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Sökning: WFRF:(Jonsson Ulf 1974 )

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  • Ssegonja, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • Cost-effectiveness of an indicated preventive intervention for depression in adolescents: a model to support decision making
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders. - : Elsevier. - 0165-0327 .- 1573-2517. ; 277, s. 789-799
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Adolescent depression has negative health and economic outcomes in the shortand long-term. Indicated preventive interventions, in particular group based cognitive behavioural therapy (GB-CBT), are ef-fective in preventing depression in adolescents with subsyndromal depression. However, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Methods: A Markov cohort model was used to conduct cost-effectiveness analyses comparing a GB-CBT indicated preventive intervention for depression, to a no-intervention option in a Swedish setting. Taking a time horizon of 5and 10 years, incremental differences in societal costs and health benefits expressed as differences in the proportion of cases of depression prevented, and as quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained were estimated. Through univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, the robustness of the results was explored. Costs, presented in 2018 USD, and effects were discounted at a yearly rate of 3%. Results: The base-case analysis showed that GB-CBT indicated preventive intervention incurred lower costs, prevented a larger proportion of cases of depression and generated higher QALYs compared to the no -intervention option for both time horizons. Offering the intervention was even a cost saving strategy and demonstrated a probability of being cost-effective of over 95%. In the sensitivity analyses, these results were robust to the modelling assumptions. Limitations: The study considered a homogeneous cohort and assumed a constant annual decay rate of the relative treatment effect. Conclusions: GB-CBT indicated preventive interventions for depression in adolescence can generate good value for money compared to leaving adolescents with subsyndromal depression untreated.
  • Ssegonja, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • Depressive disorders in adolescence, recurrence in early adulthood, and healthcare usage in mid-adulthood : A longitudinal cost-of-illness study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders. - : ELSEVIER. - 0165-0327 .- 1573-2517. ; 258, s. 33-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Depression in adolescence is associated with increased healthcare consumption in adulthood, but prior research has not recognized the heterogeneity of depressive disorders. This paper investigated the additional healthcare usage and related costs in mid-adulthood for individuals with adolescent depression, and examined the mediating role of subsequent depression in early adulthood.Methods: This study was based on the Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study, initiated in Sweden in the early 1990s. Depressive disorders were assessed in adolescence (age 16-17) and early adulthood (age 19-30). Healthcare usage and related costs in mid-adulthood (age 31-40) were estimated using nationwide population-based registries. Participants with specific subtypes of adolescent depression (n = 306) were compared with matched non-depressed peers (n = 213).Results: Women with persistent depressive disorder (PDD) in adolescence utilized significantly more healthcare resources in mid-adulthood. The association was not limited to psychiatric care, and remained after adjustment for individual and parental characteristics. The total additional annual cost for a single age group of females with a history of PDD at a population level was estimated at 3.10 million USD. Depression recurrence in early adulthood mediated the added costs for psychiatric care, but not for somatic care.Limitations: Primary health care data were not available, presumably resulting in an underestimation of the true healthcare consumption. Estimates for males had limited precision due to a relatively small male proportion.Conclusions: On a population level, the additional healthcare costs incurred in mid-adulthood in females with a history of adolescent PDD are considerable. Early treatment and prevention should be prioritized.
  • Ssegonja, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • Indicated preventive interventions for depression in children and adolescents : A meta-analysis and meta-regression
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Preventive Medicine. - 0091-7435 .- 1096-0260. ; 118, s. 7-15
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Depression contributes about 2% to the global burden of disease. A first onset of depressive disorder or subsyndromal depressive symptoms is common in adolescence, indicating that early prevention is a priority. However, trials of preventive interventions for depression in youths show conflicting results. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of group-based cognitive behavioral therapy (GB-CBT) as a preventive intervention targeting subsyndromal depression in children and adolescents. In addition, the impact of different covariates (type of comparator and use of booster sessions) was assessed. Relevant articles were identified from previous systematic reviews, and supplemented with an electronic search spanning from 01/09/2014 to 28/02/2018. The retrieved articles were assessed for eligibility and risk of bias. Relevant data were extracted. Intervention effectiveness was pooled using a random-effects model and the impact of covariates assessed using meta-regression. 38 eligible articles (34 trials) were obtained. The analysis showed GB-CBT to significantly reduce the incidence (relative risk 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.87) and symptoms (Cohen's d -0.22, 95% CI -0.32 to -0.11) of depression at post-test compared to all controls. Comparisons with passive comparators suggested that the effect decayed over time. However, compared to active controls, a significant intervention effect was evident only after 12 month or more. Our results suggest that the preventive effect of GB-CBT wears off, but still lasts longer than the effect of active comparators. Only a few studies included booster sessions, precluding firm conclusions. Future studies should clarify to what extent maintenance strategies can prolong the preventive effect of GB-CBT.
