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Sökning: WFRF:(Khan Wasif)

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  • Jabeen, Gul, et al. (författare)
  • Machine learning techniques for software vulnerability prediction : a comparative study
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Applied intelligence (Boston). - : SPRINGER. - 0924-669X .- 1573-7497.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Software vulnerabilities represent a major cause of security problems. Various vulnerability discovery models (VDMs) attempt to model the rate at which the vulnerabilities are discovered in a software. Although several VDMs have been proposed, not all of them are universally applicable. Also most of them seldom give accurate predictive results for every type of vulnerability dataset. The use of machine learning (ML) techniques has generally found success in a wide range of predictive tasks. Thus, in this paper, we conducted an empirical study on applying some well-known machine learning (ML) techniques as well as statistical techniques to predict the software vulnerabilities on a variety of datasets. The following ML techniques have been evaluated: cascade-forward back propagation neural network, feed-forward back propagation neural network, adaptive-neuro fuzzy inference system, multi-layer perceptron, support vector machine, bagging, M5Rrule, M5P and reduced error pruning tree. The following statistical techniques have been evaluated: Alhazmi-Malaiya model, linear regression and logistic regression model. The applicability of the techniques is examined using two separate approaches: goodness-of-fit to see how well the model tracks the data, and prediction capability using different criteria. It is observed that ML techniques show remarkable improvement in predicting the software vulnerabilities than the statistical vulnerability prediction models.
  • Chowdhury, Moyukh, et al. (författare)
  • Rural community perceptions of antibiotic access and understanding of antimicrobial resistance : qualitative evidence from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System site in Matlab, Bangladesh
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Global Health Action. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1654-9716 .- 1654-9880. ; 12:sup1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The use of large quantities of antimicrobial drugs for human health and agriculture is advancing the predominance of drug resistant pathogens in the environment. Antimicrobial resistance is now a major public health threat posing significant challenges for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. In Bangladesh, where over one third of the population is below the poverty line, the achievement of safe and effective antibiotic medication use for human health is challenging.Objective: To explore factors and practices around access and use of antibiotics and understanding of antimicrobial resistance in rural communities in Bangladesh from a socio-cultural perspective.Methods: This qualitative study comprises the second phase of the multi-country ABACUS (Antibiotic Access and Use) project in Matlab, Bangladesh. Information was collected through six focus group discussions and 16 in-depth interviews. Informants were selected from ten villages in four geographic locations using the Health and Demographic Surveillance System database. The Access to Healthcare Framework guided the interpretation and framing of the findings in terms of individuals' abilities to: perceive, seek, reach, pay and engage with healthcare.Results: Village pharmacies were the preferred and trusted source of antibiotics for self-treatment. Cultural and religious beliefs informed the use of herbal and other complementary medicines. Advice on antibiotic use was also sourced from trusted friends and family members. Access to government-run facilities required travel on poorly maintained roads. Reports of structural corruption, stock-outs and patient safety risks eroded trust in the public sector. Some expressed a willingness to learn about antibiotic resistance.Conclusion: Antimicrobial resistance is both a health and development issue. Social and economic contexts shape medicine seeking, use and behaviours. Multi-sectoral action is needed to confront the underlying social, economic, cultural and political drivers that impact on the access and use of antibiotic medicines in Bangladesh.
  • Do, Nga T. T., et al. (författare)
  • Community-based antibiotic access and use in six low-income and middle-income countries: a mixed-method approach
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Global Health. - : Elsevier. - 2214-109X. ; 9:5, s. e610-e619
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Antimicrobial misuse is common in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), and this practice is a driver of antibiotic resistance. We compared community-based antibiotic access and use practices across communities in LMICs to identify contextually specific targets for interventions to improve antibiotic use practices.Methods: We did quantitative and qualitative assessments of antibiotic access and use in six LMICs across Africa (Mozambique, Ghana, and South Africa) and Asia (Bangladesh, Vietnam, and Thailand) over a 2·5-year study period (July 1, 2016–Dec 31, 2018). We did quantitative assessments of community antibiotic access and use through supplier mapping, customer exit interviews, and household surveys. These quantitative assessments were triangulated with qualitative drug supplier and consumer interviews and discussions.Findings: Vietnam and Bangladesh had the largest proportions of non-licensed antibiotic dispensing points. For mild illness, drug stores were the most common point of contact when seeking antibiotics in most countries, except South Africa and Mozambique, where public facilities were most common. Self-medication with antibiotics was found to be widespread in Vietnam (55·2% of antibiotics dispensed without prescription), Bangladesh (45·7%), and Ghana (36·1%), but less so in Mozambique (8·0%), South Africa (1·2%), and Thailand (3·9%). Self-medication was considered to be less time consuming, cheaper, and overall, more convenient than accessing them through health-care facilities. Factors determining where treatment was sought often involved relevant policies, trust in the supplier and the drug, disease severity, and whether the antibiotic was intended for a child. Confusion regarding how to identify oral antibiotics was revealed in both Africa and Asia.Interpretation: Contextual complexities and differences between countries with different incomes, policy frameworks, and cultural norms were revealed. These contextual differences render a single strategy inadequate and instead necessitate context-tailored, integrated intervention packages to improve antibiotic use in LMICs as part of global efforts to combat antibiotic resistance.
