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  • Andersson, E, et al. (författare)
  • Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized controlled trial
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - : Cambridge University Press (CUP). - 0033-2917 .- 1469-8978. ; 42:10, s. 2193-2203
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but access to CBT is limited. Internet-based CBT (ICBT) with therapist support is potentially a more accessible treatment. There are no randomized controlled trials testing ICBT for OCD. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ICBT for OCD in a randomized controlled trial. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethod. Participants (n=101) diagnosed with OCD were randomized to either 10 weeks of ICBT or to an attention control condition, consisting of online supportive therapy. The primary outcome measure was the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) administered by blinded assessors. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults. Both treatments lead to significant improvements in OCD symptoms, but ICBT resulted in larger improvements than the control condition on the YBOCS, with a significant between-group effect size (Cohens d) of 1.12 (95% CI 0.69-1.53) at post-treatment. The proportion of participants showing clinically significant improvement was 60% (95% CI 46-72) in the ICBT group compared to 6% (95% CI 1-17) in the control condition. The results were sustained at follow-up. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions. ICBT is an efficacious treatment for OCD that could substantially increase access to CBT for OCD patients. Replication studies are warranted.
  • Andersson, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Testing the Mediating Effects of Obsessive Beliefs in Internet-Based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder : Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1063-3995 .- 1099-0879. ; 22:6, s. 722-732
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although cognitive interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been tested in randomized trials, there are few trials that have tested the specific mechanisms of cognitive interventions, i.e. how they achieve their effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mediating effects of a short cognitive intervention in the treatment of OCD and used data from a recently conducted randomized controlled trial where 101 participants were allocated to either Internet-based CBT (ICBT) or to a control condition. Obsessive beliefs were measured at pre-treatment, at the time they had received the cognitive intervention, and also at post-treatment. Weekly OCD symptoms were measured throughout the 10 weeks of treatment. We hypothesized that (1) the ICBT group would have greater reductions in obsessive beliefs (controlling for change in OCD symptoms) after completing the cognitive intervention, and that (2) this reduction would, in turn, predict greater OCD symptom reduction throughout the rest of the treatment period. Contrary to our expectations, the longitudinal mediation analysis indicated that (1) being randomized to ICBT actually increased the degree of obsessive beliefs after receiving the cognitive intervention at weeks 1-3, and (2) increase in obsessive beliefs predicted better outcome later in treatment. However, when repeating the analysis using cross-sectional data at post-treatment, the results were in line with the initial hypotheses. Results were replicated when the control condition received ICBT. We conclude that, although obsessive beliefs were significantly reduced at post-treatment for the ICBT group, early increase rather than decrease in obsessive beliefs predicted favourable outcome. Copyright (C) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Andersson, Gerhard, et al. (författare)
  • Future thinking in tinnitus patients
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Psychosomatic Research. - 0022-3999 .- 1879-1360. ; 63:2, s. 191-194
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate future thinking in a group of tinnitus patients. It was predicted that participants in the tinnitus group would report fewer positive future events. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used. Two groups of participants completed the test session: tinnitus patients (n=20) and healthy controls (n=20) without tinnitus. Participants completed measures of anticipation of future positive and negative experiences, anxiety and depression. In addition, participants with tinnitus completed a test of tinnitus annoyance. Results: Tinnitus participants generated a greater number of negative future events compared to the controls. There was no difference between the groups on positive future events or on self-reported anxiety, but the tinnitus group scored higher on a depression measure. Controlling for depression scores removed the group difference. Conclusions: While the groups differed on future thinking, the difference concerned negative events, which suggests that anxious information processing might be important in explaining tinnitus annoyance. Levels of depressive symptoms should, however, be considered. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Blom, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • Internet-vs. group-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia : A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy. - : Elsevier. - 0005-7967 .- 1873-622X. ; 70, s. 47-55
