The dynamic nature of the disease, the variation in presentation and clinical course, and the urgency of treatment require significant attentiveness. Many surgical techniques and perfusion strategies of varying complexity have been described, ranging from simple interposition graft to total arch replacement with frozen elephant trunk and valve-sparing root reconstruction. Although more complex techniques may provide long-term benefit in selected patients, they require significant surgical expertise and experience. Short-term survival is first priority so an expedited operation that fits in with the surgeon's level of expertise is in most cases appropriate.
  • Hansson, Emma C., 1985, et al. (författare)
  • Preoperative dual antiplatelet therapy increases bleeding and transfusions but not mortality in acute aortic dissection type A repair.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. - : Oxford University Press. - 1873-734X .- 1010-7940. ; 56:1, s. 182-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Acute aortic dissection type A is a life-threatening condition, warranting immediate surgery. Presentation with sudden chest pain confers a risk of misdiagnosis as acute coronary syndrome resulting in subsequent potent antiplatelet treatment. We investigated the impact of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) on bleeding and mortality using the Nordic Consortium for Acute Type A Aortic Dissection (NORCAAD) database.The NORCAAD database is a retrospective multicentre database where 119 of 1141 patients (10.4%) had DAPT with ASA + clopidogrel (n = 108) or ASA + ticagrelor (n = 11) before surgery. The incidence of major bleeding and 30-day mortality was compared between DAPT and non-DAPT patients with logistic regression models before and after propensity score matching.Before matching, 51.3% of DAPT patients had major bleeding when compared to 37.7% of non-DAPT patients (P = 0.0049). DAPT patients received more transfusions of red blood cells [median 8 U (Q1-Q3 4-15) vs 5.5 U (2-11), P < 0.0001] and platelets [4 U (2-8) vs 2 U (1-4), P = 0.0001]. Crude 30-day mortality was 19.3% vs 17.0% (P = 0.60). After matching, major bleeding remained significantly more common in DAPT patients, 51.3% vs 39.3% [odds ratio (OR) 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-2.51; P = 0.028], but mortality did not significantly differ (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.51-1.50; P = 0.63). Major bleeding was associated with increased 30-day mortality (adjusted OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.72-3.46; P < 0.0001).DAPT prior to acute aortic dissection repair was associated with increased bleeding and transfusions but not with mortality. Major bleeding per se was associated with a significantly increased mortality. Correct diagnosis is important to avoid DAPT and thereby reduce bleeding risk, but ongoing DAPT should not delay surgery.
  • Klevstig, Martina, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiac expression of the microsomal triglyceride transport protein protects the heart function during ischemia
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. - : Elsevier. - 0022-2828 .- 1095-8584. ; 137, s. 1-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: The microsomal triglyceride transport protein (MTTP) is critical for assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins and is most abundant in the liver and intestine. Surprisingly, MTTP is also expressed in the heart. Here we tested the functional relevance of cardiac MTTP expression. Materials and methods: We combined clinical studies, advanced expression analysis of human heart biopsies and analyses in genetically modified mice lacking cardiac expression of the MTTP-A isoform of MTTP. Results: Our results indicate that lower cardiac MTTP expression in humans is associated with structural and perfusion abnormalities in patients with ischemic heart disease. MTTP-A deficiency in mice heart does not affect total MTTP expression, activity or lipid concentration in the heart. Despite this, MTTP-A deficient mice displayed impaired cardiac function after a myocardial infarction. Expression analysis of MTTP indicates that MTTP expression is linked to cardiac function and responses in the heart. Conclusions: Our results indicate that MTTP may play an important role for the heart function in conjunction to ischemic events.
  • McNamara, R. L., et al. (författare)
  • International comparisons of the management of patients with non-ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction in the United Kingdom, Sweden, and the United States: The MINAP/NICOR, SWEDEHEART/RIKS-HIA, and ACTION Registry-GWTG/NCDR registries
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cardiology. - 0167-5273 .- 1874-1754. ; 175:2, s. 240-247
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To compare management of patients with acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in three developed countries with national ongoing registries. Background: Results from clinical trials suggest significant variation in care across the world. However, international comparisons in "real world" registries are limited. Methods: We compared the use of in-hospital procedures and discharge medications for patients admitted with NSTEMI from 2007 to 2010 using the unselective MINAP/NICOR [England and Wales (UK); n = 137,009], the unselective SWEDEHEART/RIKS-HIA (Sweden; n = 45,069), and the selective ACTION Registry-GWTG/NCDR [United States (US); n = 147,438] clinical registries. Results: Patients enrolled among the three registries were generally similar except those in the US who were younger but had higher rates of smoking, diabetes, hypertension, prior heart failure, and prior MI than in Sweden or in UK. Angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were performed more often in the US (76% and 44%) and Sweden (65% and 42%) relative to the UK (32% and 22%). Discharge betablockers were also prescribed more often in the US (89%) and Sweden (89%) than in the UK (76%). In contrast, discharge statins, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB), and dual antiplatelet agents (among those not receiving PCI) were higher in the UK (92%, 79%, and 71%) than in the US (85%, 65%, 41%) and Sweden (81%, 69%, and 49%). Conclusions: The care for patients with NSTEMI differed substantially among the three countries. These differences in care among countries provide an opportunity for future comparative effectiveness research as well as identify opportunities for global quality improvement. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • Mennander, A., et al. (författare)
