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Sökning: WFRF:(Kurz Alexander)

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1.
  • Ferrari, Raffaele, et al. (författare)
  • Frontotemporal dementia and its subtypes: a genome-wide association study.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Lancet Ltd. - 1474-4465. ; 13:7, s. 686-699
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a complex disorder characterised by a broad range of clinical manifestations, differential pathological signatures, and genetic variability. Mutations in three genes-MAPT, GRN, and C9orf72-have been associated with FTD. We sought to identify novel genetic risk loci associated with the disorder.
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2.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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3.
  • Kurz, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • RHAPSODY - Internet-based support for caregivers of people with young onset dementia : program design and methods of a pilot study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International psychogeriatrics. - 1041-6102 .- 1741-203X. ; 28:12, s. 2091-2099
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Young Onset Dementia (YOD), defined by first symptoms of cognitive or behavioral decline occurring before the age of 65 years, is relatively rare compared to dementia of later onset, but it is associated with diagnostic difficulty and heavy burden on affected individuals and their informal carers. Existing health and social care structures rarely meet the needs of YOD patients. Internet-based interventions are a novel format of delivering health-related education, counseling, and support to this vulnerable yet underserved group. Methods: The RHAPSODY (Research to Assess Policies and Strategies for Dementia in the Young) project is a European initiative to improve care for people with YOD by providing an internet-based information and skill-building program for family carers. The e-learning program focuses on managing problem behaviors, dealing with role change, obtaining support, and looking after oneself. It will be evaluated in a pilot study in three countries using a randomized unblinded design with a wait-list control group. Participants will be informal carers of people with dementia in Alzheimer's disease or behavioral-variant Frontotemporal degeneration with an onset before the age of 65 years. The primary outcome will be caregiving self-efficacy after 6 weeks of program use. As secondary outcomes, caregivers' stress and burden, carer health-related quality of life, caring-related knowledge, patient problem behaviors, and user satisfaction will be assessed. Program utilization will be monitored and a health-economic evaluation will also be performed. Conclusions: The RHAPSODY project will add to the evidence on the potential and limitations of a conveniently accessible, user-friendly, and comprehensive internet-based intervention as an alternative for traditional forms of counseling and support in healthcare, aiming to optimize care and support for people with YOD and their informal caregivers.
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4.
  • Bocchetta, Martina, et al. (författare)
  • The use of biomarkers for the etiologic diagnosis of MCI in Europe: An EADC survey.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & Dementia. - : Wiley. - 1552-5279. ; 11:2, s. 195-206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated the use of Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers in European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium centers and assessed their perceived usefulness for the etiologic diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We surveyed availability, frequency of use, and confidence in diagnostic usefulness of markers of brain amyloidosis (amyloid positron emission tomography [PET], cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] Aβ42) and neurodegeneration (medial temporal atrophy [MTA] on MR, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography [FDG-PET], CSF tau). The most frequently used biomarker is visually rated MTA (75% of the 37 responders reported using it "always/frequently") followed by CSF markers (22%), FDG-PET (16%), and amyloid-PET (3%). Only 45% of responders perceive MTA as contributing to diagnostic confidence, where the contribution was rated as "moderate". Seventy-nine percent of responders felt "very/extremely" comfortable delivering a diagnosis of MCI due to AD when both amyloid and neuronal injury biomarkers were abnormal (P < .02 versus any individual biomarker). Responders largely agreed that a combination of amyloidosis and neuronal injury biomarkers was a strongly indicative AD signature.
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5.
