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  • Bjorck, E, et al. (författare)
  • High expression of cyclin B1 predicts a favorable outcome in patients with follicular lymphoma
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Blood. - : American Society of Hematology. - 1528-0020 .- 0006-4971. ; 105:7, s. 2908-2915
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Substantial research has been dedicated to the study of the relationship between genetic mechanisms regulating cell functions in tumors and how those tumors respond to various treatment regimens. Because these mechanisms are still not well understood, we have chosen to study the genetic makeup of 57 tumor samples from patients with follicular lymphoma (FL). Our goal was to develop a prognostic tool, which can be used as an aid in determining FL patients with tumors genetically predisposed to a successful treatment with the CHOP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, prednisone) regimen. To select relevant genes, high-density oligonucleotide arrays were used. There were 14 genes highly expressed in FL patients that responded well to CHOP chemotherapy, and 11 of these were involved in G(2)/M transition of the cell cycle, in mitosis, or in DNA modulation. A high expression of CCNB1 (cyclin B1), CDC2, CDKN3A, CKS1B, ANP32E, and KIAA0101, but not of the proliferation-related antigen Ki-67, was associated with better survival rate in a univariate analysis. CCNB1 expression had an independent prognostic value when included in a multivariate analysis together with the 5 parameters of the follicular lymphoma international prognostic index.
  • Ekberg, S., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term survival and loss in expectancy of life in a population-based cohort of 7114 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Hematology. - : WILEY. - 0361-8609 .- 1096-8652. ; 93:8, s. 1020-1028
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Survival has improved among patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with the addition of anti-CD20 antibody therapy. We aimed to quantify trends and remaining loss in expectation of life (LEL) due to DLBCL at a national population-based level. Patients diagnosed with DLBCL 2000-2013 (N=7114) were identified through the Swedish Lymphoma Registry and classified according to the age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (aaIPI). The novel measure LEL is the difference between remaining life years among patients and the general population and was predicted using flexible parametric models from diagnosis and among 2-year survivors, by age and sex. Median age at DLBCL-diagnosis was 70 (18-105) years and 54.8% presented with stage III-IV disease. On average, LEL due to DLBCL decreased from 8.0 (95% CI: 7.7-8.3) to 4.6 (95% CI: 4.5-4.6) years over the study period. By risk group, LEL was most reduced among patients with aaIPI >= 2 aged 50-60 years. However, these patients were still estimated to lose >8 years in 2013 (eg, LELmales50years 8.6 years (95% CI: 5.0-12.3)). Among 2-year survivors, LEL was reduced from 6.1 years (95% CI: 5.6-6.5) (aaIPI >= 2) and 3.8 years (95% CI: 3.6-4.1) (aaIPI<2) to 1.1 (95% CI: 1.1-1.2) and 1.0 year (95% CI: 0.8-1.1), respectively. The reduction was observed across all ages. Results for females were similar. By using LEL we illustrate the improvement of DLBCL survival over time. Despite adequate immunochemotherapy, substantial LEL among patients with IPI >= 2 points to remaining unmet medical needs. We speculate that observed reduced losses among 2-year survivors indicate a reduction of late relapses.
  • Eskelund, Christian W., et al. (författare)
  • 15-year follow-up of the Second Nordic Mantle Cell Lymphoma trial (MCL2) : prolonged remissions without survival plateau
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Haematology. - : Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0007-1048 .- 1365-2141. ; 175:3, s. 410-418
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In recent decades, the prognosis of Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) has been significantly improved by intensified first-line regimens containing cytarabine, rituximab and consolidation with high-dose-therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. One such strategy is the Nordic MCL2 regimen, developed by the Nordic Lymphoma Group. We here present the 15-year updated results of the Nordic MCL2 study after a median follow-up of 114years: For all patients on an intent-to-treat basis, the median overall and progression-free survival was 127 and 85years, respectively. The MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI), biological MIPI, including Ki67 expression (MIPI-B) and the MIPI-B including mIR-18b expression (MIPI-B-miR), in particular, significantly divided patients into distinct risk groups. Despite very long response durations of the low and intermediate risk groups, we observed a continuous pattern of relapse and the survival curves never reached a plateau. In conclusion, despite half of the patients being still alive and 40% in first remission after more than 12years, we still see an excess disease-related mortality, even among patients experiencing long remissions. Even though we consider the Nordic regimen as a very good choice of regimen, we recommend inclusion in prospective studies to explore the benefit of novel agents in the frontline treatment of MCL.
