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Sökning: WFRF:(Kaner Eileen)

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1.
  • Adjei, Nicholas Kofi, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of poverty and family adversity on adolescent health : a multi-trajectory analysis using the UK Millennium Cohort Study
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Regional Health. - 2666-7762. ; 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Children exposed to poverty and family adversities including domestic violence, parental mental ill health and parental alcohol misuse may experience poor outcomes across the life course. However, the complex interrelationships between these exposures in childhood are unclear. We therefore assessed the clustering of trajectories of household poverty and family adversities and their impacts on adolescent health outcomes.Methods We used longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort study on 11564 children followed to age 14 years. Family adversities included parent reported domestic violence and abuse, poor mental health and frequent alcohol use. We used a group-based multi-trajectory cluster model to identify trajectories of poverty and family adversity for children. We assessed associations of these trajectories with child physical, mental and behavioural outcomes at age 14 years using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for confounders.Findings Six trajectories were identified: low poverty and family adversity (43·2%), persistent parental alcohol use (7·7%), persistent domestic violence and abuse (3·4%), persistent poor parental mental health (11·9%), persistent poverty (22·6%) and persistent poverty and poor parental mental health (11·1%). Compared with children exposed to low poverty and adversity, children in the persistent adversity trajectory groups experienced worse outcomes; those exposed to persistent poor parental mental health and poverty were particularly at increased risk of socioemotional behavioural problems (adjusted odds ratio 6·4; 95% CI 5·0 – 8·3), cognitive disability (aOR 2·1; CI 1·5 – 2·8), drug experimentation (aOR 2·8; CI 1·8 – 4·2) and obesity (aOR 1·8; CI 1·3 – 2·5).Interpretation In a contemporary UK cohort, persistent poverty and/or persistent poor parental mental health affects over four in ten children. The combination of both affects one in ten children and is strongly associated with adverse child outcomes, particularly poor child mental health.
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2.
  • Anderson, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Attitudes and Learning through Practice Are Key to Delivering Brief Interventions for Heavy Drinking in Primary Health Care: Analyses from the ODHIN Five Country Cluster Randomized Factorial Trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. - : MDPI AG. - 1661-7827 .- 1660-4601. ; 14:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper, we test path models that study the interrelations between primary health care provider attitudes towards working with drinkers, their screening and brief advice activity, and their receipt of training and support and financial reimbursement. Study participants were 756 primary health care providers from 120 primary health care units (PHCUs) in different locations throughout Catalonia, England, The Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Our interventions were training and support and financial reimbursement to providers. Our design was a randomized factorial trial with baseline measurement period, 12-week implementation period, and 9-month follow-up measurement period. Our outcome measures were: attitudes of individual providers in working with drinkers as measured by the Short Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire; and the proportion of consulting adult patients (age 18+ years) who screened positive and were given advice to reduce their alcohol consumption (intervention activity). We found that more positive attitudes were associated with higher intervention activity, and higher intervention activity was then associated with more positive attitudes. Training and support was associated with both positive changes in attitudes and higher intervention activity. Financial reimbursement was associated with more positive attitudes through its impact on higher intervention activity. We conclude that improving primary health care providers screening and brief advice activity for heavy drinking requires a combination of training and support and on-the-job experience of actually delivering screening and brief advice activity.
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3.