  • Gremel, Gabriela, et al. (författare)
  • A systematic analysis of commonly used antibodies in cancer diagnostics
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Histopathology. - : Wiley. - 0309-0167 .- 1365-2559. ; 64:2, s. 293-305
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AimsImmunohistochemistry plays a pivotal role in cancer differential diagnostics. To identify the primary tumour from a metastasis specimen remains a significant challenge, despite the availability of an increasing number of antibodies. The aim of the present study was to provide evidence-based data on the diagnostic power of antibodies used frequently for clinical differential diagnostics. Methods and resultsA tissue microarray cohort comprising 940 tumour samples, of which 502 were metastatic lesions, representing tumours from 18 different organs and four non-localized cancer types, was analysed using immunohistochemistry with 27 well-established antibodies used in clinical differential diagnostics. Few antibodies, e.g. prostate-specific antigen and thyroglobulin, showed a cancer type-related sensitivity and specificity of more than 95%. A majority of the antibodies showed a low degree of sensitivity and specificity for defined cancer types. Combinations of antibodies provided limited added value for differential diagnostics of cancer types. ConclusionsThe results from analysing 27 diagnostic antibodies on consecutive sections of 940 defined tumours provide a unique repository of data that can empower a more optimal use of clinical immunohistochemistry. Our results highlight the benefit of immunohistochemistry and the unmet need for novel markers to improve differential diagnostics of cancer.
  • Grundmann, Hajo, et al. (författare)
  • A framework for global surveillance of antibiotic resistance
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Drug resistance updates. - : Elsevier BV. - 1368-7646 .- 1532-2084. ; 14:2, s. 79-87
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The foreseen decline in antibiotic effectiveness explains the needs for data to inform the global public health agenda about the magnitude and evolution of antibiotic resistance as a serious threat to human health and development. Opportunistic bacterial pathogens are the cause of the majority of community and hospital-acquired infections worldwide. We provide an inventory of pre-existing regional surveillance programs in the six WHO regions which should form the underpinning for the consolidation of a global network infrastructure and we outline the structural components such as an international network of reference laboratories that need to be put in place to address the void of these crucial data. In addition we suggest to make use of existing Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites (HDSS) to obtain crucial information from communities in resource limited settings at household level in low- and middle-income countries in Asia and Africa. For optimising the use of surveillance data for public health action i.e. priority setting for new drug development, comparative quantification of antibiotic effectiveness at local, national, regional and global level and identification of the action gaps can be helpful.
  • Matin, Mohammad Abdul, et al. (författare)
  • What influences antibiotic sales in rural Bangladesh? : A drug dispensers' perspective
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice. - : Springer Nature. - 2052-3211. ; 13:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Antibiotic resistance poses a great threat to global health, especially in low- and middle-income countries with a high infectious disease burden and limited resources. In spite of regulations, antibiotics are sold in many settings as non-prescription medicines, resulting in inappropriate use and resistance.Objective: This study aimed to investigate the current status of access and use of antibiotics in rural Bangladesh, by exploring the perspectives and sales practices of antibiotic drug dispensers.Methods: We used a mixed methods approach (qualitative and quantitative). We mapped and characterized antibiotic purchasing and dispensing sites in the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System catchment area. Furthermore, we investigated the volume of provision of systemic antibiotics in 10 drug outlets. We held 16 in-depth interviews with randomly selected antibiotics dispensers. Interviews explored factors associated with antibiotic selling. Responses were transcribed, coded for themes, and summarized. We used ATLAS.ti 5.2 for conducting a thematic analysis.Results: A total of 301 antibiotic dispensers were identified, of whom 92% (n = 278) were private and 8% (n = 23) public. 52% (n = 155) operated informally (i.e. without legal authorization). In order to promote and survive in their business, dispensers sell antibiotics for a range of conditions without a qualified physician's prescription. Factors that facilitate these inappropriate sales include lack of access to healthcare in the rural community, inadequate doctor: population ratio, limited dispenser knowledge, poor pharmacovigilance concerning safety of self medication, lack of enforcement of policies, financial benefits for both customers and dispensers, and high dependency on pharmaceutical companies' information.Conclusion: Dispensers in rural Bangladesh sell antibiotics inappropriately by ignoring existing national regulations. They operate the antibiotic sales without facing any legal barriers and primarily with a view to sustain their business, resulting in inappropriate sales of antibiotics to the rural community. The influence of the drug industry needs to be replaced with evidence-based, not commercially driven information. Awareness programs for antibiotic providers that promote understanding of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance through tailored interventions may be helpful in changing current antibiotic sales practices.
