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  • Bixby, H., et al. (författare)
  • Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 569:7755, s. 260-4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities(.)(1,2) This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity(3-6). Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017-and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions-was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing-and in some countries reversal-of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.
  • Iurilli, M. L. C., et al. (författare)
  • Heterogeneous contributions of change in population distribution of body mass index to change in obesity and underweight NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC)
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: eLife. - : ELIFE SCIENCES PUBLICATIONS LTD. - 2050-084X. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • From 1985 to 2016, the prevalence of underweight decreased, and that of obesity and severe obesity increased, in most regions, with significant variation in the magnitude of these changes across regions. We investigated how much change in mean body mass index (BMI) explains changes in the prevalence of underweight, obesity, and severe obesity in different regions using data from 2896 population-based studies with 187 million participants. Changes in the prevalence of underweight and total obesity, and to a lesser extent severe obesity, are largely driven by shifts in the distribution of BMI, with smaller contributions from changes in the shape of the distribution. In East and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, the underweight tail of the BMI distribution was left behind as the distribution shifted. There is a need for policies that address all forms of malnutrition by making healthy foods accessible and affordable, while restricting unhealthy foods through fiscal and regulatory restrictions.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Measurements of Elliptic and Triangular Flow in High-Multiplicity He-3 + Au Collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 115:14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the first measurement of elliptic (v(2)) and triangular (v(3)) flow in high-multiplicity He-3 + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. Two-particle correlations, where the particles have a large separation in pseudorapidity, are compared in He-3 + Au and in p + p collisions and indicate that collective effects dominate the second and third Fourier components for the correlations observed in the He-3 + Au system. The collective behavior is quantified in terms of elliptic v(2) and triangular v(3) anisotropy coefficients measured with respect to their corresponding event planes. The v(2) values are comparable to those previously measured in d + Au collisions at the same nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy. Comparisons with various theoretical predictions are made, including to models where the hot spots created by the impact of the three He-3 nucleons on the Au nucleus expand hydrodynamically to generate the triangular flow. The agreement of these models with data may indicate the formation of low-viscosity quark-gluon plasma even in these small collision systems.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of K-S(0) and K*(0) in p plus p, d plus Au, and Cu plus Cu collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 90:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has performed a systematic study of K-S(0) and K*(0) meson production at midrapidity in p + p, d + Au, and Cu + Cu collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. The K-S(0) and K*(0) mesons are reconstructed via their K-S(0) -> pi(0)(-> gamma gamma) pi(0)(-> gamma gamma) and K*(0) -> K-+/-pi(-/+) decay modes, respectively. The measured transverse-momentum spectra are used to determine the nuclear modification factor of K-S(0) and K*(0) mesons in d + Au and Cu + Cu collisions at different centralities. In the d + Au collisions, the nuclear modification factor of K-S(0) and K*(0) mesons is almost constant as a function of transverse momentum and is consistent with unity, showing that cold-nuclear-matter effects do not play a significant role in the measured kinematic range. In Cu + Cu collisions, within the uncertainties no nuclear modification is registered in peripheral collisions. In central collisions, both mesons show suppression relative to the expectations from the p + p yield scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions in the Cu + Cu system. In the p(T) range 2-5 GeV/c, the strange mesons (K-S(0), K*(0)) similarly to the phi meson with hidden strangeness, showan intermediate suppression between the more suppressed light quark mesons (pi(0)) and the nonsuppressed baryons (p, (p) over bar). At higher transverse momentum, p(T) > 5 GeV/c, production of all particles is similarly suppressed by a factor of approximate to 2.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Search for dark photons from neutral meson decays in p plus p and d plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 91:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The standard model (SM) of particle physics is spectacularly successful, yet the measured value of the muon anomalous magnetic moment (g - 2)mu deviates from SM calculations by 3.6 sigma. Several theoretical models attribute this to the existence of a "dark photon," an additional U(1) gauge boson, which is weakly coupled to ordinary photons. The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has searched for a dark photon, U, in pi(0), eta -> gamma e(+)e(-) decays and obtained upper limits of O(2 x 10(-6)) on U-gamma mixing at 90% C.L. for the mass range 30 < m(U) < 90 MeV/c(2). Combined with other experimental limits, the remaining region in the U-gamma mixing parameter space that can explain the (g - 2)(mu) deviation from its SM value is nearly completely excluded at the 90% confidence level, with only a small region of 29 < m(U) < 32 MeV/c(2) remaining.