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Sökning: WFRF:(Kempton M. J.)

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  • Hibar, D. P., et al. (författare)
  • Cortical abnormalities in bipolar disorder: An MRI analysis of 6503 individuals from the ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 23:4, s. 932-942
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite decades of research, the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) is still not well understood. Structural brain differences have been associated with BD, but results from neuroimaging studies have been inconsistent. To address this, we performed the largest study to date of cortical gray matter thickness and surface area measures from brain magnetic resonance imaging scans of 6503 individuals including 1837 unrelated adults with BD and 2582 unrelated healthy controls for group differences while also examining the effects of commonly prescribed medications, age of illness onset, history of psychosis, mood state, age and sex differences on cortical regions. In BD, cortical gray matter was thinner in frontal, temporal and parietal regions of both brain hemispheres. BD had the strongest effects on left pars opercularis (Cohen's d='0.293; P=1.71 × 10 '21), left fusiform gyrus (d='0.288; P=8.25 × 10 '21) and left rostral middle frontal cortex (d='0.276; P=2.99 × 10 '19). Longer duration of illness (after accounting for age at the time of scanning) was associated with reduced cortical thickness in frontal, medial parietal and occipital regions. We found that several commonly prescribed medications, including lithium, antiepileptic and antipsychotic treatment showed significant associations with cortical thickness and surface area, even after accounting for patients who received multiple medications. We found evidence of reduced cortical surface area associated with a history of psychosis but no associations with mood state at the time of scanning. Our analysis revealed previously undetected associations and provides an extensive analysis of potential confounding variables in neuroimaging studies of BD. © 2018 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.
  • Manco-Johnson, M. J., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of late prophylaxis in hemophilia on joint status : A randomized trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1538-7933. ; 15:11, s. 2115-2124
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Essentials: High-quality data are lacking on use of prophylaxis in adults with hemophilia and arthropathy. SPINART was a 3-year randomized clinical trial of late/tertiary prophylaxis vs on-demand therapy. Prophylaxis improved function, quality of life, activity and pain but not joint structure by MRI. Prophylaxis improves function but must start before joint bleeding onset to prevent arthropathy. Summary: Background: Limited data exist on the impact of prophylaxis on adults with severe hemophilia A and pre-existing joint disease. Objectives: To describe 3-year bleeding, joint health and structure, health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) and other outcomes from the open-label, randomized, multinational SPINART study. Patients/Methods: Males aged 12-50 years with severe hemophilia A, ≥ 150 factor VIII exposure days, no inhibitors and no prophylaxis for > 12 consecutive months in the past 5 years were randomized to sucrose-formulated recombinant FVIII prophylaxis or on-demand therapy (OD). Data collected included total and joint bleeding events (BEs), joint structure (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]), joint health (Colorado Adult Joint Assessment Scale [CAJAS]), HRQoL, pain, healthcare resource utilization (HRU), activity, and treatment satisfaction. Results: Following 3 years of prophylaxis, adults maintained excellent adherence, with a 94% reduction in BEs despite severe pre-existing arthropathy; 35.7% and 76.2% of prophylaxis participants were bleed-free or had fewer than two BEs per year, respectively. As compared with OD, prophylaxis was associated with improved CAJAS scores (least squares [LS] mean, - 0.31 [n = 42] versus + 0.63 [n = 42]) and HAEMO-QoL-A scores (LS mean, + 3.98 [n = 41] versus - 6.00 [n = 42]), less chronic pain (50% decrease), and approximately two-fold less HRU; activity, Euro QoL-5D-3L (EQ-5D-3L) scores and satisfaction scores also favored prophylaxis. However, MRI score changes were not different for prophylaxis versus OD (LS mean, + 0.79 [n = 41] versus + 0.96 [n = 38]). Conclusions: Over a period of 3 years, prophylaxis versus OD in adults with severe hemophilia A and arthropathy led to decreased bleeding, pain, and HRU, better joint health, activity, satisfaction, and HRQoL, but no reduction in structural arthropathy progression, suggesting that pre-existing joint arthropathy may be irreversible.