  • McCormack, Ryan, et al. (författare)
  • Perforin-2 Protects Host Cells and Mice by Restricting the Vacuole to Cytosol Transitioning of a Bacterial Pathogen
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Infection and Immunity. - 0019-9567 .- 1098-5522. ; 84:4, s. 1083-1091
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The host-encoded Perforin-2 (encoded by the macrophage-expressed gene 1, Mpeg1), which possesses a pore-forming MACPF domain, reduces the viability of bacterial pathogens that reside within membrane-bound compartments. Here, it is shown that Perforin-2 also restricts the proliferation of the intracytosolic pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Within a few hours of systemic infection, the massive proliferation of L. monocytogenes in Perforin-2(-/-) mice leads to a rapid appearance of acute disease symptoms. We go on to show in cultured Perforin-2(-/-) cells that the vacuole-to-cytosol transitioning of L. monocytogenes is greatly accelerated. Unexpectedly, we found that in Perforin-2(-/-) macrophages, Listeria-containing vacuoles quickly (<= 15 min) acidify, and that this was coincident with greater virulence gene expression, likely accounting for the more rapid translocation of L. monocytogenes to its replicative niche in the cytosol. This hypothesis was supported by our finding that a L. monocytogenes strain expressing virulence factors at a constitutively high level replicated equally well in Perforin-2(+/+) and Perforin-2(-/-) macrophages. Our findings suggest that the protective role of Perforin-2 against listeriosis is based on it limiting the intracellular replication of the pathogen. This cellular activity of Perforin-2 may derive from it regulating the acidification of Listeria-containing vacuoles, thereby depriving the pathogen of favorable intracellular conditions that promote its virulence gene activity.
  • Mehmood, M. A., et al. (författare)
  • Automating Test Data Generation for Testing Context-Aware Applications
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Sciences, ICSESS. - : IEEE Computer Society. - 9781538665640 ; , s. 104-108
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context-aware applications are emerging applications in the modern era of computing. These applications can determine and adapt to situational context to provide better user experience. Testing these applications is not straightforward and poses several challenges such as developing context-aware test cases and generating test data etc. However, by employing model based testing technique, testing process for context-aware applications can be automated. To achieve maximum degree of automation, it is necessary to automate model transformation, test data generation and test cases execution. To execute test cases, test data is required and developing test data for context-aware applications is a challenging task. The aim of this study is to address this issue; thus, we propose automated test data generation for functional testing of context-aware applications. This automated test data generation can reduce testing time and cost, thus enabling test engineers to execute more testing cycles to attain higher degree of test coverage.
  • Mehmood, M. A., et al. (författare)
  • Transforming context-aware application development model into a testing model
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Sciences, ICSESS. - : IEEE Computer Society. - 9781538645703 ; , s. 177-182
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Software testing aims at ensuring the quality of a software product. Context-aware applications are emerging applications that are capable to sense their environment and adapt to situational context to provide better user experience. Context-aware applications pose many challenges for software testing such as defining test adequacy criteria, generating test data, developing context-aware test cases etc. Test case generation process for context-aware applications can be automated using a model based testing technique. To attain this goal with maximum degree of automation, it is required to transform development model into a test model automatically. In this study, we propose a typecast of activity node of UML activity diagram, called Context-Aware Activity for modelling context-aware applications. We have also developed an approach for automatic transformation of the development model i.e., UML activity diagram with Context-aware Activity typecast into a testing model i.e. function nets. This testing model is used to automate test case generation and we have illustrated how to generate context-aware test cases using our proposed approach.
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