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  • Arvidsson, Rickard, 1984, et al. (författare)
  • Energy use and climate change improvements of Li/S batteries based on life cycle assessment
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Power Sources. - 0378-7753. ; 383, s. 87-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a life cycle assessment (LCA) study of a lithium/sulfur (Li/S) cell regarding its energy use (in electricity equivalents, kWhel) and climate change (in kg carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2 eq) with the aim of identifying improvement potentials. Possible improvements are illustrated by departing from a base case of Li/S battery design, electricity from coal power, and heat from natural gas. In the base case, energy use is calculated at 580 kWhel kWh−1 and climate change impact at 230 kg CO2 eq kWh−1 of storage capacity. The main contribution to energy use comes from the LiTFSI electrolyte salt production and the main contribution to climate change is electricity use during the cell production stage. By (i) reducing cell production electricity requirement, (ii) sourcing electricity and heat from renewable sources, (iii) improving the specific energy of the Li/S cell, and (iv) switching to carbon black for the cathode, energy use and climate change impact can be reduced by 54 and 93%, respectively. For climate change, our best-case result of 17 kg CO2 eq kWh−1 is of similar magnitude as the best-case literature results for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The lithium metal requirement of Li/S batteries and LIBs are also of similar magnitude.
  • Arvidsson, Rickard, 1984, et al. (författare)
  • Potential improvements of the life cycle environmental impacts of a Li/S battery cell
  • 2018
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The lithium sulfur (Li/S) battery is a promising battery chemistry for two reasons: it requires no scarce metals apart from the lithium itself and it brings the promise of high specific energy density at the cell level. However, the environmental impacts of this battery type remain largely unstudied. In this study, we conducted a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the production of an Li/S cell to calculate these impacts. The anode consists of a lithium foil and the cathode consists of a carbon/sulfur composite. The electrolyte is a mixture of dioxalane, dimethoxyethane, lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and lithium nitrate. The current collector for the cathode is an aluminium foil and a tri-layer membrane of polypropylene and polyethylene acts as separator. The functional unit of the study is 1 kWh specific energy storage. Three key environmental impacts were considered: energy use, climate change and lithium requirement. In our baseline scenario, we consider the pilot-scale production of a battery with a specific energy of 300 kWh/kg, having the mesoporous material CMK-3 as carbon material in the carbon/sulfur cathode, and using coal power and natural gas heat as energy sources. This scenario results in an energy use of 580 kWh/kWhstored and a climate change impact of 230 kg CO2eq/kWhstored. The main contributor to energy use is the LiTFSI production and the main contributor to climate change is electricity use during cell production. We then model a number of possible improvements sequentially: (1) reduction of cell production electricity requirement due to production at industrial-scale, (2) sourcing of electricity and heat from renewable instead of fossil sources (i.e. solar power and biogas heat), (3) improvement of the specific energy of the Li/S cell to 500 kWh/kg and (4) a shift of the carbon material in the cathode to carbon black (without considering changes in performance). By implementing all these four improvements, energy use and climate change impact can be reduced by an impressive 54 and 93%, respectively. In particular, the improvements related to industrial-scale production and sourcing of renewable energy are considerable, whereas the shift of carbon material is of minor importance. For climate change, the best-case result of 17 kg CO2eq/kWhstored is similar to the best-case results reported in the scientific literature for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Regarding lithium requirement, the lithium metal requirement of Li/S batteries and LIBs are also of similar magnitude (0.33-0.55 kg/kWhstored and 0.2 kg/kWhstored, respectively). Using different allocation approaches did not alter the main conclusions of the study.
  • Ciosek, K., et al. (författare)
  • Energy storage activities in the swedish hybrid vehicle centre
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: 24th International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition 2009, EVS 24. - 9781615674558 ; 4, s. 2850-2854
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Significant efforts are put worldwide on developing new concepts for vehicle propulsion with the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) being a prominent example. Hybrid technology is clearly a strategic future activity for automotive industries and in response to the rapid development in the area; the Swedish Hybrid Vehicle Centre (SHC) was formed in 2007 to join forces between Swedish industry and academia in the field. The centre emphasizes a holistic view to meet the environmental and societal needs with new technological solutions. The research within SHC is currently divided into three different themes where of we here describe the Energy Storage theme with emphasis on the activities carried out at the involved universities in the current main project areas: Cell Properties, Electrode Materials and Electrolyte Additives. Examples are given on how these projects attacks the problems at hand separately, but also how we create synergy effects between the projects. As an example cell modelling is performed given a specific chemistry and cycling scheme, the same parameters are used for electrochemical experiments which provide macroscopic data that are connected with molecular level actions in the electrodes, the electrolyte, and the interfaces. All this is done using our base-line chemistry and a subsequent route is to investigate the role of different additives to overcome the limitations that are observed.
  • Lindahl, Niklas, 1981, et al. (författare)
  • Aluminum Metal-Organic Batteries with Integrated 3D Thin Film Anodes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Advanced Functional Materials. - 1616-301X. ; 30:51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aluminum 3D thin film anodes fully integrated with a separator are fabricated by sputtering and enable rechargeable aluminum metal batteries with high power performance. The 3D thin film anodes have an approximately four to eight times larger active surface area than a metal foil, which significantly both reduces the electrochemical overpotential, and improves materials utilization. In full cells with organic cathodes, that is, aluminum metal-organic batteries, the 3D thin film anodes provide 165 mAh g(-1)at 0.5 C rate, with a capacity retention of 81% at 20 C, and 86% after 500 cycles. Post-mortem analysis reveals structural degradation to limit the long-term stability at high rates. As the multivalent charge carrier active here is AlCl2+, the realistic maximal specific energy, and power densities at cell level are approximate to 100 Wh kg(-1)and approximate to 3100 W kg(-1), respectively, which is significantly higher than the state-of-the-art for Al batteries.