  • Brooks, Samantha J, et al. (författare)
  • Late-life obesity is associated with smaller global and regional gray matter volumes : a voxel-based morphometric study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - 0307-0565 .- 1476-5497. ; 37:2, s. 230-236
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Obesity adversely affects frontal lobe brain structure and function. Here we sought to show that people who are obese versus those who are of normal weight over a 5-year period have differential global and regional brain volumes.DESIGN: Using voxel-based morphometry, contrasts were done between those who were recorded as being either obese or of normal weight over two time points in the 5 years prior to the brain scan. In a post-hoc preliminary analysis, we compared scores for obese and normal weight people who completed the trail-making task.SUBJECTS: A total of 292 subjects were examined following exclusions (for example, owing to dementia, stroke and cortical infarcts) from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors cohort with a body mass index of normal weight (<25 kg m−2) or obese (30 kg m−2).RESULTS: People who were obese had significantly smaller total brain volumes and specifically, significantly reduced total gray matter (GM) volume (GMV) (with no difference in white matter or cerebrospinal fluid). Initial exploratory whole brain uncorrected analysis revealed that people who were obese had significantly smaller GMV in the bilateral supplementary motor area, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), left inferior frontal gyrus and left postcentral gyrus. Secondary more stringent corrected analyses revealed a surviving cluster of GMV difference in the left DLPFC. Finally, post-hoc contrasts of scores on the trail-making task, which is linked to DLPFC function, revealed that obese people were significantly slower than those of normal weight.CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that in comparison with normal weight, people who are obese have smaller GMV, particularly in the left DLPFC. Our results may provide evidence for a potential working memory mechanism for the cognitive suppression of appetite that may lower the risk of developing obesity in later life.
  • Abshire, T, et al. (författare)
  • Prophylaxis Escalation in Severe von Willebrand Disease: A Prospective Study from the von Willebrand Disease Prophylaxis Network.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1538-7933. ; 13:9, s. 1585-1589
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Treatment of mucosal bleeding (epistaxis, gastrointestinal and menorrhagia) and joint bleeding remains problematic in clinically severe von Willebrand Disease (VWD). Patients are often unresponsive to treatment (e.g. desmopressin or antifibrinolytic therapy) and may require von Willebrand (VW) factor replacement therapy. There are little data on the use of prophylaxis in VWD and none applied in a prospective, treatment escalation design.
  • Dickens, Alex M., et al. (författare)
  • Dysregulated Lipid Metabolism Precedes Onset of Psychosis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Biological Psychiatry. - : Elsevier. - 0006-3223 .- 1873-2402. ; 89:3, s. 288-297
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: A key clinical challenge in the management of individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) is that it is difficult to predict their future clinical outcomes. Here, we investigated if the levels of circulating molecular lipids are related to adverse clinical outcomes in this group.METHODS: Serum lipidomic analysis was performed in 263 CHR individuals and 51 healthy control subjects, who were then clinically monitored for up to 5 years. Machine learning was used to identify lipid profiles that discriminated between CHR and control subjects, and between subgroups of CHR subjects with distinct clinical outcomes.RESULTS: At baseline, compared with control subjects, CHR subjects (independent of outcome) had higher levels of triacylglycerols with a low acyl carbon number and a double bond count, as well as higher levels of lipids in general. CHR subjects who subsequently developed psychosis (n = 50) were distinguished from those that did not (n = 213) on the basis of lipid profile at baseline using a model with an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.81 (95% confidence interval = 0.69-0.93). CHR subjects who became psychotic had lower levels of ether phospholipids than CHR individuals who did not (p < .01).CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data suggest that lipidomic abnormalities predate the onset of psychosis and that blood lipidomic measures may be useful in predicting which CHR individuals are most likely to develop psychosis.
  • Pezzoli, Stefania, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis of regional white matter volume in bipolar disorder with replication in an independent sample using coordinates, T-maps, and individual MRI data
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. - 0149-7634 .- 1873-7528. ; 84, s. 162-170
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Converging evidence suggests that bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with white matter (WM) abnormalities. Meta-analyses of voxel based morphometry (VBM) data is commonly performed using published coordinates, however this method is limited since it ignores non-significant data. Obtaining statistical maps from studies (T-maps) as well as raw MRI datasets increases accuracy and allows for a comprehensive analysis of clinical variables. We obtained coordinate data (7-studies), T-Maps (12-studies, including unpublished data) and raw MRI datasets (5-studies) and analysed the 24 studies using Seed-based d Mapping (SDM). A VBM analysis was conducted to verify the results in an independent sample. The meta-analysis revealed decreased WM volume in the posterior corpus callosum extending to WM in the posterior cingulate cortex. This region was significantly reduced in volume in BD patients in the independent dataset (p=0.003) but there was no association with clinical variables. We identified a robust WM volume abnormality in BD patients that may represent a trait marker of the disease and used a novel methodology to validate the findings.
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