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  • Leenders, M., et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and vegetable intake and cause-specific mortality in the EPIC study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - : Springer. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 29:9, s. 639-652
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower overall mortality. The aim of this study was to identify causes of death through which this association is established. More than 450,000 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study were included, of which 25,682 were reported deceased after 13 years of follow-up. Information on lifestyle, diet and vital status was collected through questionnaires and population registries. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) for death from specific causes were calculated from Cox regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. Participants reporting consumption of more than 569 g/day of fruits and vegetables had lower risks of death from diseases of the circulatory (HR for upper fourth 0.85, 95 % CI 0.77-0.93), respiratory (HR for upper fourth 0.73, 95 % CI 0.59-0.91) and digestive system (HR for upper fourth 0.60, 95 % CI 0.46-0.79) when compared with participants consuming less than 249 g/day. In contrast, a positive association with death from diseases of the nervous system was observed. Inverse associations were generally observed for vegetable, but not for fruit consumption. Associations were more pronounced for raw vegetable consumption, when compared with cooked vegetable consumption. Raw vegetable consumption was additionally inversely associated with death from neoplasms and mental and behavioral disorders. The lower risk of death associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables may be derived from inverse associations with diseases of the circulatory, respiratory and digestive system, and may depend on the preparation of vegetables and lifestyle factors. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
  • Duell, Eric J, et al. (författare)
  • Vitamin C transporter gene (SLC23A1 and SLC23A2) polymorphisms, plasma vitamin C levels, and gastric cancer risk in the EPIC cohort
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Genes & Nutrition. - : Springer Berlin/Heidelberg. - 1555-8932 .- 1865-3499. ; 8:6, s. 549-560
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Vitamin C is known to protect mucosal tissues from oxidative stress and inhibit nitrosamine formation in the stomach. High consumption of fruits, particularly citrus, and higher circulating vitamin C concentrations may be inversely associated with gastric cancer (GC) risk. We investigated 20 polymorphisms in vitamin C transporter genes SCL23A1 and SCL23A2 and GC risk in 365 cases and 1,284 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. We also evaluated the association between these polymorphisms and baseline plasma vitamin C levels in a subset of participants. Four SNPs were predictors of plasma vitamin C levels (SLC23A1 rs11950646 and rs33972313; SLC23A2 rs6053005 and rs6133175) in multivariable linear regression models. One SNP (SLC23A2 rs6116569) was associated with GC risk, in particular non-cardia GC (OR = 1.63, 95 % CI = 1.11-2.39, based on 178 non-cardia cases), but this association was attenuated when plasma vitamin C was included in the logistic regression model. Haplotype analysis of SLC23A1 yielded no associations with GC. In SLC23A2, one haplotype was associated with both overall and non-cardia GC, another haplotype was associated with GC overall, and a third was associated with intestinal-type GC. Common variants in SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 may influence plasma vitamin C concentration independent of dietary intake, and variation in SLC23A2 may influence GC risk. Additional prospective studies in large populations and consortia are recommended. Investigation of variation in vitamin C transporter genes may shed light on the preventative properties of vitamin C in gastric carcinogenesis.
  • Fanidi, Anouar, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating vitamin D in relation to cancer incidence and survival of the head and neck and oesophagus in the EPIC cohort
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Experimental and epidemiological data suggest that vitamin D play a role in pathogenesis and progression of cancer, but prospective data on head and neck cancer (HNC) and oesophagus cancer are limited. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study recruited 385,747 participants with blood samples between 1992 and 2000. This analysis includes 497 case-control pairs of the head and neck and oesophagus, as well as 443 additional controls. Circulating 25(OH)D3 were measured in pre-diagnostic samples and evaluated in relation to HNC and oesophagus cancer risk and post-diagnosis all-cause mortality. After controlling for risk factors, a doubling of 25(OH)D3 was associated with 30% lower odds of HNC (OR 0.70, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.56-0.88, Ptrend = 0.001). Subsequent analyses by anatomical sub-site indicated clear inverse associations with risk of larynx and hypopharynx cancer combined (OR 0.55, 95CI% 0.39-0.78) and oral cavity cancer (OR 0.60, 95CI% 0.42-0.87). Low 25(OH)D3 concentrations were also associated with higher risk of death from any cause among HNC cases. No clear association was seen with risk or survival for oesophageal cancer. Study participants with elevated circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D3 had decreased risk of HNC, as well as improved survival following diagnosis.
