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Sökning: WFRF:(Jogi Rain)

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1.
  • Bengtsson, Caroline, et al. (författare)
  • Incident Chronic Rhinosinusitis Is Associated With Impaired Sleep Quality : Results of the RHINE Study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine (JCSM). - : American Academy of Sleep Medicine. - 1550-9389 .- 1550-9397. ; 15:6, s. 899-905
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Study Objectives: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common inflammatory disease of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Associations between CRS and poor sleep quality have been reported. This 10-year follow-up study investigates possible associations between incident CRS and sleep quality.Methods: A questionnaire was sent to 16,500 individuals in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Iceland and Estonia in 2000. It included questions on airway diseases, age, sex, body mass index, smoking habits, comorbidities, education and sleep quality. In 2010, a second questionnaire was sent to the same individuals, with a response rate of 53%. A subgroup of 5,145 individuals without nasal symptoms in 2000 was studied. Multiple logistic regression was performed to examine associations between CRS (defined according to the European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps epidemiological criteria) at follow-up and sleep quality, with adjustment for potential confounders. Individuals with the respective sleep problem at baseline were excluded.Results: Over 10 years, 141 (2.7%) of the individuals without nasal symptoms in 2000 had developed CRS. CRS was associated with difficulties inducing sleep (adjusted odds ratio 2.81 [95% CI 1.67–4.70]), difficulties maintaining sleep (2.07 [1.35–3.18]), early morning awakening (3.03 [1.91–4.81]), insomnia (2.21 [1.46–3.35]), excessive daytime sleepiness (2.85 [1.79–4.55]), and snoring (3.31 [2.07–5.31]). Three insomnia symptoms at baseline increased the risk of CRS at follow-up by 5.00 (1.93–12.99).Conclusions: Incident CRS is associated with impaired sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness. Insomnia symptoms may be a risk factor for the development of CRS.
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2.
  • Mindus, S., et al. (författare)
  • Asthma and COPD overlap (ACO) is related to a high burden of sleep disturbance and respiratory symptoms: Results from the RHINE and Swedish GA(2)LEN surveys
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 13:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The term Asthma and COPD Overlap (ACO) describes a condition where asthma and COPD overlap. We aimed to investigate associations between ACO and insomnia and respiratory symptoms, and to investigate the prevalence of ACO and the characteristics of subjects with ACO in two Northern European population studies. The study comprised 25 429 subjects aged >40 years who participated in one of two Northern European general population surveys. Both surveys included questions on asthma, COPD, respiratory and sleep-related symptoms, including difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, early-morning awakening, and excessive daytime sleepiness. ACO was defined as having both self-reported asthma and COPD. The prevalence of ACO was 1.0%. The group with ACO had a higher prevalence of both insomnia and respiratory symptoms than subjects with only asthma or COPD. Having ACO was independently associated with a 2-3 times higher probability of having sleep-related symptoms as compared with the group without asthma or COPD, after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, smoking history and educational level (adjusted odds ratio 2.14-3.36, 95% CI). Subjects with ACO have a high prevalence of insomnia and respiratory symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the association between sleep-related symptoms and ACO.
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3.
  • Amaral, Andre F. S., et al. (författare)
  • Changes in IgE sensitization and total IgE levels over 20 years of follow-up
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 137:6, s. 1788-1795
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of sensitization in older adults, but few longitudinal studies have examined whether this is an aging or a year-of-birth cohort effect. Objective: We sought to assess changes in sensitization and total IgE levels in a cohort of European adults as they aged over a 20-year period. Methods: Levels of serum specific IgE to common aeroallergens (house dust mite, cat, and grass) and total IgE levels were measured in 3206 adults from 25 centers in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey on 3 occasions over 20 years. Changes in sensitization and total IgE levels were analyzed by using regression analysis corrected for potential differences in laboratory equipment and by using inverse sampling probability weights to account for nonresponse. Results: Over the 20-year follow-up, the prevalence of sensitization to at least 1 of the 3 allergens decreased from 29.4% to 24.8% (-4.6%; 95% CI, -7.0% to -2.1%). The prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite (-4.3%; 95% CI, -6.0% to -2.6%) and cat (-2.1%; 95% CI, -3.6% to -0.7%) decreased more than sensitization to grass (-0.6%; 95% CI, -2.5% to 1.3%). Age-specific prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite and cat did not differ between year-of-birth cohorts, but sensitization to grass was most prevalent in the most recent ones. Overall, total IgE levels decreased significantly (geometric mean ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.58-0.68) at all ages in all year-of-birth cohorts. Conclusion: Aging was associated with lower levels of sensitization, especially to house dust mite and cat, after the age of 20 years.
