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1.
  • Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn, et al. (författare)
  • The genetic architecture of human brainstem structures and their involvement in common brain disorders
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Brainstem regions support vital bodily functions, yet their genetic architectures and involvement in common brain disorders remain understudied. Here, using imaging-genetics data from a discovery sample of 27,034 individuals, we identify 45 brainstem-associated genetic loci, including the first linked to midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata volumes, and map them to 305 genes. In a replication sample of 7432 participants most of the loci show the same effect direction and are significant at a nominal threshold. We detect genetic overlap between brainstem volumes and eight psychiatric and neurological disorders. In additional clinical data from 5062 individuals with common brain disorders and 11,257 healthy controls, we observe differential volume alterations in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, multiple sclerosis, mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and Parkinson's disease, supporting the relevance of brainstem regions and their genetic architectures in common brain disorders. The genetic architecture underlying brainstem regions and how this links to common brain disorders is not well understood. Here, the authors use MRI and GWAS data from 27,034 individuals to identify genetic and morphological brainstem features that influence common brain disorders.
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2.
  • Frangou, Sophia, et al. (författare)
  • Cortical thickness across the lifespan: Data from 17,075 healthy individuals aged 3–90 years
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Delineating the association of age and cortical thickness in healthy individuals is critical given the association of cortical thickness with cognition and behavior. Previous research has shown that robust estimates of the association between age and brain morphometry require large-scale studies. In response, we used cross-sectional data from 17,075 individuals aged 3–90 years from the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium to infer age-related changes in cortical thickness. We used fractional polynomial (FP) regression to quantify the association between age and cortical thickness, and we computed normalized growth centiles using the parametric Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Interindividual variability was estimated using meta-analysis and one-way analysis of variance. For most regions, their highest cortical thickness value was observed in childhood. Age and cortical thickness showed a negative association; the slope was steeper up to the third decade of life and more gradual thereafter; notable exceptions to this general pattern were entorhinal, temporopolar, and anterior cingulate cortices. Interindividual variability was largest in temporal and frontal regions across the lifespan. Age and its FP combinations explained up to 59% variance in cortical thickness. These results may form the basis of further investigation on normative deviation in cortical thickness and its significance for behavioral and cognitive outcomes.
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3.
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4.
  • Kaufmann, Tobias, et al. (författare)
  • Common brain disorders are associated with heritable patterns of apparent aging of the brain
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 22:10, s. 1617-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Common risk factors for psychiatric and other brain disorders are likely to converge on biological pathways influencing the development and maintenance of brain structure and function across life. Using structural MRI data from 45,615 individuals aged 3-96 years, we demonstrate distinct patterns of apparent brain aging in several brain disorders and reveal genetic pleiotropy between apparent brain aging in healthy individuals and common brain disorders.
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5.
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6.
  • Adams, Hieab H. H., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 19:12, s. 1569-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.
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7.
  • Alnaes, Dag, et al. (författare)
  • Brain Heterogeneity in Schizophrenia and Its Association With Polygenic Risk
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JAMA psychiatry. - : AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 2168-6238 .- 2168-622X. ; 76:7, s. 739-748
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ImportanceBetween-individual variability in brain structure is determined by gene-environment interactions, possibly reflecting differential sensitivity to environmental and genetic perturbations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have revealed thinner cortices and smaller subcortical volumes in patients with schizophrenia. However, group-level comparisons may mask considerable within-group heterogeneity, which has largely remained unnoticed in the literature. ObjectivesTo compare brain structural variability between individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to test whether respective variability reflects the polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia in an independent sample of healthy controls. Design, Setting, and ParticipantsThis case-control and polygenic risk analysis compared MRI-derived cortical thickness and subcortical volumes between healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia across 16 cohorts and tested for associations between PRS and MRI features in a control cohort from the UK Biobank. Data were collected from October 27, 2004, through April 12, 2018, and analyzed from December 3, 2017, through August 1, 2018. Main Outcomes and MeasuresMean and dispersion parameters were estimated using double generalized linear models. Vertex-wise analysis was used to assess cortical thickness, and regions-of-interest analyses were used to assess total cortical volume, total surface area, and white matter, subcortical, and hippocampal subfield volumes. Follow-up analyses included within-sample analysis, test of robustness of the PRS threshold, population covariates, outlier removal, and control for image quality. ResultsA comparison of 1151 patients with schizophrenia (mean [SD] age,33.8[10.6] years; 68.6% male [n=790] and 31.4% female [n=361]) with 2010 healthy controls (mean [SD] age,32.6[10.4] years; 56.0% male [n=1126] and 44.0% female [n=884]) revealed higher heterogeneity in schizophrenia for cortical thickness and area (t = 3.34), cortical (t=3.24) and ventricle (t range, 3.15-5.78) volumes, and hippocampal subfields (t range, 2.32-3.55). In the UK Biobank sample of 12 490 participants (mean [SD] age,55.9 [7.5] years; 48.2% male [n=6025] and 51.8% female [n=6465]), higher PRS was associated with thinner frontal and temporal cortices and smaller left CA2/3 (t=-3.00) but was not significantly associated with dispersion. Conclusions and RelevanceThis study suggests that schizophrenia is associated with substantial brain structural heterogeneity beyond the mean differences. These findings may reflect higher sensitivity to environmental and genetic perturbations in patients, supporting the heterogeneous nature of schizophrenia. A higher PRS was associated with thinner frontotemporal cortices and smaller hippocampal subfield volume, but not heterogeneity. This finding suggests that brain variability in schizophrenia results from interactions between environmental and genetic factors that are not captured by the PRS. Factors contributing to heterogeneity in frontotemporal cortices and hippocampus are key to furthering our understanding of how genetic and environmental factors shape brain biology in schizophrenia.
