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  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Commissioning of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer with cosmic rays
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - : Springer. - 1434-6044 .- 1434-6052. ; 70:3, s. 875-916
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider has collected several hundred million cosmic ray events during 2008 and 2009. These data were used to commission the Muon Spectrometer and to study the performance of the trigger and tracking chambers, their alignment, the detector control system, the data acquisition and the analysis programs. We present the performance in the relevant parameters that determine the quality of the muon measurement. We discuss the single element efficiency, resolution and noise rates, the calibration method of the detector response and of the alignment system, the track reconstruction efficiency and the momentum measurement. The results show that the detector is close to the design performance and that the Muon Spectrometer is ready to detect muons produced in high energy proton-proton collisions.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Studies of the performance of the ATLAS detector using cosmic-ray muons
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - : Springer. - 1434-6044 .- 1434-6052. ; 71:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Muons from cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere provide a high-statistics source of particles that can be used to study the performance and calibration of the ATLAS detector. Cosmic-ray muons can penetrate to the cavern and deposit energy in all detector subsystems. Such events have played an important role in the commissioning of the detector since the start of the installation phase in 2005 and were particularly important for understanding the detector performance in the time prior to the arrival of the first LHC beams. Global cosmic-ray runs were undertaken in both 2008 and 2009 and these data have been used through to the early phases of collision data-taking as a tool for calibration, alignment and detector monitoring. These large datasets have also been used for detector performance studies, including investigations that rely on the combined performance of different subsystems. This paper presents the results of performance studies related to combined tracking, lepton identification and the reconstruction of jets and missing transverse energy. Results are compared to expectations based on a cosmic-ray event generator and a full simulation of the detector response.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • The ATLAS Inner Detector commissioning and calibration
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - : Springer. - 1434-6044 .- 1434-6052. ; 70:3, s. 787-821
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ATLAS Inner Detector is a composite tracking system consisting of silicon pixels, silicon strips and straw tubes in a 2 T magnetic field. Its installation was completed in August 2008 and the detector took part in data-taking with single LHC beams and cosmic rays. The initial detector operation, hardware commissioning and in-situ calibrations are described. Tracking performance has been measured with 7.6 million cosmic-ray events, collected using a tracking trigger and reconstructed with modular pattern-recognition and fitting software. The intrinsic hit efficiency and tracking trigger efficiencies are close to 100%. Lorentz angle measurements for both electrons and holes, specific energy-loss calibration and transition radiation turn-on measurements have been performed. Different alignment techniques have been used to reconstruct the detector geometry. After the initial alignment, a transverse impact parameter resolution of 22.1 +/- 0.9 mu m and a relative momentum resolution sigma (p) /p=(4.83 +/- 0.16)x10(-4) GeV(-1)xp (T) have been measured for high momentum tracks.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • The ATLAS Simulation Infrastructure
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - : Springer. - 1434-6044 .- 1434-6052. ; 70:3, s. 823-874
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The simulation software for the ATLAS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is being used for large-scale production of events on the LHC Computing Grid. This simulation requires many components, from the generators that simulate particle collisions, through packages simulating the response of the various detectors and triggers. All of these components come together under the ATLAS simulation infrastructure. In this paper, that infrastructure is discussed, including that supporting the detector description, interfacing the event generation, and combining the GEANT4 simulation of the response of the individual detectors. Also described are the tools allowing the software validation, performance testing, and the validation of the simulated output against known physics processes.
  • Bartek, Jiri, et al. (författare)
  • Scandinavian Multicenter Acute Subdural Hematoma (SMASH) Study: Study Protocol for a Multinational Population-Based Consecutive Cohort.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Neurosurgery. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 1524-4040 .- 0148-396X. ; 84:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Traumatic acute subdural hematomas (ASDHs) are associated with high rate of morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly individuals. However, recent reports indicate that the morbidity and mortality rates might have improved.To evaluate postoperative (30-d) mortality in younger vs elderly (≥70 yr) patients with ASDH. Comparing younger and elderly patients, the secondary objectives are morbidity patterns of care and 6 mo outcome according to Glasgow outcome scale (GOS). Finally, in patients with traumatic ASDH, we aim to provide prognostic variables.This is a large-scale population-based Scandinavian study including all neurosurgical departments in Denmark and Sweden. All adult (≥18 yr) patients surgically treated between 2010 and 2014 for a traumatic ASDH in Denmark and Sweden will be included. Identification at clinicaltrials.gov is NCT03284190.We expect to provide data on potential differences between younger vs elderly patients in terms of mortality and morbidity. We hypothesize that elderly patients selected for surgery have a similar pattern of care as compared with younger patients. We will provide functional outcome in terms of GOS at 6 mo in younger vs elderly patients undergoing ASDH evacuation. Finally, clinical useful prognostic factors for favorable (GOS 4-5) vs unfavorable (GOS 1-3) will be identified.An improved understanding of the clinical outcome, treatment and resource allocation, clinical course, and the prognostic factors of traumatic ASDH will allow neurosurgeons to make better treatment decisions.
