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1.
  • Acharya, B. S., et al. (författare)
  • Introducing the CTA concept
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Astroparticle physics. - : Elsevier. - 0927-6505 .- 1873-2852. ; 43, s. 3-18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a new observatory for very high-energy (VHE) gamma rays. CTA has ambitions science goals, for which it is necessary to achieve full-sky coverage, to improve the sensitivity by about an order of magnitude, to span about four decades of energy, from a few tens of GeV to above 100 TeV with enhanced angular and energy resolutions over existing VHE gamma-ray observatories. An international collaboration has formed with more than 1000 members from 27 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and North and South America. In 2010 the CTA Consortium completed a Design Study and started a three-year Preparatory Phase which leads to production readiness of CTA in 2014. In this paper we introduce the science goals and the concept of CTA, and provide an overview of the project. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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2.
  • Actis, M., et al. (författare)
  • Design concepts for the Cherenkov Telescope Array CTA : an advanced facility for ground-based high-energy gamma-ray astronomy
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Experimental astronomy (Print). - : Springer. - 0922-6435 .- 1572-9508. ; 32:3, s. 193-316
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has had a major breakthrough with the impressive results obtained using systems of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has a huge potential in astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. CTA is an international initiative to build the next generation instrument, with a factor of 5-10 improvement in sensitivity in the 100 GeV-10 TeV range and the extension to energies well below 100 GeV and above 100 TeV. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the north, one in the south) for full sky coverage and will be operated as open observatory. The design of CTA is based on currently available technology. This document reports on the status and presents the major design concepts of CTA.
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3.
  • Acharyya, A., et al. (författare)
  • Monte Carlo studies for the optimisation of the Cherenkov Telescope Array layout
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astroparticle physics. - : Elsevier. - 0927-6505 .- 1873-2852. ; 111, s. 35-53
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the major next-generation observatory for ground-based veryhigh-energy gamma-ray astronomy. It will improve the sensitivity of current ground-based instruments by a factor of five to twenty, depending on the energy, greatly improving both their angular and energy resolutions over four decades in energy (from 20 GeV to 300 TeV). This achievement will be possible by using tens of imaging Cherenkov telescopes of three successive sizes. They will be arranged into two arrays, one per hemisphere, located on the La Palma island (Spain) and in Paranal (Chile). We present here the optimised and final telescope arrays for both CTA sites, as well as their foreseen performance, resulting from the analysis of three different large-scale Monte Carlo productions.
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4.
  • Grasby, KL, et al. (författare)
  • The genetic architecture of the human cerebral cortex
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Science (New York, N.Y.). - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 1095-9203 .- 0036-8075. ; 367:6484, s. 1340-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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5.
  • Villa, Luisa L., et al. (författare)
  • Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent high-grade cervical lesions
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 356:19, s. 1915-1927
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus types 16 (HPV-16) and 18 (HPV-18) cause approximately 70% of cervical cancers worldwide. A phase 3 trial was conducted to evaluate a quadrivalent vaccine against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 (HPV-6/11/16/18) for the prevention of high-grade cervical lesions associated with HPV-16 and HPV-18. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind trial, we assigned 12,167 women between the ages of 15 and 26 years to receive three doses of either HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine or placebo, administered at day 1, month 2, and month 6. The primary analysis was performed for a per-protocol susceptible population that included 5305 women in the vaccine group and 5260 in the placebo group who had no virologic evidence of infection with HPV-16 or HPV-18 through 1 month after the third dose (month 7). The primary composite end point was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3, adenocarcinoma in situ, or cervical cancer related to HPV-16 or HPV-18. RESULTS: Subjects were followed for an average of 3 years after receiving the first dose of vaccine or placebo. Vaccine efficacy for the prevention of the primary composite end point was 98% (95.89% confidence interval [CI], 86 to 100) in the per-protocol susceptible population and 44% (95% CI, 26 to 58) in an intention-to-treat population of all women who had undergone randomization (those with or without previous infection). The estimated vaccine efficacy against all high-grade cervical lesions, regardless of causal HPV type, in this intention-to-treat population was 17% (95% CI, 1 to 31). CONCLUSIONS: In young women who had not been previously infected with HPV-16 or HPV-18, those in the vaccine group had a significantly lower occurrence of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia related to HPV-16 or HPV-18 than did those in the placebo group.
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6.
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7.