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8.
  • Andreou, Dimitrios, et al. (författare)
  • Associations between a locus downstream DRD1 gene and cerebrospinal fluid dopamine metabolite concentrations in psychosis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience Letters. - 0304-3940 .- 1872-7972. ; 619, s. 126-130
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dopamine activity, mediated by the catecholaminergic neurotransmitter dopamine, is prominent in the human brain and has been implicated in schizophrenia. Dopamine targets five different receptors and is then degraded to its major metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA). We hypothesized that genes encoding dopamine receptors may be associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HVA concentrations in patients with psychotic disorder. We searched for association between 67 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the five dopamine receptor genes i.e., DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, DRD4 and DRD5, and the CSF HVA concentrations in 74 patients with psychotic disorder. Nominally associated SNPs were also tested in 111 healthy controls. We identified a locus, located downstream DRD1 gene, where four SNPs, rs11747728, rs11742274, rs265974 and rs11747886, showed association with CSF HVA concentrations in psychotic patients. The associations between rs11747728, which is a regulatory region variant, and rs11742274 with HVA remained significant after correction for multiple testing. These associations were restricted to psychotic patients and were absent in healthy controls. The results suggest that the DRD1 gene is implicated in the pathophysiology of psychosis and support the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia.
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9.
  • Andreou, Dimitrios, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiac left ventricular ejection fraction in men and women with schizophrenia on long-term antipsychotic treatment
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Schizophrenia Research. - 0920-9964 .- 1573-2509. ; 218, s. 226-232
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients with schizophrenia exhibit a higher cardiovascular mortality compared to the general population which has been attributed to life-style factors, genetic susceptibility and antipsychotic medication. Recent echocardiographic studies have pointed to an association between clozapine treatment and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), a measure that has been inversely associated with adverse outcomes including all-cause mortality. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is considered the reference method for LVEF measurement. The aim of the present study was to investigate the LVEF in patients with schizophrenia on long-term treatment with antipsychotics and healthy controls. Twenty-nine adult patients with schizophrenia on long-term medication with antipsychotics and 27 age-, sex- and body mass index-matched healthy controls (mean ages 44 and 45 years, respectively) were recruited from outpatient psychiatric clinics in Uppsala, Sweden. The participants were interviewed and underwent physical examination, biochemical analyses, electrocardiogram and CMR. Men with schizophrenia on long-term antipsychotic treatment showed significantly lower LVEF than controls (p = 0.0076), whereas no such difference was evident among women (p = 0.44). Specifically, clozapine-treated male patients had 10.6% lower LVEF than male controls (p = 0.0064), whereas the LVEF was 5.5% below that of controls among male patients treated with non-clozapine antipsychotics (p = 0.047). Among medicated men with schizophrenia, we found significantly lower LVEF compared to healthy individuals, suggesting the need of routine cardiac monitoring in this patient group. This is the first study showing a significant negative association between treatment with non-clozapine antipsychotics and LVEF.
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10.
  • Andreou, Dimitrios, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolite concentrations as intermediate phenotypes between glutamate-related genes and psychosis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Psychiatry Research. - 0165-1781 .- 1872-7123. ; 229:1-2, s. 497-504
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glutamate-related genes have been associated with schizophrenia, but the results have been ambiguous and difficult to replicate. Homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) are the major degradation products of the monoamines dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline, respectively, and their concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), mainly HVA, have been associated with schizophrenia. In the present study, we hypothesized that CSF HVA, 5-HIAA and MHPG concentrations represent intermediate phenotypes in the association between glutamate-related genes and psychosis. To test this hypothesis, we searched for association between 238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ten genes shown to be directly or indirectly implicated in glutamate transmission and CSF HVA, 5-HIAA and MHPG concentrations in 74 patients with psychotic disease. Thirty-eight nominally significant associations were found. Further analyses in 111 healthy controls showed that 87% of the nominal associations were restricted to the patients with psychosis. Some of the psychosis-only-associated SNPs found in the D-amino acid oxidase activator (DADA) and the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) genes have previously been reported to be associated with schizophrenia. The present results suggest that CSF monoamine metabolite concentrations may represent intermediate phenotypes in the association between glutamate-related genes and psychosis.
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