  • Jacob, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • A digital heterodyne laser interferometer for studying cochlear mechanics
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neuroscience Methods. - 0165-0270 .- 1872-678X. ; 179:2, s. 271-277
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Laser interferometry is the technique of choice for studying the smallest displacements of the hearing organ. For low intensity sound stimulation, these displacements may be below 1 nm. This cannot be reliably measured with other presently available techniques in an intact organ of Corti. In a heterodyne interferometer, light is projected against an object of study and motion of the target along the optical axis causes phase and frequency modulations of the back-reflected light. To recover object motion, the reflected light is made to interfere with a reference beam of artificially altered frequency, producing a beating signal. In conventional interferometers, this carrier signal is demodulated with analog electronics. In this paper, we describe a digital implementation of the technique, using direct carrier sampling. In order to obtain the necessary reference signal for demodulation we introduce an additional third light path. Together, this results in lower noise and reduces the cost of the system.Within the hearing organ, different structures may move in different directions. It is therefore necessary to precisely measure the angle of incidence of the laser light, and to precisely localize the anatomical structure where the measurement is performed. Therefore, the interferometer is integrated with a laser scanning confocal microscope that permits us to map crucial morphometric parameters in each experiment. We provide key construction parameters and a detailed performance characterization. We also show that the system accurately measures the diminutive vibrations present in the apical turn of the cochlea during low-level sound stimulation.
  • Jacob, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Noise-induced alterations in cochlear mechanics, electromotility, and cochlear amplification
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Pflügers Archiv. - : Springer. - 0031-6768 .- 1432-2013. ; 465:6, s. 907-917
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Loud sounds are a common cause of hearing loss. Very intense sounds may result in permanent hearing loss, but lower levels typically cause a transient decrease in auditory sensitivity. Studies have arrived at different conclusions as regards the physiological mechanisms underlying such temporary threshold shifts. Here, we investigated the effect of acoustic overstimulation on the mechanics of the low-frequency areas of the guinea pig cochlea. We demonstrate that brief loud sound exposure results in an increased phase lag and a paradoxical frequency-specific increase of sound-evoked displacement. Despite the increased displacement, electrically evoked motion is reduced. Because electromotility is important for amplifying low-level sounds, this change was associated with a decrease in measures of cochlear amplification. These changes recovered over the course of 30-40 min. Overstimulation also caused an increase in cytoplasmic calcium levels of both hair cells and supporting cells. These data suggest that reduced organ of Corti stiffness contributes to temporary threshold shifts.
  • Schael, S., et al. (författare)
  • Electroweak measurements in electron positron collisions at W-boson-pair energies at LEP
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physics Reports. - : Elsevier. - 0370-1573 .- 1873-6270. ; 532:4, s. 119-244
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Electroweak measurements performed with data taken at the electron positron collider LEP at CERN from 1995 to 2000 are reported. The combined data set considered in this report corresponds to a total luminosity of about 3 fb(-1) collected by the four LEP experiments ALEPH, DELPHI, 13 and OPAL, at centre-of-mass energies ranging from 130 GeV to 209 GeV. Combining the published results of the four LEP experiments, the measurements include total and differential cross-sections in photon-pair, fermion-pair and four-fermion production, the latter resulting from both double-resonant WW and ZZ production as well as singly resonant production. Total and differential cross-sections are measured precisely, providing a stringent test of the Standard Model at centre-of-mass energies never explored before in electron positron collisions. Final-state interaction effects in four-fermion production, such as those arising from colour reconnection and Bose Einstein correlations between the two W decay systems arising in WW production, are searched for and upper limits on the strength of possible effects are obtained. The data are used to determine fundamental properties of the W boson and the electroweak theory. Among others, the mass and width of the W boson, m(w) and Gamma(w), the branching fraction of W decays to hadrons, B(W -> had), and the trilinear gauge-boson self-couplings g(1)(Z), K-gamma and lambda(gamma), are determined to be: m(w) = 80.376 +/- 0.033 GeV Gamma(w) = 2.195 +/- 0.083 GeV B(W -> had) = 67.41 +/- 0.27% g(1)(Z) = 0.984(-0.020)(+0.018) K-gamma - 0.982 +/- 0.042 lambda(gamma) = 0.022 +/- 0.019. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Solé-Domènech, Santiago, et al. (författare)
  • Localization of cholesterol, amyloid and glia in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mouse brain tissue using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and immunofluorescence imaging
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - 0001-6322 .- 1432-0533. ; 125:1, s. 145-157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The spatial distributions of lipids, amyloid-beta deposits, markers of neurons and glial cells were imaged, at submicrometer lateral resolution, in brain structures of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease using a new methodology that combines time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and confocal fluorescence microscopy. The technology, which enabled us to simultaneously image the lipid and glial cell distributions in Tg2576 mouse brain structures, revealed micrometer-sized cholesterol accumulations in hippocampal regions undergoing amyloid-beta deposition. Such cholesterol granules were either associated with individual amyloid deposits or spread over entire regions undergoing amyloidogenesis. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis of the same brain regions showed increased microglial and astrocytic immunoreactivity associated with the amyloid deposits, as expected from previous studies, but did not reveal any particular astrocytic or microglial feature correlated with cholesterol granulation. However, dystrophic neurites as well as presynaptic vesicles presented a distribution similar to that of cholesterol granules in regions undergoing amyloid-beta accumulation, thus indicating that these neuronal endpoints may retain cholesterol in areas with lesions. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence for an altered cholesterol distribution near amyloid deposits that would have been missed by several other lipid analysis methods, and opens for the possibility to study in detail the putative liaison between lipid environment and protein structure and function in Alzheimer's disease.
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