  • Anderson, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Delivery of Brief Interventions for Heavy Drinking in Primary Care: Outcomes of the ODHIN 5-Country Cluster Randomized Trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Annals of family medicine (online). - : ANNALS FAMILY MEDICINE. - 1544-1709 .- 1544-1717. ; 15:4, s. 335-340
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE We aimed to test whether 3 strategies-training and support, financial reimbursement, and an option to direct screen-positive patients to an Internet-based method of giving brief advice-have a longer-term effect on primary care clinicians delivery of screening and advice to heavy drinkers operationalized with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) tool. METHODS We undertook a cluster randomized factorial trial with a 12-week implementation period in 120 primary health care units throughout Catalonia, England, Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Units were randomized to 8 groups: care as usual (control); training and support alone; financial reimbursement alone; electronic brief advice alone; paired combinations of these conditions; and all 3 combined. The primary outcome was the proportion of consulting adult patients (aged 18 years and older) receiving intervention-screening and, if screen-positive, advice-at 9 months. RESULTS Based on the factorial design, the ratio of the log of the proportion of patients given intervention at the 9-month follow-up was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.03-1.88) in units that received training and support as compared with units that did not. Neither financial reimbursement nor directing screen-positive patients to electronic brief advice led to a higher proportion of patients receiving intervention. CONCLUSIONS Training and support of primary health care units has a lasting, albeit small, impact on the proportion of adult patients given an alcohol intervention at 9 months.
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4.
  • Anderson, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of practice, provider and patient characteristics on delivering screening and brief advice for heavy drinking in primary healthcare: Secondary analyses of data from the ODHIN five-country cluster randomized factorial trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Journal of General Practice. - : TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. - 1381-4788 .- 1751-1402. ; 23:1, s. 241-245
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The implementation of primary healthcare-based screening and advice that is effective in reducing heavy drinking can be enhanced with training. Objectives: Undertaking secondary analysis of the five-country ODHIN study, we test: the extent to which practice, provider and patient characteristics affect the likelihood of patients being screened and advised; the extent to which such characteristics moderate the impact of training in increasing screening and advice; and the extent to which training mitigates any differences due to such characteristics found at baseline. Methods: A cluster randomized factorial trial involving 120 practices, 746 providers and 46 546 screened patients from Catalonia, England, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Practices were randomized to receive training or not to receive training. The primary outcome measures were the proportion of adult patients screened, and the proportion of screen-positive patients advised. Results: Nurses tended to screen more patients than doctors (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.9, 4.9). Screenpositive patients were more likely to be advised by doctors than by nurses (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.1), and more liable to be advised the higher their risk status (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.7). Training increased screening and advice giving, with its impact largely unrelated to practice, provider or patient characteristics. Training diminished the differences between doctors and nurses and between patients with low or high-risk status. Conclusions: Training primary healthcare providers diminishes the negative impacts that some practice, provider and patient characteristics have on the likelihood of patients being screened and advised.
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5.
  • Keurhorst, Myrna N., et al. (författare)
  • Implementing training and support, financial reimbursement, and referral to an internet-based brief advice program to improve the early identification of hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption in primary care (ODHIN) : study protocol for a cluster randomized factorial trial
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Implementation Science. - : BioMed Central. - 1748-5908 .- 1748-5908. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundThe European level of alcohol consumption, and the subsequent burden of disease, is high compared to the rest of the world. While screening and brief interventions in primary healthcare are cost-effective, in most countries they have hardly been implemented in routine primary healthcare. In this study, we aim to examine the effectiveness and efficiency of three implementation interventions that have been chosen to address key barriers for improvement: training and support to address lack of knowledge and motivation in healthcare providers; financial reimbursement to compensate the time investment; and internet-based counselling to reduce workload for primary care providers.Methods/designIn a cluster randomized factorial trial, data from Catalan, English, Netherlands, Polish, and Swedish primary healthcare units will be collected on screening and brief advice rates for hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. The three implementation strategies will be provided separately and in combination in a total of seven intervention groups and compared with a treatment as usual control group. Screening and brief intervention activities will be measured at baseline, during 12 weeks and after six months. Process measures include health professionals’ role security and therapeutic commitment of the participating providers (SAAPPQ questionnaire). A total of 120 primary healthcare units will be included, equally distributed over the five countries. Both intention to treat and per protocol analyses are planned to determine intervention effectiveness, using random coefficient regression modelling.DiscussionEffective interventions to implement screening and brief interventions for hazardous alcohol use are urgently required. This international multi-centre trial will provide evidence to guide decision makers.
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