  • The significance of bicuspid aortic valve after surgery for acute type A aortic dissection
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. - : Mosby. - 0022-5223 .- 1097-685X. ; 159:3, s. 760-767.e3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Decision-making concerning the extent of the repair of acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) includes functional and anatomical assessment of the aortic valve. We hypothesized that bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) does not impact outcome after surgery for ATAAD. We therefore evaluated the outcome after ATAAD surgery in relation to the presence of BAV, acute aortic regurgitation (AR), and surgical approach, using the Nordic Consortium for Acute Type A Aortic Dissection database. Methods: Eight participating Nordic centers collected data from 1122 patients undergoing ATAAD surgery during the years 2005 to 2014. Early complications, reoperations and survival were compared between patients with BAV and tricuspid aortic valves (TAV) before and after propensity score matching for sex, age, AR, organ malperfusion, hemodynamic instability, and site of the tear. Mean follow-up (range) for patients with TAV and BAV was 3.1 years (0-10.4 years) and 3.2 years (0-9.0 years), respectively. Results: Altogether, 65 (5.8%) of the patients had BAV. Root replacement was more frequently performed in the BAV as compared with the TAV group (60% vs 23%, P <.001). Survival, however, did not differ significantly between patients with BAV or TAV, either before (P =.230) or after propensity score-matching (P =.812). Even so, in cohort as a whole, patients presenting with AR had less favorable survival. Conclusions: Early and mid-term survival did not differ significantly between patients with BAV and TAV. © 2019 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery
  • Taha, Amar, 1978, et al. (författare)
  • New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and Long-Term Outcome: A Population-Based Nationwide Study From the SWEDEHEART Registry.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - 2047-9980. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The long-term impact of new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) after coronary artery bypass grafting and the benefit of early-initiated oral anticoagulation (OAC) in patients with POAF are uncertain. Methods and Results All patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting without preoperative atrial fibrillation in Sweden from 2007 to 2015 were included in a population-based study using data from 4 national registries: SWEDEHEART (Swedish Web System for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies), National Patient Registry, Dispensed Drug Registry, and Cause of Death Registry. POAF was defined as any new-onset atrial fibrillation during the first 30 postoperative days. Cox regression models (adjusted for age, sex, comorbidity, and medication) were used to assess long-term outcome in patients with and without POAF, and potential associations between early-initiated OAC and outcome. In a cohort of 24 523 patients with coronary artery bypass grafting, POAF occurred in 7368 patients (30.0%), and 1770 (24.0%) of them were prescribed OAC within 30 days after surgery. During follow-up (median 4.5 years, range 0‒9 years), POAF was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.18 [95% CI, 1.05‒1.32]), any thromboembolism (ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, or peripheral arterial embolism) (aHR 1.16, 1.05‒1.28), heart failure hospitalization (aHR 1.35, 1.21‒1.51), and recurrent atrial fibrillation (aHR 4.16, 3.76‒4.60), but not with all-cause mortality (aHR 1.08, 0.98‒1.18). Early initiation of OAC was not associated with reduced risk of ischemic stroke or any thromboembolism but with increased risk for major bleeding (aHR 1.40, 1.08‒1.82). Conclusions POAF after coronary artery bypass grafting is associated with negative prognostic impact. The role of early OAC therapy remains unclear. Studies aiming at reducing the occurrence of POAF and its consequences are warranted.
  • Vukusic, Kristina, 1979, et al. (författare)
  • The Atrioventricular Junction: A Potential Niche Region for Progenitor Cells in the Adult Human Heart
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Stem Cells and Development. - 1547-3287. ; 28:16, s. 1078-1088
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A stem cell niche is a microenvironment where stem cells reside in a quiescent state, until activated. In a previous rat model, we combined 5-bromo-2-deoxy-uridine labeling with activation of endogenous stem cells by physical exercise and revealed a distinct region, in the atrioventricular junction (AVj), with features of a stem cell niche. In this study, we aim to investigate whether a similar niche exists in the human heart. Paired biopsies from AVj and left ventricle (LV) were collected both from explanted hearts of organ donors, not used for transplantation (N = 7) and from severely failing hearts from patients undergoing heart transplantation (N = 7). Using antibodies, we investigated the expression of stem cell, hypoxia, proliferation and migration biomarkers. In the collagen-dense region of the AVj in donor hearts, progenitor markers, MDR1, SSEA4, ISL1, WT1, and hypoxia marker, HIF1-alpha, were clearly detected. The expression gradually decreased with distance from the valve. At the myocardium border in the AVj costaining of the proliferation marker Ki67 with cardiomyocyte nuclei marker PCM1 and cardiac Troponin-T (cTnT) indicated proliferation of small cardiomyocytes. In the same site we also detected ISL1(+)/WT1(+)/cTnT cells. In addition, heterogeneity in cardiomyocyte sizes was noted. Altogether, these findings indicate different developmental stages of cardiomyocytes below the region dense in stem cell marker expression. In patients suffering from heart failure the AVj region showed signs of impairment generally displaying much weaker or no expression of progenitor markers. We describe an anatomic structure in the human hearts, with features of a progenitor niche that coincided with the same region previously identified in rats with densely packed cells expressing progenitor and hypoxia markers. The data provided in this study indicate that the adult heart contains progenitor cells and that AVj might be a specific niche region from which the progenitors migrate at the time of regeneration.
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