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to compare guided Internet-delivered to group-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. We conducted an 8-week randomized controlled non-inferiority trial with 6-months follow-up. Participants were forty-eight adults with insomnia, recruited via media. Interventions were guided Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) and group-delivered CBT (GCBT) for insomnia. Primary outcome measure was the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), secondary outcome measures were sleep diary data, depressive symptoms, response- and remission rates. Both treatment groups showed significant improvements and large effect sizes for ISI (Within Cohen's d: ICBT post = 1.8, 6-months follow-up = 2.1; GCBT post = 2.1, 6-months follow-up = 2.2). Confidence interval of the difference between groups posttreatment and at FU6 indicated non-inferiority of ICBT compared to GCBT. At post-treatment, two thirds of patients in both groups were considered responders (ISI-reduction > 7p). Using diagnostic criteria, 63% (ICBT) and 75% (GCBT) were in remission. Sleep diary data showed moderate to large effect sizes. We conclude that both guided Internet-CBT and group-CBT in this study were efficacious with regard to insomnia severity, sleep parameters and depressive symptoms. The results are in line with previous research, and strengthen the evidence for guided Internet-CBT for insomnia. Trial registration: The study protocol was approved by, and registered with, the regional ethics review board in Linkoping, Sweden, registration number 2010/385-31. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • El Alaoui, Samir, et al. (författare)
  • Effectiveness of Internet-Based Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder in Clinical Psychiatry
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. - : American Psychological Association (APA). - 0022-006X .- 1939-2117. ; 83:5, s. 902-914
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) has received increased attention as an innovative approach to improve access to evidence-based psychological treatments. Although the efficacy of ICBT for social anxiety disorder has been established in several studies, there is limited knowledge of its effectiveness and application in clinical psychiatric care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ICBT in the treatment of social anxiety disorder and to determine the significance of patient adherence and the clinic's years of experience in delivering ICBT. Method: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted using latent growth curve modeling of patients (N = 654) treated with ICBT at an outpatient psychiatric clinic between 2009 and 2013. The primary outcome measure was the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale-Self-Rated. Results: Significant reductions in symptoms of social anxiety were observed after treatment (effect size d = 0.86, 99% CI [0.74, 0.98]). Improvements were sustained at 6-month follow-up (d = 1.15, 99% CI [0.99, 1.32]). Patient adherence had a positive effect on the rate of improvement. A positive association between the clinic's years of experience with ICBT and treatment outcome was also observed. Conclusions: This study suggests that ICBT for social anxiety disorder is effective when delivered within the context of a unit specialized in Internet-based psychiatric care and may be considered as a treatment alternative for implementation within the mental health care system.
  • Hedman, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Effectiveness of Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for depression in routine psychiatric care
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders. - : Elsevier. - 0165-0327 .- 1573-2517. ; 155, s. 49-58
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundEfficacy of guided Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) for depression has been demonstrated in several randomised controlled trials. Knowledge on the effectiveness of the treatment, i.e. how it works when delivered within routine care, is however scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of ICBT for depression.MethodsWe conducted a cohort study investigating all patients (N=1203) who had received guided ICBT for depression between 2007 and 2013 in a routine care setting at an outpatient psychiatric clinic providing Internet-based treatment. The primary outcome measure was the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-Self rated (MADRS-S).ResultsPatients made large improvements from pre-treatment assessments to post-treatment on the primary outcome (effect size d on the MADRS-S=1.27, 99% CI, 1.14–1.39). Participants were significantly improved in terms of suicidal ideation and sleep difficulties. Improvements were sustained at 6-month follow-up.LimitationsAttrition was rather large at 6-month follow-up. However, additional data was collected through telephone interviews with dropouts and advanced statistical models indicated that missing data did not bias the findings.ConclusionsICBT for depression can be highly effective when delivered within the context of routine psychiatric care. This study suggests that the effect sizes are at least as high when the treatment is delivered in routine psychiatric care by qualified staff as when delivered in a controlled trial setting.
  • Hedman, E., et al. (författare)
  • Effectiveness of Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder in routine psychiatric care
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. - : Wiley. - 0001-690X .- 1600-0447. ; 128:6, s. 457-467
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectiveGuided Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) for panic disorder has been shown to be efficacious in several randomized controlled trials. However, the effectiveness of the treatment when delivered within routine psychiatric care has not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of ICBT for panic disorder within the context of routine psychiatric care. MethodWe conducted a cohort study investigating all patients (n=570) who had received guided ICBT for panic disorder between 2007 and 2012 in a routine care setting at an out-patient psychiatric clinic providing Internet-based treatment. The primary outcome measure was the Panic Disorder Severity Scale-Self-report (PDSS-SR). ResultsParticipants made large improvements from screening and pretreatment assessments to posttreatment (Cohen's d range on the PDSS-SR=1.07-1.55). Improvements were sustained at 6-month follow-up. ConclusionThis study suggests that ICBT for panic disorder is as effective when delivered in a routine care context as in the previously published randomized controlled trials.
