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  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the correlation between the polar angles of leptons from top quark decays in the helicity basis at root s=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D (Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology). - : American Physical Society. - 1550-2368 .- 1550-7998. ; 93:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A measurement of the correlations between the polar angles of leptons from the decay of pair-produced t and (t) over bar quarks in the helicity basis is reported, using proton-proton collision data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb(-1) at a center-of-mass energy of root s = 7 TeV collected during 2011. Candidate events are selected in the dilepton topology with large missing transverse momentum and at least two jets. The angles theta(1) and theta(2) between the charged leptons and the direction of motion of the parent quarks in the t (t) over bar rest frame are sensitive to the spin information, and the distribution of cos theta(1).cos theta(2) is sensitive to the spin correlation between the t and (t) over bar quarks. The distribution is unfolded to parton level and compared to the next-to-leading order prediction. A good agreement is observed.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Search for flavour-changing neutral current top quark decays t -> Hq in pp collisions at root s=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - : Springer. - 1029-8479 .- 1126-6708. ; :12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A search for flavour-changing neutral current decays of a top quark to an up-type quark (q = u; c) and the Standard Model Higgs boson, where the Higgs boson decays to b (b) over bar, is presented. The analysis searches for top quark pair events in which one top quark decays to W b, with the W boson decaying leptonically, and the other top quark decays to Hq. The search is based on pp collisions at root s = 8TeV recorded in 2012 with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider and uses an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb(-1). Data are analysed in the lepton-plus-jets final state, characterised by an isolated electron or muon and at least four jets. The search exploits the high multiplicity of b quark jets characteristic of signal events, and employs a likelihood discriminant that uses the kinematic differences between the signal and the background, which is dominated by t (t) over bar -> WbWb decays. No significant excess of events above the background expectation is found, and observed (expected) 95% CL upper limits of 0.56% (0.42%) and 0.61% (0.64%) are derived for the t -> Hc and t -> Hu branching ratios respectively. The combination of this search with other ATLAS searches in the H -> gamma gamma and H -> WW*, tau tau decay modes significantly improves the sensitivity, yielding observed (expected) 95% CL upper limits on the t -> Hc and t -> Hu branching ratios of 0.46% (0.25%) and 0.45% (0.29%) respectively. The corresponding combined observed (expected) upper limits on the vertical bar lambda(tcH)vertical bar and vertical bar lambda(tuH)vertical bar couplings are 0.13 (0.10) and 0.13 (0.10) respectively. These are the most restrictive direct bounds on t q H interactions measured so far.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Search for pair production of a new heavy quark that decays into a W boson and a light quark in pp collisions at root s=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D (Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology). - : American Physical Society. - 1550-2368 .- 1550-7998. ; 92:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A search is presented for pair production of a new heavy quark (Q) that decays into aW boson and a light quark (q) in the final state where one W boson decays leptonically (to an electron or muon plus a neutrino) and the other W boson decays hadronically. The analysis is performed using an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb(-1) of pp collisions at root s = 8 TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. No evidence of Q (Q) over bar production is observed. New chiral quarks with masses below 690 GeVare excluded at 95% confidence level, assuming BR(Q -> Wq) = 1. Results are also interpreted in the context of vectorlike quark models, resulting in the limits on the mass of a vectorlike quark in the two-dimensional plane of BR(Q -> Wq) versus BR(Q -> Hq).
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Constraints on new phenomena via Higgs boson couplings and invisible decays with the ATLAS detector
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - : Springer. - 1029-8479 .- 1126-6708. ; :11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured the Higgs boson couplings and mass, and searched for invisible Higgs boson decays, using multiple production and decay channels with up to 4.7 fb(-1) of pp collision data at root S = 7 TeV and 20.3 fb(-1) at root s = 8 TeV. In the current study, the measured production and decay rates of the observed Higgs boson in the gamma gamma, ZZ, WW, Z gamma, bb, tau tau, and mu mu decay channels, along with results from the associated production of a Higgs boson with a top-quark pair, are used to probe the scaling of the couplings with mass. Limits are set on parameters in extensions of the Standard Model including a composite Higgs boson, an additional electroweak singlet, and two-Higgs-doublet models. Together with the measured mass of the scalar Higgs boson in the gamma gamma and ZZ decay modes, a lower limit is set on the pseudoscalar Higgs boson mass of m(A) > 370 GeV in the "hMSSM" simplified Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. Results from direct searches for heavy Higgs bosons are also interpreted in the hMSSM. Direct searches for invisible Higgs boson decays in the vector-boson fusion and associated production of a Higgs boson with W/Z (Z -> ll, W/Z -> jj) modes are statistically combined to set an upper limit on the Higgs boson invisible branching ratio of 0.25. The use of the measured visible decay rates in a more general coupling fit improves the upper limit to 0.23, constraining a Higgs portal model of dark matter.
  • Bixby, H., et al. (författare)
  • Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 569:7755, s. 260-4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities(.)(1,2) This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity(3-6). Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017-and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions-was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing-and in some countries reversal-of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.
  • Jiang, X., et al. (författare)
  • Shared heritability and functional enrichment across six solid cancers
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (r(g) = 0.57, p = 4.6 x 10(-8)), breast and ovarian cancer (r(g) = 0.24, p = 7 x 10(-5)), breast and lung cancer (r(g) = 0.18, p = 1.5 x 10(-6)) and breast and colorectal cancer (r(g) = 0.15, p = 1.1 x 10(-4)). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.
  • Bentham, James, et al. (författare)
  • A century of trends in adult human height
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: eLIFE. - 2050-084X. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.522.7) and 16.5 cm (13.319.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.
  • Collaboration, The PANDA, et al. (författare)
  • Feasibility studies of time-like proton electromagnetic form factors at PANDA at FAIR
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal A. - : Springer Publishing Company. - 1434-6001 .- 1434-601X. ; 52:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Simulation results for future measurements of electromagnetic proton form factors at P ¯ ANDA (FAIR) within the PandaRoot software framework are reported. The statistical precision with which the proton form factors can be determined is estimated. The signal channel p¯ p→ e+e- is studied on the basis of two different but consistent procedures. The suppression of the main background channel, i.e.p¯ p→ π+π-, is studied. Furthermore, the background versus signal efficiency, statistical and systematical uncertainties on the extracted proton form factors are evaluated using two different procedures. The results are consistent with those of a previous simulation study using an older, simplified framework. However, a slightly better precision is achieved in the PandaRoot study in a large range of momentum transfer, assuming the nominal beam conditions and detector performance.
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