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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Jugessur Astanand) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Jugessur Astanand)

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1.
  • Bustamante, Mariona, et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide association meta-analysis of diarrhoeal disease in young children identifies FUT2 locus and provides plausible biological pathways.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Human molecular genetics. - 1460-2083. ; 25:18, s. 4127-4142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • More than a million childhood diarrhoeal episodes occur worldwide each year, and in developed countries a considerable part of them are caused by viral infections. In this study, we aimed to search for genetic variants associated with diarrhoeal disease in young children by meta-analyzing genome-wide association studies, and to elucidate plausible biological mechanisms. The study was conducted in the context of the Early Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortium. Data about diarrhoeal disease in two time windows (around 1 year of age and around 2 years of age) was obtained via parental questionnaires, doctor interviews or medical records. Standard quality control and statistical tests were applied to the 1000 Genomes imputed genotypic data. The meta-analysis (N = 5758) followed by replication (N = 3784) identified a genome-wide significant association between rs8111874 and diarrhoea at age 1 year. Conditional analysis suggested that the causal variant could be rs601338 (W154X) in the FUT2 gene. Children with the A allele, which results in a truncated FUT2 protein, had lower risk of diarrhoea. FUT2 participates in the production of histo-blood group antigens and has previously been implicated in the susceptibility to infections, including Rotavirus and Norovirus Gene-set enrichment analysis suggested pathways related to the histo-blood group antigen production, and the regulation of ion transport and blood pressure. Among others, the gastrointestinal tract, and the immune and neuro-secretory systems were detected as relevant organs. In summary, this genome-wide association meta-analysis suggests the implication of the FUT2 gene in diarrhoeal disease in young children from the general population.
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2.
  • Denault, William R P, et al. (författare)
  • A fast wavelet-based functional association analysis replicates several susceptibility loci for birth weight in a Norwegian population.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: BMC genomics. - 1471-2164. ; 22:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Birth weight (BW) is one of the most widely studied anthropometric traits in humans because of its role in various adult-onset diseases. The number of loci associated with BW has increased dramatically since the advent of whole-genome screening approaches such as genome-wide association studies (GWASes) and meta-analyses of GWASes (GWAMAs). To further contribute to elucidating the genetic architecture of BW, we analyzed a genotyped Norwegian dataset with information on child's BW (N=9,063) using a slightly modified version of a wavelet-based method by Shim and Stephens (2015) called WaveQTL.WaveQTL uses wavelet regression for regional testing and offers a more flexible functional modeling framework compared to conventional GWAS methods. To further improve WaveQTL, we added a novel feature termed "zooming strategy" to enhance the detection of associations in typically small regions. The modified WaveQTL replicated five out of the 133 loci previously identified by the largest GWAMA of BW to date by Warrington et al. (2019), even though our sample size was 26 times smaller than that study and 18 times smaller than the second largest GWAMA of BW by Horikoshi et al. (2016). In addition, the modified WaveQTL performed better in regions of high LD between SNPs.This study is the first adaptation of the original WaveQTL method to the analysis of genome-wide genotypic data. Our results highlight the utility of the modified WaveQTL as a complementary tool for identifying loci that might escape detection by conventional genome-wide screening methods due to power issues. An attractive application of the modified WaveQTL would be to select traits from various public GWAS repositories to investigate whether they might benefit from a second analysis.
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3.
  • Denault, William R P, et al. (författare)
  • Wavelet Screening: a novel approach to analyzing GWAS data.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: BMC bioinformatics. - 1471-2105. ; 22:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Traditional methods for single-variant genome-wide association study (GWAS) incur a substantial multiple-testing burden because of the need to test for associations with a vast number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) simultaneously. Further, by ignoring more complex joint effects of nearby SNPs within a given region, these methods fail to consider the genomic context of an association with the outcome.To address these shortcomings, we present a more powerful method for GWAS, coined 'Wavelet Screening' (WS), that greatly reduces the number of tests to be performed. This is achieved through the use of a sliding-window approach based on wavelets to sequentially screen the entire genome for associations. Wavelets are oscillatory functions that are useful for analyzing the local frequency and time behavior of signals. The signals can then be divided into different scale components and analyzed separately. In the current setting, we consider a sequence of SNPs as a genetic signal, and for each screened region, we transform the genetic signal into the wavelet space. The null and alternative hypotheses are modeled using the posterior distribution of the wavelet coefficients. WS is enhanced by using additional information from the regression coefficients and by taking advantage of the pyramidal structure of wavelets. When faced with more complex genetic signals than single-SNP associations, we show via simulations that WS provides a substantial gain in power compared to both the traditional GWAS modeling and another popular regional association test called SNP-set (Sequence) Kernel Association Test (SKAT). To demonstrate feasibility, we applied WS to a large Norwegian cohort (N=8006) with genotypes and information available on gestational duration.WS is a powerful and versatile approach to analyzing whole-genome data and lends itself easily to investigating various omics data types. Given its broader focus on the genomic context of an association, WS may provide additional insight into trait etiology by revealing genes and loci that might have been missed by previous efforts.