  • Geisler, Christian H., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term progression-free survival of mantle cell lymphoma after intensive front-line immunochemotherapy with in vivo-purged stem cell rescue: a nonrandomized phase 2 multicenter study by the Nordic Lymphoma Group
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Blood. - : American Society of Hematology. - 1528-0020 .- 0006-4971. ; 112:7, s. 2687-2693
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is considered incurable. Intensive immunochemotherapy with stem cell support has not been tested in large, prospective series. In the 2nd Nordic MCL trial, we treated 160 consecutive, untreated patients younger than 66 years in a phase 2 protocol with dose-intensified induction immunochemotherapy with rituximab (R) + cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, prednisone (maxi-CHOP), alternating with R + highdose cytarabine. Responders received highdose chemotherapy with BEAM or BEAC carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan/ cyclophosphamide) with R-in vivo purged autologous stem cell support. Overall and complete response was achieved in 96% and 54%, respectively. The 6-year overall, event-free, and progression-free survival were 70%, 56%, and 66%, respectively, with no relapses occurring after 5 years. Multivariate analysis showed Ki-67 to be the sole independent predictor of event-free survival. The nonrelapse mortality was 5%. The majority of stem cell products and patients assessed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after transplantation were negative. Compared with our historical control, the Nordic MCL- 1 trial, the event- free, overall, and progression- free survival, the duration of molecular remission, and the proportion of PCR- negative stem cell products were significantly increased (P < .001). Intensive immunochemotherapy with in vivo purged stem cell support can lead to long-term progression- free survival of MCL and perhaps cure. Registered at www. isrctn. org as # ISRCTN 87866680.
  • Geisler, Christian H., et al. (författare)
  • Nordic MCL2 trial update: six-year follow-up after intensive immunochemotherapy for untreated mantle cell lymphoma followed by BEAM or BEAC plus autologous stem-cell support: still very long survival but late relapses do occur
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Haematology. - : Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0007-1048 .- 1365-2141. ; 158:3, s. 355-362
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a heterogenic non-Hodgkin lymphoma entity, with a median survival of about 5 years. In 2008 we reported the early based on the median observation time of 4 years results of the Nordic Lymphoma Group MCL2 study of frontline intensive induction immunochemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), with more than 60% event-free survival at 5 years, and no subsequent relapses reported. Here we present an update after a median observation time of 6.5 years. The overall results are still excellent, with median overall survival and response duration longer than 10 years, and a median event-free survival of 7.4 years. However, six patients have now progressed later than 5 years after end of treatment. The international MCL Prognostic Index (MIPI) and Ki-67-expression were the only independent prognostic factors. Subdivided by the MIPI-Biological Index (MIPI + Ki-67, MIPI-B), more than 70% of patients with low-intermediate MIPI-B were alive at 10 years, but only 23% of the patients with high MIPI-B. These results, although highly encouraging regarding the majority of the patients, underline the need of a risk-adapted treatment strategy for MCL. The study was registered at as ISRCTN 87866680.
