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1.
  • Furukawa, Toshi A, et al. (författare)
  • Dismantling, optimising, and personalising internet cognitive behavioural therapy for depression : a systematic review and component network meta-analysis using individual participant data
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Lancet psychiatry. - London, United Kingdom : The Lancet Publishing Group. - 2215-0374 .- 2215-0366. ; 8:6, s. 500-511
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Internet cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) is a viable delivery format of CBT for depression. However, iCBT programmes include training in a wide array of cognitive and behavioural skills via different delivery methods, and it remains unclear which of these components are more efficacious and for whom.METHODS: We did a systematic review and individual participant data component network meta-analysis (cNMA) of iCBT trials for depression. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published from database inception to Jan 1, 2019, that compared any form of iCBT against another or a control condition in the acute treatment of adults (aged ≥18 years) with depression. Studies with inpatients or patients with bipolar depression were excluded. We sought individual participant data from the original authors. When these data were unavailable, we used aggregate data. Two independent researchers identified the included components. The primary outcome was depression severity, expressed as incremental mean difference (iMD) in the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scores when a component is added to a treatment. We developed a web app that estimates relative efficacies between any two combinations of components, given baseline patient characteristics. This study is registered in PROSPERO, CRD42018104683.FINDINGS: We identified 76 RCTs, including 48 trials contributing individual participant data (11 704 participants) and 28 trials with aggregate data (6474 participants). The participants' weighted mean age was 42·0 years and 12 406 (71%) of 17 521 reported were women. There was suggestive evidence that behavioural activation might be beneficial (iMD -1·83 [95% credible interval (CrI) -2·90 to -0·80]) and that relaxation might be harmful (1·20 [95% CrI 0·17 to 2·27]). Baseline severity emerged as the strongest prognostic factor for endpoint depression. Combining human and automated encouragement reduced dropouts from treatment (incremental odds ratio, 0·32 [95% CrI 0·13 to 0·93]). The risk of bias was low for the randomisation process, missing outcome data, or selection of reported results in most of the included studies, uncertain for deviation from intended interventions, and high for measurement of outcomes. There was moderate to high heterogeneity among the studies and their components.INTERPRETATION: The individual patient data cNMA revealed potentially helpful, less helpful, or harmful components and delivery formats for iCBT packages. iCBT packages aiming to be effective and efficient might choose to include beneficial components and exclude ones that are potentially detrimental. Our web app can facilitate shared decision making by therapist and patient in choosing their preferred iCBT package.FUNDING: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.
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2.
  • Karyotaki, Eirini, et al. (författare)
  • Do guided internet-based interventions result in clinically relevant changes for patients with depression? An individual participant data meta-analysis.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical psychology review. - : PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. - 1873-7811 .- 0272-7358. ; 63, s. 80-92
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Little is known about clinically relevant changes in guided Internet-based interventions for depression. Moreover, methodological and power limitations preclude the identification of patients' groups that may benefit more from these interventions. This study aimed to investigate response rates, remission rates, and their moderators in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effect of guided Internet-based interventions for adult depression to control groups using an individual patient data meta-analysis approach. Literature searches in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library resulted in 13,384 abstracts from database inception to January 1, 2016. Twenty-four RCTs (4889 participants) comparing a guided Internet-based intervention with a control group contributed data to the analysis. Missing data were multiply imputed. To examine treatment outcome on response and remission, mixed-effects models with participants nested within studies were used. Response and remission rates were calculated using the Reliable Change Index. The intervention group obtained significantly higher response rates (OR = 2.49, 95% CI 2.17-2.85) and remission rates compared to controls (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 2.07-2.79). The moderator analysis indicated that older participants (OR = 1.01) and native-born participants (1.66) were more likely to respond to treatment compared to younger participants and ethnic minorities respectively. Age (OR = 1.01) and ethnicity (1.73) also moderated the effects of treatment on remission.Moreover, adults with more severe depressive symptoms at baseline were more likely to remit after receiving internet-based treatment (OR = 1.19). Guided Internet-based interventions lead to substantial positive treatment effects on treatment response and remission at post-treatment. Thus, such interventions may complement existing services for depression and potentially reduce the gap between the need and provision of evidence-based treatments.
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3.