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4.
  • Hagg, S. A., et al. (författare)
  • Smokers with insomnia symptoms are less likely to stop smoking
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Respiratory Medicine. - : Elsevier. - 0954-6111 .- 1532-3064. ; 170
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Smoking is associated with sleep disturbances. The aim of this study was to analyze whether sleep disturbances are predictors of smoking cessation and whether continued smoking is associated with the development of sleep disturbances. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to randomly selected men and women in Northern Europe in 1999-2001 (RHINE II) and was followed up by a questionnaire in 2010-2012 (RHINE III). The study population consisted of 2568 participants who were smokers at baseline and provided data on smoking at follow-up. Insomnia symptoms were defined as having difficulty initiating and/or maintaining sleep and/or early morning awakening >= 3 nights/week. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (OR). Results: Subjects with difficulty initiating sleep (adjusted odds ratio; 95% confidence interval: 0.6; 0.4-0.8), difficulty maintaining sleep (0.7; 0.5-0.9), early morning awakening (0.6; 0.4-0.8), any insomnia symptom (0.6; 0.5-0.8) or excessive daytime sleepiness (0.7; 0.5-0.8) were less likely to achieve long-term smoking cessation after adjustment for age, BMI, pack-years, hypertension, diabetes, chronic bronchitis, rhinitis, asthma, gender and BMI difference. There was no significant association between snoring and smoking cessation. In subjects without sleep disturbance at baseline, continued smoking increased the risk of developing difficulty initiating sleep during the follow-up period compared with those that had quit smoking (adj. OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.3). Conclusions: Insomnia symptoms and excessive daytime sleepiness negatively predict smoking cessation. Smoking is a risk factor for the development of difficulty initiating sleep. Treatment for sleep disturbances should be included in smoking-cessation programs.
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5.
  • Johannessen, Ane, et al. (författare)
  • Being overweight in childhood, puberty, or early adulthood : Changing asthma risk in the next generation?
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Elsevier. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 145:3, s. 791-799
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Overweight status and asthma have increased during the last decades. Being overweight is a known risk factor for asthma, but it is not known whether it might also increase asthma risk in the next generation.Objective: We aimed to examine whether parents being overweight in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood is associated with asthma in their offspring.Methods: We included 6347 adult offspring (age, 18-52 years) investigated in the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) multigeneration study of 2044 fathers and 2549 mothers (age, 37-66 years) investigated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) study. Associations of parental overweight status at age 8 years, puberty, and age 30 years with offspring's childhood overweight status (potential mediator) and offspring's asthma with or without nasal allergies (outcomes) was analyzed by using 2-level logistic regression and 2-level multinomial logistic regression, respectively. Counterfactual-based mediation analysis was performed to establish whether observed associations were direct or indirect effects mediated through the offspring's own overweight status.Results: We found statistically significant associations between both fathers' and mothers' childhood overweight status and offspring's childhood overweight status (odds ratio, 2.23 [95% CI, 1.45-3.42] and 2.45 [95% CI, 1.86-3.22], respectively). We also found a statistically significant effect of fathers' onset of being overweight in puberty on offspring's asthma without nasal allergies (relative risk ratio, 2.31 [95% CI, 1.23-4.33]). This effect was direct and not mediated through the offspring's own overweight status. No effect on offspring's asthma with nasal allergies was found.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that metabolic factors long before conception can increase asthma risk and that male puberty is a time window of particular importance for offspring's health.
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6.
