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Sökning: WFRF:(Kadowaki Takashi)

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1.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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2.
  • Aida, Azusa, et al. (författare)
  • Using mHealth to Provide Mobile App Users With Visualization of Health Checkup Data and Educational Videos on Lifestyle-Related Diseases : Methodological Framework for Content Development
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JMIR mHealth and uHealth. - : JMIR Publications Inc.. - 2291-5222. ; 8:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The number of people with lifestyle-related diseases continues to increase worldwide. Improving lifestyle behavior with health literacy may be the key to address lifestyle-related diseases. The delivery of educational videos using mobile health (mHealth) services can replace the conventional way of educating individuals, and visualization can replace the provision of health checkup data. OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed to describe the development of educational content for MIRAMED, a mobile app aimed at improving users' lifestyle behaviors and health literacy for lifestyle-related diseases. METHODS: All videos were based on a single unified framework to provide users with a consistent flow of information. The framework was later turned into a storyboard. The final video contents were created based on this storyboard and further discussions with leading experts and specialist physicians on effective communication with app users about lifestyle-related diseases. RESULTS: The app uses visualization of personal health checkup data and educational videos on lifestyle-related diseases based on the current health guidelines, scientific evidence, and expert opinions of leading specialist physicians in the respective fields. A total of 8 videos were created for specific lifestyle-related diseases affecting 8 organs: (1) brain-cerebrovascular disorder, (2) eyes-diabetic retinopathy, (3) lungs-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, (4) heart-ischemic heart disease, (5) liver-fatty liver, (6) kidneys-chronic kidney disease (diabetic kidney disease), (7) blood vessels-peripheral arterial disease, and (8) nerves-diabetic neuropathy. CONCLUSIONS: Providing enhanced mHealth education using novel digital technologies to visualize conventional health checkup data and lifestyle-related diseases is an innovative strategy. Future studies to evaluate the efficacy of the developed content are planned.
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3.
  • Birkeland, Kåre, I, et al. (författare)
  • Heart failure and chronic kidney disease manifestation and mortality risk associations in type 2 diabetes : A large multinational cohort study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetes, obesity and metabolism. - : WILEY. - 1462-8902 .- 1463-1326. ; 30:1, s. 9-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims To examine the manifestation of cardiovascular or renal disease (CVRD) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) initially free from CVRD as well as the mortality risks associated with these diseases. Methods Patients free from CVRD were identified from healthcare records in England, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden at a fixed date. CVRD manifestation was defined by first diagnosis of cardiorenal disease, or a stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) or peripheral artery disease (PAD) event. The mortality risk associated with single CVRD history of heart failure (HF), chronic kidney disease (CKD), MI, stroke or PAD was compared with that associated with CVRD-free status. Results Of 1 177 896 patients with T2D, 772 336 (66%) were CVRD-free and followed for a mean of 4.5 years. A total of 137 081 patients (18%) developed a first CVRD manifestation, represented by CKD (36%), HF (24%), stroke (16%), MI (14%) and PAD (10%). HF or CKD was associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risk: hazard ratio (HR) 2.02 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.33) and HR 2.05 (95% CI 1.82-2.32), respectively. HF and CKD were separately associated with significantly increased mortality risks, and the combination was associated with the highest cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risk: HRs 3.91 (95% CI 3.02-5.07) and 3.14 (95% CI 2.90-3.40), respectively. Conclusion In a large multinational study of >750 000 CVRD-free patients with T2D, HF and CKD were consistently the most frequent first cardiovascular disease manifestations and were also associated with increased mortality risks. These novel findings show these cardiorenal diseases to be important and serious complications requiring improved preventive strategies.
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4.
  • Birkeland, Kare I., et al. (författare)
  • Lower cardiorenal risk withsodium-glucosecotransporter-2 inhibitors versus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes without cardiovascular and renal diseases : A large multinational observational study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Diabetes, obesity and metabolism. - : WILEY. - 1462-8902 .- 1463-1326. ; 23:1, s. 75-85
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims We compared the new use of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) versus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4i) and the risk of cardiorenal disease, heart failure (HF) or chronic kidney disease (CKD), in patients with type 2 diabetes without a history of prevalent cardiovascular and renal disease, defined as cardiovascular and renal disease (CVRD) free, managed in routine clinical practice. Materials and methods In this observational cohort study, patients were identified from electronic health records from England, Germany, Japan, Norway, South Korea and Sweden, during 2012-2018. In total, 1 006 577 CVRD-free new users of SGLT2i or DPP4i were propensity score matched 1:1. Unadjusted Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for outcomes: cardiorenal disease, HF, CKD, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Results Baseline characteristics were well balanced between the treatment groups (n = 105 130 in each group) with total follow-up of 187 955 patient years. Patients had a mean age of 56 years, 43% were women and they were indexed between 2013 and 2018. The most commonly used agents were dapagliflozin (91.7% of exposure time) and sitagliptin/linagliptin (55.0%), in the SGLT2i and DPP4i, groups, respectively. SGLT2i was associated with lower risk of cardiorenal disease, HF, CKD, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality; HR (95% confidence interval), 0.56 (0.42-0.74), 0.71 (0.59-0.86), 0.44 (0.28-0.69), 0.67 (0.59-0.77), and 0.61 (0.44-0.85), respectively. No differences were observed for stroke [0.87 (0.69-1.09)] and MI [0.94 (0.80-1.11)]. Conclusion In this multinational observational study, SGLT2i was associated with a lower risk of HF and CKD versus DPP4i in patients with type 2 diabetes otherwise free from both cardiovascular and renal disease.