  • Jiang, X., et al. (författare)
  • Shared heritability and functional enrichment across six solid cancers
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (r(g) = 0.57, p = 4.6 x 10(-8)), breast and ovarian cancer (r(g) = 0.24, p = 7 x 10(-5)), breast and lung cancer (r(g) = 0.18, p = 1.5 x 10(-6)) and breast and colorectal cancer (r(g) = 0.15, p = 1.1 x 10(-4)). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.
  • Larsson, Berit A M, et al. (författare)
  • The timed up and go test predicts fracture risk in older women independently of clinical risk factors and bone mineral density.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis international. - : SPRINGER LONDON LTD. - 1433-2965 .- 0937-941X. ; 32:1, s. 75-84
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The timed up and go (TUG) test measures physical performance and predicts falls in the elderly. In older women, TUG time predicts the risk of major osteoporotic fracture and hip fracture independently of clinical risk factors and bone mineral density, and has a substantial impact on fracture probabilities.The timed up and go (TUG) test measures physical performance and predicts falls in the elderly. A slow TUG has been associated with an increased fracture risk, but it is unclear whether the association is independent of clinical risk factors and bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of this study was to investigate if TUG time was associated with fracture risk independently of clinical risk factors and BMD and to determine its impact on fracture probabilities in older women.A standardized questionnaire was used to assess information regarding clinical risk factors in the large population-based SUPERB study of 3028 older women (75-80 years). At baseline, the TUG test was performed and BMD measured with DXA. The association between TUG time and the risk of hip fracture and major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) was examined using an extension of Poisson regression.Fracture incidence increased steeply with increasing TUG time up to 12 s and subsequently started to level off. A slow TUG time was therefore defined as TUG > 12 s, a cutoff level then used in Cox models to study the association between slow TUG and fracture risk. A slow TUG time was associated with an increased risk of fracture (MOF 2.39 [1.80-3.18] and hip fracture 2.96 [1.62-5.40]). These associations were slightly attenuated but remained significant after adjustment for clinical risk factors and femoral neck BMD. Depending on BMD, the 4-year fracture probability of MOF increased by a factor of 1.5-1.9 in a 75-year-old woman with slow TUG (> 12 s).The TUG time predicts the risk of MOF and hip fracture independently of clinical risk factors and BMD and has a substantial impact on fracture probabilities, indicating that inclusion of the TUG test in patient evaluation should be considered in order to improve fracture prediction in older women.
  • Simonson, Oscar E., et al. (författare)
  • In Vivo Effects of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Two Patients With Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Stem Cells Translational Medicine. - 2157-6564 .- 2157-6580. ; 4:10, s. 1199-1213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been investigated as a treatment for various inflammatory diseases because of their immunomodulatory and reparative properties. However, many basic questions concerning their mechanisms of action after systemic infusion remain unanswered. We performed a detailed analysis of the immunomodulatory properties and proteomic profile of MSCs systemically administered to two patients with severe refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on a compassionate use basis and attempted to correlate these with in vivo anti-inflammatory actions. Both patients received 2 x 10(6) cells per kilogram, and each subsequently improved with resolution of respiratory, hemodynamic, and multiorgan failure. In parallel, a decrease was seen in multiple pulmonary and systemic markers of inflammation, including epithelial apoptosis, alveolar-capillary fluid leakage, and proinflammatory cytokines, microRNAs, and chemokines. In vitro studies of the MSCs demonstrated a broad anti-inflammatory capacity, including suppression of T-cell responses and induction of regulatory phenotypes in T cells, monocytes, and neutrophils. Some of these in vitro potency assessments correlated with, and were relevant to, the observed in vivo actions. These experiences highlight both the mechanistic information that can be gained from clinical experience and the value of correlating in vitro potency assessments with clinical effects. The findings also suggest, but do not prove, a beneficial effect of lung protective strategies using adoptively transferred MSCs in ARDS. Appropriate randomized clinical trials are required to further assess any potential clinical efficacy and investigate the effects on in vivo inflammation. STEM CELLS TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE 2015;4:1199-1213
  • Stern, Natalia, et al. (författare)
  • Subchronic toxicity of Baltic herring oil and its fractions in the rat II : Clinical observations and toxicological parameters.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Pharmacology and Toxicology. - 0901-9928 .- 1600-0773. ; 91:5, s. 232-244
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study aimed to increase the knowledge about the toxicity of fish-derived organohalogen pollutants in mammals. The strategy chosen was to separate organohalogen pollutants derived from Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) fillet, in order to obtain fractions with differing proportions of identified and unidentified halogenated pollutants, and to perform a subchronic toxicity study in rats, essentially according to the OECD guidelines, at three dose levels. Nordic Sea lodda (Mallotus villosus) oil, with low levels of persistent organohalogen pollutants, was used as an additional control diet. The toxicological examination showed that exposure to Baltic herring oil and its fractions at dose levels corresponding to a human intake in the range of 1.6 to 34.4 kg Baltic herring per week resulted in minimal effects. The spectrum of effects was similar to that, which is observed after low-level exposure to pollutants such as chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (CDD/F) and chlorinated biphenyls, despite the fact that these contaminants contribute to a minor part of the extractable organically bound chlorine (EOCl). The study confirmed previous findings that induction of hepatic ethoxyresorufin deethylase (EROD) activity takes place at daily intake levels 0.15 ng fish-derived CDD/F-TEQs/kg body weight. The study also demonstrated that hepatic vitamin A reduction takes place at somewhat higher daily exposure levels, i.e. 0.16–0.30 ng fish-derived CDD/F-TEQs/kg body weight. Halogenated fatty acids, the major component of EOCl, could not be linked to any of the measured effects. From a risk management point of view, the study provides important new information of effect levels for Ah-receptor mediated responses following low level exposure to organohalogen compounds from a matrix relevant for human exposure.