  • Sundstrom, C., et al. (författare)
  • High-intensity therapist-guided internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for alcohol use disorder: a pilot study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Bmc Psychiatry. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-244X. ; 17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A large proportion of individuals with alcohol problems do not seek psychological treatment, but access to such treatment could potentially be increased by delivering it over the Internet. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is widely recognized as one of the psychological treatments for alcohol problems for which evidence is most robust. This study evaluated a new, therapist-guided internet-based CBT program (entitled ePlus) for individuals with alcohol use disorders. Methods: Participants in the study (n = 13) were recruited through an alcohol self-help web site (www.alkoholhjalpen.se) and, after initial internet screening, were diagnostically assessed by telephone. Eligible participants were offered access to the therapist-guided 12-week program. The main outcomes were treatment usage data (module completion, treatment satisfaction) as well as glasses of alcohol consumed the preceding week, measured with the self-rated Timeline Followback (TLFB). Participant data were collected at screening (T0), immediately pre-treatment (T1), post-treatment (T2) and 3 months post-treatment (T3). Results: Most participants were active throughout the treatment and found it highly acceptable. Significant reductions in alcohol consumption with a large within-group effect size were found at the three-month follow-up. Secondary outcome measures of craving and self-efficacy, as well as depression and quality of life, also showed significant improvements with moderate to large within-group effect sizes. Conclusions: Therapist-guided internet-based CBT may be a feasible and effective alternative for people with alcohol use disorders. In view of the high acceptability and the large within-group effect sizes found in this small pilot, a randomized controlled trial investigating treatment efficacy is warranted.
  • Andersson, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Cost-effectiveness of an internet-based booster program for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder : Results from a randomized controlled trial
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. - : Elsevier. - 2211-3649 .- 2211-3657. ; 4, s. 14-19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for OCD when delivered face-to-face, in group-format and also via the internet. However, despite overall large effect sizes, a considerable amount of the patients relapse. One intervention that has the potential to reduce these relapse rates is booster programs, but if booster program is a cost-effective method of preventing relapse is still unknown. We used health economical data from a recent randomized controlled trial, where patients who had undergone an internet-based CBT were randomly allocated to receive an additional booster program. Assessment points were 4-, 7-, 12- and 24-month. Health economical data were primarily analyzed using a societal perspective. Results showed that the booster program was effective in preventing relapse, and the cost of one avoided relapse was estimated to $1066-1489. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that the booster program had a 90% probability of being cost-effective given a willingness to pay of $1000-1050 the first year, but this figure grew considerably after two years ($2500-5500). We conclude that internet-based booster programs are probably a cost-effective alternative within one-year time frame and that more treatment may be needed to maintain adequate cost-effectiveness up to two years. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Andersson, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Cost-effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder : results from a randomized controlled trial
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. - : Elsevier. - 2211-3649 .- 2211-3657. ; 4, s. 47-53
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common and disabling disorder. Although evidence-based psychological treatments exists, such as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), the cost-effectiveness of CBT has not been properly investigated. In this trial, we used health economic data from a recently conducted randomized controlled trial, where 101 OCD patients were allocated to either internet-based CBT (ICBT) or control condition (online support therapy). We analyzed treatment effectiveness in relation to costs, using both a societal- (including all direct and indirect costs) and a health care unit perspective (including only the direct treatment costs). Bootstrapped net benefit regression analyses were also conducted, comparing the difference in costs and effects between ICBT and control condition, with different willingness-to-pay scenarios. Results showed that ICBT produced one additional remission for an average societal cost of $931 and this figure was even lower ($672) when narrowing the perspective to treatment costs only. The cost-utility analysis also showed that ICBT generated one additional QALY to an average price of $7186 from a societal perspective and $4800 when just analyzing the treatment costs. We conclude that ICBT is a cost-effective treatment and the next step in this line of research is to compare the cost-effectiveness of ICBT with face-to-face CBT. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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