  • Lindberg, S., et al. (författare)
  • Charge storage mechanism of alpha-MnO2 in protic and aprotic ionic liquid electrolytes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Power Sources. - : ELSEVIER. - 0378-7753 .- 1873-2755. ; 460
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this work we have investigated the charge storage mechanism of MnO2 electrodes in ionic liquid electrolytes. We show that by using an ionic liquid with a cation that has the ability to form hydrogen bonds with the active material (MnO2) on the surface of the electrode, a clear faradaic contribution is obtained. This situation is found for ionic liquids with cations that have a low pKa, i.e. protic ionic liquids. For a protic ionic liquid, the specific capacity at low scan rate rates can be explained by a densely packed layer of cations that are in a standing geometry, with a proton directly interacting through a hydrogen bond with the surface of the active material in the electrode. In contrast, for aprotic ionic liquids there is no interaction and only a double layer contribution to the charge storage is observed. However, by adding an alkali salt to the aprotic ionic liquid, a faradaic contribution is obtained from the insertion of Li+ into the surface of the MnO2 electrode. No effect can be observed when Li+ is added to the protic IL, suggesting that a densely packed cation layer in this case prevent Li-ions from reaching the active material surface.
  • Rydén, Patrik, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • Outbreaks of tularemia in a boreal forest region depends on mosquito prevalence
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Infectious Diseases. - 0022-1899 .- 1537-6613. ; 205:2, s. 297-304
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. We aimed to evaluate the potential association of mosquito prevalence in a boreal forest area with transmission of the bacterial disease tularemia to humans, and model the annual variation of disease using local weather data.Methods. A prediction model for mosquito abundance was built using weather and mosquito catch data. Then a negative binomial regression model based on the predicted mosquito abundance and local weather data was built to predict annual numbers of humans contracting tularemia in Dalarna County, Sweden.Results. Three hundred seventy humans were diagnosed with tularemia between 1981 and 2007, 94% of them during 7 summer outbreaks. Disease transmission was concentrated along rivers in the area. The predicted mosquito abundance was correlated (0.41, P < .05) with the annual number of human cases. The predicted mosquito peaks consistently preceded the median onset time of human tularemia (temporal correlation, 0.76; P < .05). Our final predictive model included 5 environmental variables and identified 6 of the 7 outbreaks.Conclusions. This work suggests that a high prevalence of mosquitoes in late summer is a prerequisite for outbreaks of tularemia in a tularemia-endemic boreal forest area of Sweden and that environmental variables can be used as risk indicators.
  • Wagner, Annemarie, 1954, et al. (författare)
  • Carbon Dioxide Capture from Ambient Air Using Amine-Grafted Mesoporous Adsorbents
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Spectroscopy. - 1687-9457. ; 2013
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been identified as a major contributor to climate change. An attractive approach to tackle the increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere is direct extraction via absorption of CO2 from ambient air, to be subsequently desorbed and processed under controlled conditions. The feasibility of this approach depends on the sorbent material that should combine a long lifetime with nontoxicity, high selectivity for CO2, and favorable thermodynamic cycling properties. Adsorbents based on pore-expanded mesoporous silica grafted with amines have previously been found to combine high CO2 adsorption capacity at low partial pressures with operational stability under highly defined laboratory conditions. Here we examine the real potential and functionality of these materials by using more realistic conditions using both pure CO2, synthetic air, and, most importantly, ambient air. Through a combination of thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared (TGA-FTIR) spectroscopy we address the primary functionality and by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy the observed degradation of the material on a molecular level.
  • Adebahr, Josefina, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • Ab initio calculations, Raman and NMR investigation of the plastic crystal di-methyl pyrrolidinium iodide
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Electrochimica Acta. - 0013-4686. ; 48:14-16, s. 2283-2289
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Above 110 °C the symmetric di-methyl-pyrrolidinium iodide salt forms a plastic crystal phase of interest in the area of new electrolyte materials. In this study ab initio calculations of this material has been conducted in order to assign the vibrational spectra. Raman spectroscopy measurements on the solid salt as well as on the salt dissolved in different solvents has been performed and these have been compared to the theoretical spectra. Furthermore, Raman spectra as a function of temperature have been recorded to investigate possible changes in inter-ionic interaction and/or structure through the phase transition. 1 H NMR linewidth measurements as a function of temperature showed a large decrease in linewidth above 100 °C, attributed here to an increase in mobility in agreement with a previously reported phase transition at ∼ 110 °C. © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Amin, Muhammad, 1979, et al. (författare)
  • Coin-cell Supercapacitors Based on CVD Grown and Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers (VACNFs)
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Electrochemical Science. - 1452-3981. ; 12:7, s. 6653-6661
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Complete supercapacitors (SCs) comprising vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) as electrode materials have been assembled as coin-cells. The VACNFs were grown directly onto the current collector by direct current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (DC-PECVD), thereby providing excellent contact with the current collector, but also eliminating the need of any binder. The vertical alignment facilitates fast ion transport and the electrolyte to access the entire surface of theCNFs. The morphology of the VACNFs was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the performance was assessed by several methods: cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and device related cycling by galvanostatic charge/discharge. Thecapacitance, 3.64 mF/cm2 , is >15 times higher than the capacitance of a coin-cell without CNFs and the cyclic performance shows these proof-of-concept SCs to retain >80% of the capacitance after 2000 full charge/discharge cycles. The direct growth of VACNFs as electrodes at the current collector opens pathways for SC production using existing coin-cell battery production technology.
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