  • Lytras, T., et al. (författare)
  • Cumulative Occupational Exposures and Lung-Function Decline in Two Large General-Population Cohorts
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Annals of the American Thoracic Society. - New York : American Thorax Society. - 1546-3222 .- 2329-6933 .- 2325-6621 .- 1943-5665. ; 18:2, s. 238-246
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale: Few longitudinal studies have assessed the relationship between occupational exposures and lung-function decline in the general population with a sufficiently long follow-up. Objectives: To examine the potential association in two large cohorts: the ECRHS (European Community Respiratory Health Survey) and the SAPALDIA (Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults). Methods: General-population samples of individuals aged 18 to 62 were randomly selected in 1991-1993 and followed up approximately 10 and 20 years later. Spirometry (without bronchodilation) was performed at each visit. Coded complete job histories during follow-up visits were linked to a job-exposure matrix, generating cumulative exposure estimates for 12 occupational exposures. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were jointly modeled in linear mixed-effects models, fitted in a Bayesian framework, taking into account age and smoking. Results: A total of 40,024 lung-function measurements from 17,833 study participants were analyzed. We found accelerated declines in FEV1 and the FEV1/FVC ratio for exposure to biological dust, mineral dust, and metals (FEV1 = -15.1 ml, -14.4 ml, and -18.7 ml, respectively; and FEV1/FVC ratio = -0.52%, -0.43%, and -0.36%, respectively; per 25 intensity-years of exposure). These declines were comparable in magnitude with those associated with long-term smoking. No effect modification by sex or smoking status was identified. Findings were similar between the ECRHS and the SAPALDIA cohorts. Conclusions: Our results greatly strengthen the evidence base implicating occupation, independent of smoking, as a risk factor for lung-function decline. This highlights the need to prevent or control these exposures in the workplace.
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7.
  • Pesce, G., et al. (författare)
  • Low serum DHEA-S is associated with impaired lung function in women
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: EClinicalMedicine. - : Elsevier. - 2589-5370. ; 23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Emerging evidence suggests that androgens and estrogens have a role in respiratory health, but it is largely unknown whether levels of these hormones can affect lung function in adults from the general population. This study investigated whether serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), a key precursor of both androgens and estrogens in peripheral tissues, was related to lung function in adult women participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Methods: Lung function and serum DHEA-S concentrations were measured in n = 2,045 and n = 1,725 women in 1999–2002 and in 2010–2013, respectively. Cross-sectional associations of DHEA-S levels (expressed as age-adjusted z-score) with spirometric outcomes were investigated, adjusting for smoking habits, body mass index, menopausal status, and use of corticosteroids. Longitudinal associations of DHEA-S levels in 1999–2002 with incidence of restrictive pattern and airflow limitation in 2010–2013 were also assessed. Findings: Women with low DHEA-S (z-score<-1) had lower FEV1 (% of predicted, adjusted difference: -2.2; 95%CI: -3.5 to -0.9) and FVC (-1.7; 95%CI: -2.9 to -0.5) and were at a greater risk of having airflow limitation and restrictive pattern on spirometry than women with higher DHEA-S levels. In longitudinal analyses, low DHEA-S at baseline was associated with a greater incidence of airflow limitation after an 11-years follow-up (incidence rate ratio, 3.43; 95%CI: 1.91 to 6.14). Interpretation: Low DHEA-S levels in women were associated with impaired lung function and a greater risk of developing airflow limitation later in adult life. Our findings provide new evidence supporting a role of DHEA-S in respiratory health. Funding: EU H2020, grant agreement no.633212 © 2020 The Authors
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8.