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • phi meson production in d plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 92:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX Collaboration has measured phi meson production in d + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV using the dimuon and dielectron decay channels. The phi meson is measured in the forward (backward) d-going (Au-going) direction, 1.2 < y < 2.2 (-2.2 < y < -1.2) in the transverse-momentum (pT) range from 1-7 GeV/c and at midrapidity vertical bar y vertical bar < 0.35 in the p(T) range below 7 GeV/c. The phi meson invariant yields and nuclear-modification factors as a function of p(T), rapidity, and centrality are reported. An enhancement of phi meson production is observed in the Au-going direction, while suppression is seen in the d-going direction, and no modification is observed at midrapidity relative to the yield in p + p collisions scaled by the number of binary collisions. Similar behavior was previously observed for inclusive charged hadrons and open heavy flavor, indicating similar cold-nuclear-matter effects.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Systematic study of charged-pion and kaon femtoscopy in Au plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 92:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a systematic study of charged-pion and kaon interferometry in Au + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. The kaon mean source radii are found to be larger than pion radii in the outward and longitudinal directions for the same transverse mass; this difference increases for more central collisions. The azimuthal-angle dependence of the radii was measured with respect to the second-order event plane and similar oscillations of the source radii were found for pions and kaons. Hydrodynamic models qualitatively describe the similar oscillations of the mean source radii for pions and kaons, but they do not fully describe the transverse-mass dependence of the oscillations.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Cross section and transverse single-spin asymmetry of eta mesons in p up arrow plus p collisions at root s=200 GeV at forward rapidity
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D (Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology). - : American Physical Society. - 1550-2368. ; 90:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a measurement of the cross section and transverse single-spin asymmetry (AN) for. mesons at large pseudorapidity from root s = 200 GeV p up arrow + p collisions. The measured cross section for 0.5 < p(T) < 5.0 GeV/c and 3.0 < vertical bar eta vertical bar < 3.8 is well described by a next-to-leading-order perturbative-quantum-chromodynamics calculation. The asymmetries A(N) have been measured as a function of Feynman-x (x(F)) from 0.2 < vertical bar x(F)vertical bar < 0.7, as well as transverse momentum (p(T)) from 1.0 < p(T) < 4.5 GeV/c. The asymmetry averaged over positive x(F) is < A(N)> = 0.061 +/- 0.014. The results are consistent with prior transverse single-spin measurements of forward eta and pi(0) mesons at various energies in overlapping x(F) ranges. Comparison of different particle species can help to determine the origin of the large observed asymmetries in p up arrow + p collisions.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of higher cumulants of net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=7.7-200 GeV
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 93:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the measurement of cumulants (C-n,n = 1, ..., 4) of the net-charge distributions measured within pseudorapidity (vertical bar eta vertical bar < 0.35) in Au + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 7.7-200 GeV with the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The ratios of cumulants (e.g., C-1/C-2, C-3/C-1) of the net-charge distributions, which can be related to volume independent susceptibility ratios, are studied as a function of centrality and energy. These quantities are important to understand the quantum-chromodynamics phase diagram and possible existence of a critical end point. The measured values are very well described by expectation from negative binomial distributions. We do not observe any nonmonotonic behavior in the ratios of the cumulants as a function of collision energy. The measured values of C-1/C-2 and C-3/C-1 can be directly compared to lattice quantum-chromodynamics calculations and thus allow extraction of both the chemical freeze-out temperature and the baryon chemical potential at each center-of-mass energy. The extracted baryon chemical potentials are in excellent agreement with a thermal-statistical analysis model.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Inclusive cross section and double-helicity asymmetry for pi(0) production at midrapidity in p plus p collisions at root s=510 GeV
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D (Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology). - : American Physical Society. - 1550-2368. ; 93:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PHENIX measurements are presented for the cross section and double-helicity asymmetry (A(LL)) in inclusive pi(0) production at midrapidity from p + p collisions at root s = 510 GeV from data taken in 2012 and 2013 at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The next-to-leading-order perturbative-quantum-chromodynamics theory calculation is in excellent agreement with the presented cross section results. The calculation utilized parton-to-pion fragmentation functions from the recent DSS14 global analysis, which prefer a smaller gluon-to-pion fragmentation function. The pi(0)A(LL) results follow an increasingly positive asymmetry trend with p(T) and root s with respect to the predictions and are in excellent agreement with the latest global analysis results. This analysis incorporated earlier results on pi(0) and jet A(LL) and suggested a positive contribution of gluon polarization to the spin of the proton Delta G for the gluon momentum fraction range x > 0.05. The data presented here extend to a currently unexplored region, down to x similar to 0.01, and thus provide additional constraints on the value of Delta G.
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