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5.
  • Cho, Yoon Shin, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies eight new loci for type 2 diabetes in east Asians.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 44:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We conducted a three-stage genetic study to identify susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in east Asian populations. We followed our stage 1 meta-analysis of eight T2D genome-wide association studies (6,952 cases with T2D and 11,865 controls) with a stage 2 in silico replication analysis (5,843 cases and 4,574 controls) and a stage 3 de novo replication analysis (12,284 cases and 13,172 controls). The combined analysis identified eight new T2D loci reaching genome-wide significance, which mapped in or near GLIS3, PEPD, FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, KCNK16, MAEA, GCC1-PAX4, PSMD6 and ZFAND3. GLIS3, which is involved in pancreatic beta cell development and insulin gene expression, is known for its association with fasting glucose levels. The evidence of an association with T2D for PEPD and HNF4A has been shown in previous studies. KCNK16 may regulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion in the pancreas. These findings, derived from an east Asian population, provide new perspectives on the etiology of T2D.
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6.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8627 .- 1554-8635. ; 4:2, s. 151-175
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,1 and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.2,3 There are many useful and convenient methods that can be used to monitor macroautophagy in yeast, but relatively few in other model systems, and there is much confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure macroautophagy in higher eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers of autophagosomes versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway; thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from fully functional autophagy that includes delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of the methods that can be used by investigators who are attempting to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as by reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that investigate these processes. This set of guidelines is not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to verify an autophagic response.
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7.
  • Mahajan, Anubha, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 46:3, s. 234-234
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To further understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility, we aggregated published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including 26,488 cases and 83,964 controls of European, east Asian, south Asian and Mexican and Mexican American ancestry. We observed a significant excess in the directional consistency of T2D risk alleles across ancestry groups, even at SNPs demonstrating only weak evidence of association. By following up the strongest signals of association from the trans-ethnic meta-analysis in an additional 21,491 cases and 55,647 controls of European ancestry, we identified seven new T2D susceptibility loci. Furthermore, we observed considerable improvements in the fine-mapping resolution of common variant association signals at several T2D susceptibility loci. These observations highlight the benefits of trans-ethnic GWAS for the discovery and characterization of complex trait loci and emphasize an exciting opportunity to extend insight into the genetic architecture and pathogenesis of human diseases across populations of diverse ancestry.
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8.
  • Taira, Makiko, et al. (författare)
  • A variant within the FTO confers susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 13:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To explore novel genetic loci for diabetic nephropathy, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for diabetic nephropathy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. We analyzed the association of 5,768,242 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes, 2,380 nephropathy cases and 5,234 controls. We further performed GWAS for diabetic nephropathy using independent Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes, 429 cases and 358 controls and the results of these two GWAS were combined with an inverse variance meta-analysis (stage-1), followed by a de novo genotyping for the candidate SNP loci (p < 1.0 × 10−4) in an independent case-control study (Stage-2; 1,213 cases and 1,298 controls). After integrating stage-1 and stage-2 data, we identified one SNP locus, significantly associated with diabetic nephropathy; rs56094641 in FTO, P = 7.74 × 10−10. We further examined the association of rs56094641 with diabetic nephropathy in independent Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (902 cases and 1,221 controls), and found that the association of this locus with diabetic nephropathy remained significant after integrating all association data (P = 7.62 × 10−10). We have identified FTO locus as a novel locus for conferring susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
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9.
  • Yasuda, Kazuki, et al. (författare)
  • Variants in KCNQ1 are associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 40:9, s. 1092-1097
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We carried out a multistage genome-wide association study of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Japanese individuals, with a total of 1,612 cases and 1,424 controls and 100,000 SNPs. The most significant association was obtained with SNPs in KCNQ1, and dense mapping within the gene revealed that rs2237892 in intron 15 showed the lowest P value (6.7 x 10(-13), odds ratio (OR) = 1.49). The association of KCNQ1 with type 2 diabetes was replicated in populations of Korean, Chinese and European ancestry as well as in two independent Japanese populations, and meta-analysis with a total of 19,930 individuals (9,569 cases and 10,361 controls) yielded a P value of 1.7 x 10(-42) (OR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.34-1.47) for rs2237892. Among control subjects, the risk allele of this polymorphism was associated with impairment of insulin secretion according to the homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function or the corrected insulin response. Our data thus implicate KCNQ1 as a diabetes susceptibility gene in groups of different ancestries.
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