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4.
  • Lee, Yunsung, et al. (författare)
  • Blood-based epigenetic estimators of chronological age in human adults using DNA methylation data from the Illumina MethylationEPIC array
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMC Genomics. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2164. ; 21:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Epigenetic clocks have been recognized for their precise prediction of chronological age, age-related diseases, and all-cause mortality. Existing epigenetic clocks are based on CpGs from the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (450 K) which has now been replaced by the latest platform, Illumina MethylationEPIC BeadChip (EPIC). Thus, it remains unclear to what extent EPIC contributes to increased precision and accuracy in the prediction of chronological age. Results: We developed three blood-based epigenetic clocks for human adults using EPIC-based DNA methylation (DNAm) data from the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) public repository: 1) an Adult Blood-based EPIC Clock (ABEC) trained on DNAm data from MoBa (n = 1592, age-span: 19 to 59 years), 2) an extended ABEC (eABEC) trained on DNAm data from MoBa and GEO (n = 2227, age-span: 18 to 88 years), and 3) a common ABEC (cABEC) trained on the same training set as eABEC but restricted to CpGs common to 450 K and EPIC. Our clocks showed high precision (Pearson correlation between chronological and epigenetic age (r) > 0.94) in independent cohorts, including GSE111165 (n = 15), GSE115278 (n = 108), GSE132203 (n = 795), and the Epigenetics in Pregnancy (EPIPREG) study of the STORK Groruddalen Cohort (n = 470). This high precision is unlikely due to the use of EPIC, but rather due to the large sample size of the training set. Conclusions: Our ABECs predicted adults’ chronological age precisely in independent cohorts. As EPIC is now the dominant platform for measuring DNAm, these clocks will be useful in further predictions of chronological age, age-related diseases, and mortality.
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5.
  • Middeldorp, Christel M., et al. (författare)
  • The Early Growth Genetics (EGG) and EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortia : design, results and future prospects
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - : Springer. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 34:3, s. 279-300
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The impact of many unfavorable childhood traits or diseases, such as low birth weight and mental disorders, is not limited to childhood and adolescence, as they are also associated with poor outcomes in adulthood, such as cardiovascular disease. Insight into the genetic etiology of childhood and adolescent traits and disorders may therefore provide new perspectives, not only on how to improve wellbeing during childhood, but also how to prevent later adverse outcomes. To achieve the sample sizes required for genetic research, the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) and EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortia were established. The majority of the participating cohorts are longitudinal population-based samples, but other cohorts with data on early childhood phenotypes are also involved. Cohorts often have a broad focus and collect(ed) data on various somatic and psychiatric traits as well as environmental factors. Genetic variants have been successfully identified for multiple traits, for example, birth weight, atopic dermatitis, childhood BMI, allergic sensitization, and pubertal growth. Furthermore, the results have shown that genetic factors also partly underlie the association with adult traits. As sample sizes are still increasing, it is expected that future analyses will identify additional variants. This, in combination with the development of innovative statistical methods, will provide detailed insight on the mechanisms underlying the transition from childhood to adult disorders. Both consortia welcome new collaborations. Policies and contact details are available from the corresponding authors of this manuscript and/or the consortium websites.
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6.
  • Okbay, Aysu, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 533:7604, s. 539-542
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals(1). Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample(1,2) of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.
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7.
  • Rietveld, Cornelius A., et al. (författare)
  • GWAS of 126,559 Individuals Identifies Genetic Variants Associated with Educational Attainment
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 340:6139, s. 1467-1471
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R-2 approximate to 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for approximate to 2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics.
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