  • Alaie, Iman (författare)
  • Adulthood Outcomes of Child and Adolescent Depression : From Mental Health to Social Functioning
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Depression is a common mental disorder affecting people across the lifespan, with first onset frequently occurring in the teenage years. The disorder is costly to society and constitutes one of the leading causes of disability in youths and adults worldwide. Research demonstrates that depression in childhood or adolescence is linked to adverse adult consequences, including mental health problems, physical health issues, various social difficulties, and economic hardships. While the specific factors and mechanisms associated with these long-term adversities are not well understood, previous studies point to the relevance of considering the heterogeneity in early-life depression.The overarching aim of this doctoral thesis was to shed more light on long-term outcomes of childhood and adolescent depression across multiple life domains. This work made use of extensive follow-up data gathered in Sweden and USA, as part of two community-based longitudinal cohort studies of depressed and nondepressed youths prospectively followed into adulthood. In the Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study, participants were interviewed around age 16 (n=631) and age 31 (n=409). Using linkage to nationwide population-based registries, participants were followed up around age 40 (n=576). In the Great Smoky Mountains Study, participants were interviewed at repeated occasions in childhood and adolescence (n=1,420), and at further follow-ups in adulthood extending up to age 30 (n=1,336).Findings from this work suggest that childhood/adolescent depression can have long-lasting associations with a broad spectrum of adverse outcomes. First, the risk of adult depression is known to be elevated among those exposed to depression in early life; however, depressed youths experiencing major conflicts with parents may be at an additionally increased risk of subsequent depression recurrence. Second, early-life depression was found to be associated with higher levels of adult psychiatric disorders, and also with worse health, criminal, and social functioning, even when accounting for a multitude of potential confounders. Third, early-life depression was predictive of poor labor market outcomes, especially for those with persistent depression. This link was partially mediated by the course of depression. Fourth, the welfare burden associated with early depression amounted to considerable public expenditures in adulthood, particularly for those with persistent depression or comorbid psychiatric conditions such as anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders.The adverse long-term consequences in the wake of early-life depression underscore the importance of prevention and treatment approaches that are both efficacious and cost-effective. Such targeted efforts may have the potential to avert later ill-health, impairment, and possibly also economic disadvantage.
  • Alaie, Iman, et al. (författare)
  • Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study (ULADS)
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2044-6055 .- 2044-6055. ; 9:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To present the Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study, initiated in Uppsala, Sweden, in the early 1990s. The initial aim of this epidemiological investigation was to study the prevalence, characteristics and correlates of adolescent depression, and has subsequently expanded to include a broad range of social, economic and health-related long-term outcomes and cost-of-illness analyses.Participants: The source population was first-year students (aged 16-17) in upper-secondary schools in Uppsala during 1991-1992, of which 2300 (93%) were screened for depression. Adolescents with positive screening and sex/age-matched peers were invited to a comprehensive assessment. A total of 631 adolescents (78% females) completed this assessment, and 409 subsequently completed a 15year follow-up assessment. At both occasions, extensive information was collected on mental disorders, personality and psychosocial situation. Detailed social, economic and health-related data from 1993 onwards have recently been obtained from the Swedish national registries for 576 of the original participants and an age-matched reference population (N=200 000).Findings to date: The adolescent lifetime prevalence of a major depressive episode was estimated to be 11.4%. Recurrence in young adulthood was reported by the majority, with a particularly poor prognosis for those with a persistent depressive disorder or multiple somatic symptoms. Adolescent depression was also associated with an increased risk of other adversities in adulthood, including additional mental health conditions, low educational attainment and problems related to intimate relationships.Future plans: Longitudinal studies of adolescent depression are rare and must be responsibly managed and utilised. We therefore intend to follow the cohort continuously by means of registries. Currently, the participants are approaching mid-adulthood. At this stage, we are focusing on the overall long-term burden of adolescent depression. For this purpose, the research group has incorporated expertise in health economics. We would also welcome extended collaboration with researchers managing similar datasets.