  • Timm, S., et al. (författare)
  • Does parental farm upbringing influence the risk of asthma in offspring? A three-generation study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International journal of epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 49:6, s. 1874-1882
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A farm upbringing has been associated with lower risk of asthma and methylation of asthma-related genes. As such, a farm upbringing has the potential to transfer asthma risk across generations, but this has never been investigated. We aimed to study the generational effects from a parental farm upbringing on offspring asthma. Methods: Our study involved three generations: 5759 participants from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) study (born 1945-1971, denoted G1), their 9991 parents (GO) and their 8260 offspring (G2) participating in RHINESSA (Respiratory Health In Northern Europe, Spain and Australia). Questionnaire data were collected on GO and G1 from G1 in 2010 and on G2 from themselves in 2013. The parental/grandparental place of upbringing was categorized: (i) both parents from farm; (ii) mother from farm, father from village/city; (iii) father from farm, mother from village/city; (iv) both parents from village or one parent from village and one from city; (v) both parents from city (reference group). Grandparental upbringing was equivalently categorized. Offspring asthma was self-reported and data were analysed using Cox-regression models with G2 age as the time scale. Results: A parental farm upbringing was not associated with offspring asthma when compared with city upbringing [hazard ratio (HR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-1.69]. Findings remained similar when stratified by offspring upbringing and asthma phenotypes. Quantitative bias analyses showed similar estimates for alternative data sources. A grandparental farm upbringing was not associated with offspring asthma in either the maternal (HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.67-1.65) or paternal line (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.62-1.68). Conclusions: This multigenerational analysis suggests no evidence of an association between parental/grandparental farm upbringing and offspring asthma.
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9.
  • Timm, S., et al. (författare)
  • Place of upbringing in early childhood as related to inflammatory bowel diseases in adulthood: a population-based cohort study in Northern Europe
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 29:6, s. 429-437
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The two inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, has increased rapidly during the twentieth century, but the aetiology is still poorly understood. Impaired immunological competence due to decreasing biodiversity and altered microbial stimulation is a suggested explanation. Objective Place of upbringing was used as a proxy for the level and diversity of microbial stimulation to investigate the effects on the prevalence of IBD in adulthood. Methods Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE) III is a postal follow-up questionnaire of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) cohorts established in 1989-1992. The study population was 10,864 subjects born 1945-1971 in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia, who responded to questionnaires in 2000-2002 and 2010-2012. Data were analysed in logistic and Cox regression models taking age, sex, smoking and body mass index into consideration. Results Being born and raised on a livestock farm the first 5 years of life was associated with a lower risk of IBD compared to city living in logistic (OR 0.54, 95 % CI 0.31; 0.94) and Cox regression models (HR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.31; 0.98). Random-effect meta-analysis did not identify geographical difference in this association. Furthermore, there was a significant trend comparing livestock farm living, village and city living (p < 0.01). Sub-analyses showed that the protective effect was only present among subjects born after 1952 (OR 0.25, 95 % CI 0.11; 0.61). Conclusion This study suggests a protective effect from livestock farm living in early childhood on the occurrence of IBD in adulthood, however only among subjects born after 1952. We speculate that lower microbial diversity is an explanation for the findings.
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10.
  • Triebner, Kai, et al. (författare)
  • Exogenous female sex steroids may reduce lung ageing after menopause : A 20-year follow-up study of a general population sample (ECRHS)
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Maturitas. - : ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD. - 0378-5122 .- 1873-4111. ; 120, s. 29-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Menopause involves hypoestrogenism, which is associated with numerous detrimental effects, including on respiratory health. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is often used to improve symptoms of menopause. The effects of HRT on lung function decline, hence lung ageing, have not yet been investigated despite the recognized effects of HRT on other health outcomes. Study design: The population-based multi-centre European Community Respiratory Health Survey provided complete data for 275 oral HRT users at two time points, who were matched with 383 nonusers and analysed with a two-level linear mixed effects regression model. Main outcome measures: We studied whether HRT use was associated with the annual decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). Results: Lung function of women using oral HRT for more than five years declined less rapidly than that of nonusers. The adjusted difference in FVC decline was 5.6 mL/y (95%CI: 1.8 to 9.3, p = 0.01) for women who had taken HRT for six to ten years and 8.9 mL/y (3.5 to 14.2, p = 0.003) for those who had taken it for more than ten years. The adjusted difference in FEV1 decline was 4.4 mL/y (0.9 to 8.0, p = 0.02) with treatment from six to ten years and 5.3 mL/y (0.4 to 10.2, p = 0.048) with treatment for over ten years. Conclusions: In this longitudinal population-based study, the decline in lung function was less rapid in women who used HRT, following a dose-response pattern, and consistent when adjusting for potential confounding factors. This may signify that female sex hormones are of importance for lung ageing.
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