  • Karyotaki, Eirini, et al. (författare)
  • Is self-guided internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) harmful? An individual participant data meta-analysis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - : CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS. - 0033-2917 .- 1469-8978. ; 48:15, s. 2456-2466
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Little is known about potential harmful effects as a consequence of self-guided internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT), such as symptom deterioration rates. Thus, safety concerns remain and hamper the implementation of self-guided iCBT into clinical practice. We aimed to conduct an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of clinically significant deterioration (symptom worsening) in adults with depressive symptoms who received self-guided iCBT compared with control conditions. Several socio-demographic, clinical and study-level variables were tested as potential moderators of deterioration. Methods. Randomised controlled trials that reported results of self-guided iCBT compared with control conditions in adults with symptoms of depression were selected. Mixed effects models with participants nested within studies were used to examine possible clinically significant deterioration rates. Results. Thirteen out of 16 eligible trials were included in the present IPD meta-analysis. Of the 3805 participants analysed, 7.2% showed clinically significant deterioration (5.8% and 9.1% of participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively). Participants in self-guided iCBT were less likely to deteriorate (OR 0.62, p amp;lt; 0.001) compared with control conditions. None of the examined participant- and study-level moderators were significantly associated with deterioration rates. Conclusions. Self-guided iCBT has a lower rate of negative outcomes on symptoms than control conditions and could be a first step treatment approach for adult depression as well as an alternative to watchful waiting in general practice.
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4.
  • Cuijpers, Pim, et al. (författare)
  • A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Adult Depression, Alone and in Comparison With Other Treatments
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Canadian journal of psychiatry. - : Canadian Psychiatric Association (Association des psychiatres du Canada). - 0706-7437. ; 58:7, s. 376-385
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: No recent meta-analysis has examined the effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for adult depression. We decided to conduct such an updated meta-analysis. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: Studies were identified through systematic searches in bibliographical databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane library). We included studies examining the effects of CBT, compared with control groups, other psychotherapies, and pharmacotherapy. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: A total of 115 studies met inclusion criteria. The mean effect size (ES) of 94 comparisons from 75 studies of CBT and control groups was Hedges g = 0.71 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.79), which corresponds with a number needed to treat of 2.6. However, this may be an overestimation of the true ES as we found strong indications for publication bias (ES after adjustment for bias was g = 0.53), and because the ES of higher-quality studies was significantly lower (g = 0.53) than for lower-quality studies (g = 0.90). The difference between high-and low-quality studies remained significant after adjustment for other study characteristics in a multivariate meta-regression analysis. We did not find any indication that CBT was more or less effective than other psychotherapies or pharmacotherapy. Combined treatment was significantly more effective than pharmacotherapy alone (g = 0.49). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: There is no doubt that CBT is an effective treatment for adult depression, although the effects may have been overestimated until now. CBT is also the most studied psychotherapy for depression, and thus has the greatest weight of evidence. However, other treatments approach its overall efficacy.
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5.
  • Furukawa, Toshi A., et al. (författare)
  • How can we estimate QALYs based on PHQ-9 scores? Equipercentile linking analysis of PHQ-9 and EQ-5D
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Evidence-Based Mental Health. - 1362-0347.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) are widely used to measure the impact of various diseases on both the quality and quantity of life and in their economic valuations. It will be clinically important and informative if we can estimate QALYs based on measurements of depression severity. Objective: To construct a conversion table from the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the most frequently used depression scale in recent years, to the Euro-Qol Five Dimensions Three Levels (EQ-5D-3L), one of the most commonly used instruments to assess QALYs. Methods: We obtained individual participant data of randomised controlled trials of internet cognitive-behavioural therapy which had administered depression severity scales and the EQ-5D-3L at baseline and at end of treatment. Scores from depression scales were all converted into the PHQ-9 according to the validated algorithms. We used equipercentile linking to establish correspondences between the PHQ-9 and the EQ-5D-3L. Findings: Individual-level data from five trials (total N=2457) were available. Subthreshold depression (PHQ-9 scores between 5 and 10) corresponded with EQ-5D-3L index values of 0.9-0.8, mild major depression (10-15) with 0.8-0.7, moderate depression (15-20) with 0.7-0.5 and severe depression (20 or higher) with 0.6-0.0. A five-point improvement in PHQ-9 corresponded approximately with an increase in EQ-5D-3L score by 0.03 and a ten-point improvement by approximately 0.25. Conclusions and Clinical Implications: The conversion table between the PHQ-9 and the EQ-5D-3L scores will enable fine-grained assessment of burden of depression at its various levels of severity and of impacts of its various treatments.