  • Geisler, Christian H., et al. (författare)
  • The Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (MIPI) is superior to the International Prognostic Index (IPI) in predicting survival following intensive first-line immunochemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Blood. - : American Society of Hematology. - 0006-4971 .- 1528-0020. ; 115:8, s. 1530-1533
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) has a heterogeneous clinical course. The recently proposed Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (MIPI) predicted the survival of MCL better than the International Prognostic Index in MCL patients treated with conventional chemotherapy, but its validity in MCL treated with more intensive immunochemotherapy has been questioned. Applied here to 158 patients of the Nordic MCL2 trial of first-line intensive immunochemotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation, the MIPI and the simplified MIPI (s-MIPI) predicted survival significantly better (P < .001) than the International Prognostic Index (P > .004). Both the MIPI and the s-MIPI mainly identified 2 risk groups, low and intermediate versus high risk, with the more easily applied s-MIPI being just as powerful as the MIPI. The MIPI(B) (biological), incorporating Ki-67 expression, identified almost half of the patients as high risk. We suggest that also a simplified MIPI(B) is feasible.
  • Glimelius, I., et al. (författare)
  • Sick leave and disability pension in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors by stage, treatment, and follow-up time-a population-based comparative study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cancer Survivorship. - : Springer. - 1932-2267 .- 1932-2259. ; 9:4, s. 599-609
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose This study seeks to investigate the long-term public health burden of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in terms of work loss following contemporary treatment protocols and associations with established treatment complications and lymphoma relapse. Methods We identified 1,989 Swedish HL patients (1,082 with clinical information) aged 18-60 (median 33) years at diagnosis 1992-2009, and matched 1:4 to population comparators. Sick leave, disability pension (work loss), and comorbidity were retrieved through September 2013. Relative risks (RR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Poisson regression, and mean lost work days were estimated yearly during follow-up. Results The risk of annual work loss was elevated in HL survivors versus comparators up to the 15th year post-diagnosis (RR5th year 1.64, 95 % CI 1.46-1.84; RR10th year 1.33, 95 % CI 1.15-1.34; and RR15th year 1.30, 95 % CI 1.04-1.62). The risk remained elevated up to the 10th year after adjustment for secondary malignancies and cardiovascular disease (RR10th year 1.31, 95 % CI 1.13-1.52). Advanced-stage patients had more lost days than comparators (mean number(5th year) 66 versus 33, mean difference 34, 95 % CI 20-48) as did patients receiving 6-8 chemotherapy courses (62 versus 33, mean difference(5th year) 30, 95 % CI 17-43). Among patients in the first complete remission, a difference was still observed for advanced-stage (51 versus 33, mean difference(5th year) 19, 95 % CI 5-34) but not early-stage disease. Conclusions Advanced-stage HL survivors treated with full-dose chemotherapy were at increased risk of work loss, not only explained by relapse, secondary malignancies, or cardiovascular disease.
  • Harrysson, S., et al. (författare)
  • Incidence of relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) including CNS relapse in a population-based cohort of 4243 patients in Sweden
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Blood Cancer Journal. - : SPRINGERNATURE. - 2044-5385. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We performed a national population-based study of all patients diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in Sweden in 2007-2014 to assess treatment intent and risk of relapsed/refractory disease, including central nervous system (CNS) relapse, in the presence of competing risks. Overall, 84% of patients started treatment with curative intent (anthracycline-based) (n=3550, median age 69 years), whereas 14% did not (n=594, median age 84 years) (for 2% the intent was uncertain). Patients treated with curative intent had a 5-year OS of 65.3% (95% CI: 63.7-66.9). The median OS among non-curatively treated patients was 2.9 months. The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapsed/refractory disease in curative patients was 23.1% (95% CI: 21.7-24.6, n=847). The 2-year cumulative incidence of CNS relapse was 3.0% (95% CI: 2.5-3.6, n=118) overall, and 8.0% (95% CI: 6.0-10.6, n=48) among patients with high CNS-IPI (4-6), when considering other relapse locations and death as competing events. The incidence of relapsed/refractory DLBCL overall and in the CNS was lower than in previous reports, still one in seven patients was not considered fit enough to start standard immunochemotherapy at diagnosis. These results are important for quantification of groups of DLBCL patients with poor prognosis requiring completely different types of interventions.
