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1.
  • Agnarsson, Hjalmar Ragnar, et al. (författare)
  • The impact of glucocorticoid replacement on bone mineral density in patients with hypopituitarism before and after 2 years of growth hormone replacement therapy.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 1945-7197. ; 99:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Patients with hypopituitarism have reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of glucocorticoid (GC) replacement on BMD before and after two years of growth hormone (GH) therapy in hypopituitary patients. The main hypothesis was that patients on GC replacement demonstrate greater improvement in BMD when treated with GH. Design: This was a post hoc analysis of data from a prospective single centre study. Patients: Data on 175 adult patients with hypopituitarism and verified GH deficiency due to non-functioning pituitary adenoma were analyzed. Ninety-eight (56%) were GC insufficient, receiving a mean±SD hydrocortisone equivalent dose of 20.9±5.0 mg/day. Main outcome measure: BMD before and after two years of GH replacement therapy, measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: BMD at baseline did not differ between GC sufficient and insufficient patients, neither at lumbar spine nor femur neck. After two years on GH replacement BMD increased in both groups. After adjustment for weight, age, gender, free T4 concentrations, change in IGF-I levels and sex hormone treatment, GC sufficiency was associated with greater increase in BMD at femur neck (ΔT-score in GC insufficient patients 0.09±0.46, in GC sufficient patients 0.19±0.43; P<0.05) but not at lumbar spine. Conclusions: GH replacement therapy for 2 years increased BMD in hypopituitary patients. In contrast to our hypothesis, GC insufficient patients receiving near physiological doses of hydrocortisone do not show a greater therapeutic response to GH therapy than their GC sufficient counterparts.
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2.
  • Allen, D. B., et al. (författare)
  • GH safety workshop position paper: a critical appraisal of recombinant human GH therapy in children and adults
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - 0804-4643. ; 174:2, s. P1-P9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recombinant human GH (rhGH) has been in use for 30 years, and over that time its safety and efficacy in children and adults has been subject to considerable scrutiny. In 2001, a statement from the GH Research Society (GRS) concluded that 'for approved indications, GH is safe'; however, the statement highlighted a number of areas for on-going surveillance of long-term safety, including cancer risk, impact on glucose homeostasis, and use of high dose pharmacological rhGH treatment. Over the intervening years, there have been a number of publications addressing the safety of rhGH with regard to mortality, cancer and cardiovascular risk, and the need for long-term surveillance of the increasing number of adults who were treated with rhGH in childhood. Against this backdrop of interest in safety, the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE), the GRS, and the Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) convened a meeting to reappraise the safety of rhGH. The ouput of the meeting is a concise position statement.
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3.
  • Allen, David B, et al. (författare)
  • Growth Hormone Safety Workshop Position Paper: a critical appraisal of recombinant human growth hormone therapy in children and adults.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - : Society of the European Journal of Endocrinology. - 1479-683X.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) has been in use for 30 years, and over that time its safety and efficacy in children and adults has been subject to considerable scrutiny. In 2001, a statement from the GH Research Society (GRS) concluded that 'for approved indications, GH is safe'; however, the statement highlighted a number of areas for on-going surveillance of long-term safety including; cancer risk, impact on glucose homeostasis and use of high dose pharmacological rhGH treatment. Over the intervening years, there have been a number of publications addressing the safety of rhGH with regard to mortality, cancer and cardiovascular risk and the need for longterm surveillance of the increasing number of adults who were treated with rhGH in childhood. Against this backdrop of interest in safety, the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE), the GRS and the Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) convened a meeting to reappraise the safety of rhGH. The ouput of the meeting is a concise position statement.
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4.