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6.
  • Karyotaki, Eirini, et al. (författare)
  • Do guided internet-based interventions result in clinically relevant changes for patients with depression? : An individual participant data meta-analysis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical Psychology Review. - : Elsevier. - 0272-7358 .- 1873-7811. ; 63, s. 80-92
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Little is known about clinically relevant changes in guided Internet-based interventions for depression. Moreover, methodological and power limitations preclude the identification of patients' groups that may benefit more from these interventions. This study aimed to investigate response rates, remission rates, and their moderators in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effect of guided Internet-based interventions for adult depression to control groups using an individual patient data meta-analysis approach. Literature searches in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library resulted in 13,384 abstracts from database inception to January 1, 2016. Twenty-four RCTs (4889 participants) comparing a guided Internet-based intervention with a control group contributed data to the analysis. Missing data were multiply imputed. To examine treatment outcome on response and remission, mixed-effects models with participants nested within studies were used. Response and remission rates were calculated using the Reliable Change Index. The intervention group obtained significantly higher response rates (OR = 2.49, 95% CI 2.17-2.85) and remission rates compared to controls (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 2.07-2.79). The moderator analysis indicated that older participants (OR = 1.01) and native-born participants (1.66) were more likely to respond to treatment compared to younger participants and ethnic minorities respectively. Age (OR = 1.01) and ethnicity (1.73) also moderated the effects of treatment on remission.Moreover, adults with more severe depressive symptoms at baseline were more likely to remit after receiving intemet-based treatment (OR = 1.19). Guided Internet-based interventions lead to substantial positive treatment effects on treatment response and remission at post-treatment. Thus, such interventions may complement existing services for depression and potentially reduce the gap between the need and provision of evidence-based treatments.
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7.
  • Karyotaki, Eirini, et al. (författare)
  • Efficacy of Self-guided Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Depressive Symptoms A Meta-analysis of Individual Participant Data
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: JAMA psychiatry. - : AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 2168-6238 .- 2168-622X. ; 74:4, s. 351-359
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Self-guided internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) has the potential to increase access and availability of evidence-based therapy and reduce the cost of depression treatment. OBJECTIVES To estimate the effect of self-guided iCBT in treating adults with depressive symptoms compared with controls and evaluate the moderating effects of treatment outcome and response. DATA SOURCES A total of 13 384 abstracts were retrieved through a systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library from database inception to January 1, 2016. STUDY SELECTION Randomized clinical trials in which self-guided iCBT was compared with a control (usual care, waiting list, or attention control) in individuals with symptoms of depression. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Primary authors provided individual participant data from 3876 participants from 13 of 16 eligible studies. Missing data were handled using multiple imputations. Mixed-effects models with participants nested within studies were used to examine treatment outcomes and moderators. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Outcomes included the Beck Depression Inventory, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, and 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire scores. Scales were standardized across the pool of the included studies. RESULTS Of the 3876 study participants, the mean (SD) age was 42.0 (11.7) years, 2531 (66.0%) of 3832 were female, 1368 (53.1%) of 2574 completed secondary education, and 2262 (71.9%) of 3146 were employed. Self-guided iCBT was significantly more effective than controls on depressive symptoms severity (beta = -0.21; Hedges g = 0.27) and treatment response (beta = 0.53; odds ratio, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.52-2.50; number needed to treat, 8). Adherence to treatment was associated with lower depressive symptoms (beta = -0.19; P = .001) and greater response to treatment (beta = 0.90; P amp;lt; .001). None of the examined participant and study-level variables moderated treatment outcomes. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Self-guided iCBT is effective in treating depressive symptoms. The use of meta-analyses of individual participant data provides substantial evidence for clinical and policy decision making because self-guided iCBT can be considered as an evidence-based first-step approach in treating symptoms of depression. Several limitations of the iCBT should be addressed before it can be disseminated into routine care.
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