  • Arnberg, Filip K, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Internet-delivered psychological treatments for mood and anxiety disorders : a systematic review of their efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 9:5, s. e98118-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Greater access to evidence-based psychological treatments is needed. This review aimed to evaluate whether internet-delivered psychological treatments for mood and anxiety disorders are efficacious, noninferior to established treatments, safe, and cost-effective for children, adolescents and adults.METHODS: We searched the literature for studies published until March 2013. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were considered for the assessment of short-term efficacy and safety and were pooled in meta-analyses. Other designs were also considered for long-term effect and cost-effectiveness. Comparisons against established treatments were evaluated for noninferiority. Two reviewers independently assessed the relevant studies for risk of bias. The quality of the evidence was graded using an international grading system.RESULTS: A total of 52 relevant RCTs were identified whereof 12 were excluded due to high risk of bias. Five cost-effectiveness studies were identified and three were excluded due to high risk of bias. The included trials mainly evaluated internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (I-CBT) against a waiting list in adult volunteers and 88% were conducted in Sweden or Australia. One trial involved children. For adults, the quality of evidence was graded as moderate for the short-term efficacy of I-CBT vs. waiting list for mild/moderate depression (d = 0.83; 95% CI 0.59, 1.07) and social phobia (d = 0.85; 95% CI 0.66, 1.05), and moderate for no efficacy of internet-delivered attention bias modification vs. sham treatment for social phobia (d = -0.04; 95% CI -0.24, 0.35). The quality of evidence was graded as low/very low for other disorders, interventions, children/adolescents, noninferiority, adverse events, and cost-effectiveness.CONCLUSIONS: I-CBT is a viable treatment option for adults with depression and some anxiety disorders who request this treatment modality. Important questions remain before broad implementation can be supported. Future research would benefit from prioritizing adapting treatments to children/adolescents and using noninferiority designs with established forms of treatment.
  • Arnberg, Filip K, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Recent randomized controlled trials of psychological interventions in healthcare : A review of their quantity, scope, and characteristics
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Psychosomatic Research. - 0022-3999 .- 1879-1360. ; 75:5, s. 401-408
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: This study aimed to describe the quantity, scope, and fundamental characteristics of recently published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological interventions.Methods: We queried two major databases (PsycINFO and PubMeD) for primary reports published in 2010 of RCTs of psychological interventions for participants with a medical condition. We collected data on the characteristics of the trials, participants, interventions, outcomes, and reports.Results: Of 3,696 retrieved reports 295 primary publications were included. About half (53%) of trials included participants with a mental disorder and more than half evaluated interventions based on a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) framework. A majority of trials recruited participants in North America and Europe (79%). A minority of the trials focused on children and adolescents (17%) or the elderly (8%). The median sample size of the intervention arm was n = 41. Thirty-nine percent of trials reported solely patient-reported outcomes. Only 5% of reports indicated funding from for-profit organizations. The median 2010 impact factor of the journals in which reports were published was 2.96.Conclusion: This snapshot of the research on psychological interventions suggests that the evidence base for psychological interventions is expanding mainly for CBT interventions for adults in high-income countries. Although the restrictive inclusion criteria limit the generalizability of these results, researchers and funding agencies might be advised to strive for greater diversity regarding interventions, geographical/cultural settings and age groups. Regularly updated reviews of this research field, with gradually refined methodology and increased scope, may further inform funders and researchers.
  • Berggren, Steve, et al. (författare)
  • Emotion recognition training in autism spectrum disorder : A systematic review of challenges related to generalizability.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Developmental Neurorehabilitation. - 1751-8423 .- 1751-8431. ; 21:3, s. 141-154
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To assess the generalizability of findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating emotion recognition (ER) training for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).METHODS: We present a systematic review and narrative synthesis of the determinants of external validity in RCTs on ER training. Generalizability of the findings across situations, populations, settings, treatment delivery, and intervention formats was considered.RESULTS: We identified 13 eligible studies. Participants were predominantly boys with ASD in the normative IQ range (IQ > 70), with an age span from 4 to 18 years across studies. Interventions and outcome measures were highly variable. Several studies indicated that training may improve ER, but it is still largely unknown to what extent training effects are translated to daily social life.CONCLUSION: The generalizability of findings from currently available RCTs remains unclear. This underscores the importance of involving children with ASD and their caregivers in informed treatment decisions.
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