  • Andela, C. D., et al. (författare)
  • MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY Cushing's syndrome causes irreversible effects on the human brain: a systematic review of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - 0804-4643. ; 173:1, s. R1-R14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Cushing's syndrome (CS) is characterized by excessive exposure to cortisol, and is associated with both metabolic and behavioral abnormalities. Symptoms improve substantially after biochemical cure, but may persist during long-term remission. The causes for persistent morbidity are probably multi-factorial, including a profound effect of cortisol excess on the brain, a major target area for glucocorticoids. Objective: To review publications evaluating brain characteristics in patients with CS using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Systematic review of literature published in PubMed, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane databases. Results: Nineteen studies using MRI in patients with CS were selected, including studies in patients with active disease, patients in long-term remission, and longitudinal studies, covering a total of 339 unique patients. Patients with active disease showed smaller hippocampal volumes, enlarged ventricles, and cerebral atrophy as well as alterations in neurochemical concentrations and functional activity. After abrogation of cortisol excess, the reversibility of structural and neurochemical alterations was incomplete after long-term remission. MRI findings were related to clinical characteristics (i.e., cortisol levels, duration of exposure to hypercortisolism, current age, age at diagnosis, and triglyceride levels) and behavioral outcome (i.e., cognitive and emotional functioning, mood, and quality of life). Conclusion: Patients with active CS demonstrate brain abnormalities, which only partly recover after biochemical cure, because these still occur even after long-term remission. CS might be considered as a human model of nature that provides a keyhole perspective of the neurotoxic effects of exogenous glucocorticoids on the brain.
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5.
  • Andersson, Agnes, et al. (författare)
  • Headache Before and After Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Pituitary Tumor Surgery: A Prospective Study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurological Surgery Part B-Skull Base. - 2193-6331.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Headache is a common symptom among patients with pituitary tumors, as it is in the general population. The aim of the study was to investigate headache as a symptom in patients with pituitary tumors before and 6 months after endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). Design This is a prospective observational cohort study. Setting This study was conducted at university tertiary referral hospital. Participants A total of 110 adult patients underwent endoscopic TSS for pituitary tumors. Main Outcome Measures The Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire was used before and 6 months after surgery for the assessment of headache. Clinical variables with potential influence on headache were analyzed. Results Sixty-eight (62%) patients experienced headaches at least once during the 3 months before surgery. Thirty (27%) patients reported disabling headache before surgery, with younger age being an independent associated factor ( p <0.001). In patients with disabling headache before surgery, the median (interquartile range) MIDAS score improved from 78 (27-168) to 16 (2-145; p =0.049), headache frequency decreased from 45 (20-81) to 14 (4-35) days ( p =0.009), and headache intensity decreased from 6 (5-8) to 5 (4-7) ( p =0.011) after surgery. In total, 16 of the 30 (53%) patients reported a clinically relevant improvement and five (17%) a clinically relevant worsening. Four (5%) patients developed new disabling headache. No predictor for postoperative improvement of headache was identified. Conclusion In this prospective study, the results show that disabling headache improves following endoscopic TSS in a subset of patients with pituitary tumors. However, no predictive factors for improvement could be identified.
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6.
  • Andersson, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Raloxifene does not affect insulin sensitivity or glycemic control in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized clinical trial.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 0021-972X. ; 87:1, s. 122-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Little is known about the metabolic or cardiovascular effects of selective ER modulators (SERMs), such as raloxifene hydrochloride (RLX), in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Therefore, the effect of RLX vs. placebo (PL) on glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, as well as effects on a number of hormone, lipid, coagulation, and safety factors were determined in 30 postmenopausal women with type 2 DM in a randomized, double blind, cross-over trial. All participants had a SHBG serum concentration below 60 nmol/liter at baseline and had stable diabetes controlled by either oral hypoglycemic agents or diet for 1 month. In the first treatment period, participants received 12 wk of either PL or RLX, followed by an 8-wk washout before the second treatment period. In the second treatment period, participants were crossed over to the other treatment. Compared with PL, RLX did not significantly affect fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A(1c), lipids, fasting insulin, or insulin sensitivity (as measured by the euglycemic clamp technique). Compared with PL, RLX reduced fibrinogen levels by 0.77 g/liter (P < 0.001), IGF-I by 2.4 nmol/liter (P < 0.001), and free T by 0.73 pmol/liter (P = 0.038) and increased SHBG by 5.5 nmol/liter (P = 0.001) and IGF-binding protein-3 by 0.57 ng/ml (P = 0.007). Our results demonstrate that RLX does not significantly affect glycemic control and has favorable or neutral effects on selected surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus while decreasing hyperandrogenicity in these patients.