  • Grady, C., et al. (författare)
  • The outer disks of Herbig stars from the UV to NIR
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astrophysics and Space Science. - 0004-640X .- 1572-946X. ; 355:2, s. 253-266
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Spatially-resolved imaging of Herbig stars and related objects began with HST, but intensified with commissioning of high-contrast imagers on 8-m class telescopes. The bulk of the data taken from the ground have been polarized intensity imagery at H-band, with the majority of the sources observed as part of the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS) survey. Sufficiently many systems have been imaged that we discuss disk properties in scattered, polarized light in terms of groups defined by the IR spectral energy distribution. We find novel phenomena in many of the disks, including spiral density waves, and discuss the disks in terms of clearing mechanisms. Some of the disks have sufficient data to map the dust and gas components, including water ice dissociation products.
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8.
  • Akiyama, E., et al. (författare)
  • DISCOVERY OF A DISK GAP CANDIDATE AT 20 AU IN TW HYDRAE
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8205 .- 2041-8213. ; 802:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a new Subaru/HiCIAO high-contrast H-band polarized intensity (PI) image of a nearby transitional disk associated with TW Hydrae. The scattered light from the disk was detected from 0 ''.2 to 1 ''.5 (11-81 AU) and the PI image shows a clear axisymmetric depression in PI at similar to 0 ''.4 (similar to 20 AU) from the central star, similar to the similar to 80 AU gap previously reported from Hubble Space Telescope images. The azimuthal PI profile also shows that the disk beyond 0 ''.2 is almost axisymmetric. We discuss two possible scenarios explaining the origin of the PI depression: (1) a gap structure may exist at similar to 20 AU from the central star because of a shallow slope seen in the PI profile, and (2) grain growth may be occurring in the inner region of the disk. Multi-band observations at near-infrared and millimeter/submillimeter wavelengths play a complementary role in investigating dust opacity and may help reveal the origin of the gap more precisely.
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9.
  • Mizuki, T., et al. (författare)
  • Orbital Characterization of GJ1108A System, and Comparison of Dynamical Mass with Model-derived Mass for Resolved Binaries
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 865:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report an orbital characterization of GJ1108Aab that is a low-mass binary system in the pre-main-sequence phase. Via the combination of astrometry using adaptive optics and radial velocity measurements, an eccentric orbital solution of e = 0.63 is obtained, which might be induced by the Kozai-Lidov mechanism with a widely separated GJ1108B system. Combined with several observed properties, we confirm that the system is indeed young. Columba is the most probable moving group, to which the GJ1108A system belongs, although its membership to the group has not been established. If the age of Columba is assumed for GJ1108A, the dynamical masses of both GJ1108Aa and GJ1108Ab (M-dynamical,M-GJ1108Aa= 0.72 +/- 0.04 M-circle dot and M-dynamical,M-GJ1108Ab = 0.30 +/- 0.03 M-circle dot) are more massive than what an evolutionary model predicts based on the age and luminosities. We consider that the discrepancy in mass comparison can be attributed to an age uncertainty; the system is likely older than stars in Columba, and effects that are not implemented in classical models such as accretion history and magnetic activity are not preferred to explain the mass discrepancy. We also discuss the performance of the evolutionary model by compiling similar low-mass objects in the evolutionary state based on the literature. Consequently, it is suggested that the current model on average reproduces the mass of resolved low-mass binaries without any significant offsets.
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10.
  • Schoch, CL, et al. (författare)
  • Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 1091-6490. ; 109:16, s. 6241-6246
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Six DNA regions were evaluated as potential DNA barcodes for Fungi, the second largest kingdom of eukaryotic life, by a multinational, multilaboratory consortium. The region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 used as the animal barcode was excluded as a potential marker, because it is difficult to amplify in fungi, often includes large introns, and can be insufficiently variable. Three subunits from the nuclear ribosomal RNA cistron were compared together with regions of three representative protein-coding genes (largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, and minichromosome maintenance protein). Although the protein-coding gene regions often had a higher percent of correct identification compared with ribosomal markers, low PCR amplification and sequencing success eliminated them as candidates for a universal fungal barcode. Among the regions of the ribosomal cistron, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has the highest probability of successful identification for the broadest range of fungi, with the most clearly defined barcode gap between inter- and intraspecific variation. The nuclear ribosomal large subunit, a popular phylogenetic marker in certain groups, had superior species resolution in some taxonomic groups, such as the early diverging lineages and the ascomycete yeasts, but was otherwise slightly inferior to the ITS. The nuclear ribosomal small subunit has poor species-level resolution in fungi. ITS will be formally proposed for adoption as the primary fungal barcode marker to the Consortium for the Barcode of Life, with the possibility that supplementary barcodes may be developed for particular narrowly circumscribed taxonomic groups.
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