  • Wain, Louise V., et al. (författare)
  • Novel Blood Pressure Locus and Gene Discovery Using Genome-Wide Association Study and Expression Data Sets From Blood and the Kidney
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - 0194-911X .- 1524-4563. ; 70:3, s. e4-e19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elevated blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has a substantial genetic contribution. Genetic variation influencing blood pressure has the potential to identify new pharmacological targets for the treatment of hypertension. To discover additional novel blood pressure loci, we used 1000 Genomes Project-based imputation in 150 134 European ancestry individuals and sought significant evidence for independent replication in a further 228 245 individuals. We report 6 new signals of association in or near HSPB7, TNXB, LRP12, LOC283335, SEPT9, and AKT2, and provide new replication evidence for a further 2 signals in EBF2 and NFKBIA. Combining large whole-blood gene expression resources totaling 12 607 individuals, we investigated all novel and previously reported signals and identified 48 genes with evidence for involvement in blood pressure regulation that are significant in multiple resources. Three novel kidney-specific signals were also detected. These robustly implicated genes may provide new leads for therapeutic innovation.
  • Ward, Heather A., et al. (författare)
  • Measured adiposity in relation to head and neck cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1538-7755 .- 1055-9965. ; 26:6, s. 895-904
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence from cohort studies indicates that adiposity is associated with greater incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC). However, most studies have used self-reported anthropometry which is prone to error.METHODS: Among 363 094 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC) with measured anthropometry, there were 837 incident cases of HNC. HNC risk was examined in relation to body mass index (BMI) [lean: < 22.5 kg/m2, normal weight (reference): 22.5-24.9 kg/m2, overweight 25-29.9 kg/m2, obese: > 30 kg/m2], waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) using Cox proportional hazards models.RESULTS: Among men, a BMI < 22.5 kg/m2 was associated with higher HNC risk [hazard ratio (HR) 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23 - 2.12)]; BMI was not associated with HNC among women. WC and WHR were associated with greater risk of HNC among women, (WC per 5 cm: HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02 - 1.15; WHR per 0.1 unit: HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.38 - 1.93). After stratification by smoking status, the association for WHR was present only among smokers (p interaction 0.004). Among men, WC and WHR were associated with HNC only upon additional adjustment for BMI (WC per 5 cm: HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.07 - 1.26; WHR per 0.1 unit: HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.21 - 1.65).CONCLUSION: Central adiposity, particularly among women, may have a stronger association with HNC risk than previously estimated.IMPACT: Strategies to reduce obesity may beneficially impact HNC incidence.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • A measurement of the ratio of the production cross sections for W and Z bosons in association with jets with the ATLAS detector
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - : Springer. - 1434-6044 .- 1434-6052. ; 74:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ratio of the production cross sections for W and Z bosons in association with jets has been measured in proton-proton collisions at root s = 7 TeV with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The measurement is based on the entire 2011 dataset, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb(-1). Inclusive and differential cross-section ratios for massive vector bosons decaying to electrons and muons are measured in association with jets with transverse momentum p(T) > 30 GeV and jet rapidity vertical bar y vertical bar < 4.4. The measurements are compared to next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD calculations and to predictions from different Monte Carlo generators implementing leading-order matrix elements supplemented by parton showers.
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