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7.
  • Barbosa, Edna J L, 1961, et al. (författare)
  • Extracellular water and blood pressure in adults with growth hormone (GH) deficiency: a genotype-phenotype association study.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PloS one. - 1932-6203. ; 9:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adults is associated with decreased extracellular water volume (ECW). In response to GH replacement therapy (GHRT), ECW increases and blood pressure (BP) reduces or remains unchanged. Our primary aim was to study the association between polymorphisms in genes related to renal tubular function with ECW and BP before and 1 year after GHRT. The ECW measures using bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) were validated against a reference method, the sodium bromide dilution method (Br(-)).
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8.
  • Barbosa, Edna J L, 1961, et al. (författare)
  • Genotypes associated with lipid metabolism contribute to differences in serum lipid profile of GH-deficient adults before and after GH replacement therapy.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European journal of endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies. - 1479-683X .- 0804-4643. ; 167:3, s. 353-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • bjective: GH deficiency (GHD) in adults is associated with an altered serum lipid profile that responds to GH replacement therapy (GHRT). This study evaluated the influence of polymorphisms in genes related to lipid metabolism on serum lipid profile before and after 1 year of GHRT in adults. Design and methods: In 318 GHD patients, total cholesterol (TC) serum concentrations, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides (TG) were assessed. Using a candidate gene approach, 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped. GH dose was individually titrated to obtain normal serum IGF1 concentrations. Results: At baseline, the minor alleles of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene SNPs rs708272 and rs1800775 were associated with higher serum TC and apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene SNP rs7412 with lower TC concentrations; CETP SNPs rs708272, rs1800775, and rs3764261 and apolipoprotein B (APOB) gene SNP rs693 with higher serum HDL-C; APOE SNP rs7412, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) gene SNP rs10865710 with lower LDL-C, and CETP SNP rs1800775 with higher LDL-C; and APOE/C1/C4/C2 cluster SNP rs35136575 with lower serum TG. After treatment, APOB SNP rs676210 GG genotype was associated with larger reductions in TC and LDL-C and PPARG SNP rs10865710 CC genotype with greater TC reduction. All associations remained significant when adjusted for age, sex, and BMI. Conclusions: In GHD adults, multiple SNPs in genes related to lipid metabolism contributed to individual differences in baseline serum lipid profile. The GH treatment response in TC and LDL-C was influenced by polymorphisms in the APOB and PPARG genes.
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9.
  • Barbosa, Edna J L, 1961, et al. (författare)
  • Influence of the Exon 3-deleted/full-length Growth Hormone Receptor Polymorphism on the Response to Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy in Adults with Severe Growth Hormone Deficiency. : d3-GHR isoform in GHD adults
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 0021-972X. ; 94:2, s. 639-644
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: There is considerable individual variation in the clinical response to growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in GH deficient (GHD) adults. Useful predictors of treatment response are lacking. Objective: To assess the influence of the exon 3-deleted (d3-GHR) and full-length (fl-GHR) GH receptor isoforms on the response to GH replacement therapy in adults with severe GHD. Design, Patients: 124 adult GHD patients (79 men, median age 50 years) were studied before and after 12 months of GH therapy. GHD patients were divided into those bearing fl/fl alleles (Group 1) and those bearing at least one d3-GHR allele (Group 2), and the genotype was related to the effects of GH therapy on IGF-I levels and total body fat (BF). Intervention: GH dose was individually titrated to obtain normal serum IGF-I levels. Main Outcome Measures: GHR genotype was determined by PCR amplification, IGF-I levels by immunoassay, and BF by a four-compartment model. Results: Seventy-two (58%) patients had fl/fl genotype and were classified as Group 1, while 52 (42%) had at least one d3-GHR allele and were classified as Group 2 (40 were heterozygous and 12 were homozygous). At baseline, there were no significant differences in the study groups. Changes in IGF-I and BF after 12 months of GH treatment did not differ significantly between the two genotype groups. Conclusion: The presence of d3-GHR allele did not influence the response to GH replacement therapy in our cohort of adults with severe GHD.
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10.
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