  • Holte, H., et al. (författare)
  • Dose-densified chemoimmunotherapy followed by systemic central nervous system prophylaxis for younger high-risk diffuse large B-cell/follicular grade 3 lymphoma patients: results of a phase II Nordic Lymphoma Group study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Annals of Oncology. - : Oxford University Press. - 1569-8041 .- 0923-7534. ; 24:5, s. 1385-1392
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Many patients with aggressive B-cell lymphomas and high clinical risk score still die of lymphoma after conventional R-CHOP chemoimmunotherapy. We hypothesized that intensified chemoimmunotherapy including systemic central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis improves outcome and reduces the incidence of CNS-related events. Patients and methods: Inclusion criteria were age 18-65 years, primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or grade III follicular lymphoma without clinical signs of CNS disease and negative cerebrospinal fluid cytology, age-adjusted International Prognostic Index 2-3 and WHO performance score 0-3. Treatment consisted of six courses of R-CHOEP-14 followed by a course of high-dose cytarabine and a course of high-dose methotrexate. Primary end point was failure-free survival (FFS) at 3 years. Results: A total of 156 eligible patients with a median age of 54 years (range 20-64) were included. Three toxic deaths were observed. Three-year overall survival (OS) and FFS rates (median observation time 52 months for survivors) were 81% and 65%, respectively. Seven patients experienced CNS relapse, all within 6 months. Conclusions: The results are promising with favorable 3-year OS and FFS rates, a low toxic death rate and a lower than expected number of CNS events. CNS progression might be further reduced by earlier CNS prophylaxis. CinicalTrials.gov.identifier: NCT01502982.
  • Kolstad, Arne, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular Monitoring after Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation and Preemptive Rituximab Treatment of Molecular Relapse; Results from the Nordic Mantle Cell Lymphoma Studies (MCL2 and MCL3) with Median Follow-Up of 8.5 Years
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Biology of blood and marrow transplantation. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 1083-8791 .- 1523-6536. ; 23:3, s. 428-435
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The main objectives of the present study were to monitor minimal residual disease (MRD) in the bone marrow of patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) to predict clinical relapse and guide preemptive treatment with rituximab. Among the patients enrolled in 2 prospective trials by the Nordic Lymphoma Group, 183 who had completed autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and in whom an MRD marker had been obtained were included in our analysis. Fresh samples of bone marrow were analyzed for MRD by a combined standard nested and quantitative real-time PCR assay for Bcl-1/immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IgH) and clonal IgH rear-rangements. Significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was demonstrated for patients who were MRD positive pre-ASCT (54 patients) or in the first analysis post-ASCT (23 patients). The median PFS was only 20 months in those who were MRD-positive in the first sample post-ASCT, compared with 142 months in the MRD-negative group (P <.0001). OS was 75% at 10 years and median not reached in the MRD-negative group, compared with only 35 months in the MRD-positive group (P <.0001). Of the 86 patients (47%) who remained in continuous molecular remission, 73% were still in clinical remission after 10 years. For all patients, the median time from ASCT to first molecular relapse was 55 months, with a continuous occurrence of late molecular relapses. Fifty-eight patients who experienced MRD relapse received rituximab as preemptive treatment on 1 or more occasions, and in this group, the median time from first molecular relapse to clinical relapse was 55 months. In most cases, rituximab converted patients to MRD negativity (87%), but many patients became MRD-positive again later during follow-up (69%). By multivariate analysis, high-risk Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index score and positive MRD status pre-ASCT predicted early molecular relapse. In conclusion, preemptive rituximab treatment converts patients to MRD negativity and likely postpones clinical relapse. Molecular monitoring offers an opportunity to select some patients for therapeutic intervention and to avoid unnecessary treatment in others. MRD-positive patients in the first analysis post-ASCT have a dismal prognosis and thus are in need of novel strategies.
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