  • Hampel, Harald, et al. (författare)
  • Lithium trial in Alzheimer's disease : a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter 10-week study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. - 0160-6689 .- 1555-2101. ; 70:6, s. 922-931
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Lithium, a first-line drug for the treatment of bipolar depression, has recently been shown to regulate glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), a kinase that is involved in the phosphorylation of the tau protein. Since hyperphosphorylation of tau is a core pathological feature in Alzheimer's disease, lithium-induced inhibition of GSK-3 activity may have therapeutic effects in Alzheimer's disease. In the current study, we tested the effect of short-term lithium treatment in patients with Alzheimer's disease. METHOD: A total of 71 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (Mini-Mental State Examination score > or = 21 and < or = 26) were successfully randomly assigned to placebo (N = 38) or lithium treatment (N = 33) at 6 academic expert memory clinics. The 10-week treatment included a 6-week titration phase to reach the target serum level of lithium (0.5-0.8 mmol/L). The primary outcome measures were cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of phosphorylated tau (p-tau) and GSK-3 activity in lymphocytes. Secondary outcome measures were CSF concentration of total tau and beta-amyloid(1-42) (Abeta(1-42)), plasma levels of Abeta(1-42), Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS)-Cognitive summary scores, MMSE, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Patients were enrolled in the study from November 2004 to July 2005. RESULTS: No treatment effect on GSK-3 activity or CSF-based biomarker concentrations (P > .05) was observed. Lithium treatment did not lead to change in global cognitive performance as measured by the ADAS-Cog subscale (P = .11) or in depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The current results do not support the notion that lithium treatment may lead to reduced hyperphosphorylation of tau protein after a short 10-week treatment in the Alzheimer's disease target population.
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6.
  • Werheid, Katja, et al. (författare)
  • Latent Change Score Modeling as a Method for Analyzing the Antidepressant Effect of a Psychosocial Intervention in Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. - 0033-3190 .- 1423-0348. ; 84:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Developing and evaluating interventions for patients with age-associated disorders is a rising field in psychotherapy research. Its methodological challenges include the high between-subject variability and the wealth of influencing factors associated with longer lifetime. Latent change score modeling (LCSM), a technique based on structural equation modeling, may be well suited to analyzing longitudinal data sets obtained in clinical trials. Here, we used LCSM to evaluate the antidepressant effect of a combined cognitive behavioral/cognitive rehabilitation (CB/CR) intervention in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: LCSM was applied to predict the change in depressive symptoms from baseline as an outcome of the CORDIAL study, a randomized controlled trial involving 201 patients with mild AD. The participants underwent either the CORDIAL CB/CR program or standard treatment. Using LCSM, the model best predicting changes in Geriatric Depression Scale scores was determined based on this data set. Results: The best fit was achieved by a model predicting a decline in depressive symptoms between before and after testing. Assignment to the intervention group as well as female gender revealed significant effects in model fit indices, which remained stable at 6-and 12-month follow-up examinations. The pre-post effect was pronounced for patients with clinically relevant depressive symptoms at baseline. Conclusions: LCSM confirmed the antidepressant effect of the CORDIAL therapy program, which was limited to women. The effect was pronounced in patients with clinically relevant depressive symptoms at baseline. Methodologically, LCSM appears well suited to analyzing longitudinal data from clinical trials in aged populations, by accounting for the high between-subject variability and providing information on the differential indication of the probed intervention.
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7.
  • Alexander, T., et al. (författare)
  • Isomeric Ratios in 206Hg
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Acta Physica Polonica. Series B: Elementary Particle Physics, Nuclear Physics, Statistical Physics, Theory of Relativity, Field Theory. - : Jagellonian University, Cracow, Poland. - 0587-4254. ; 46:3, s. 601-605
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hg-206 was populated in the fragmentation of an E/A = 1 GeV Pb-208 beam at GSI. It was part of a campaign to study nuclei around Pb-208 via relativistic Coulomb excitation. The observation of the known isomeric states confirmed the identification of the fragmentation products. The isomeric decays were also used to prove that the correlations between beam identification detectors and the AGATA gamma-ray tracking array worked properly and that the tracking efficiency was independent of the time relative to the prompt flash.
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8.
  • Gispert, Suzana, et al. (författare)
  • The modulation of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis risk by Ataxin-2 intermediate polyglutamine expansions is a specific effect
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Disease. - : Elsevier. - 0969-9961 .- 1095-953X. ; 45:1, s. 356-361
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Full expansions of the polyglutamine domain (polyQ >= 34) within the polysome-associated protein ataxin-2 (ATXN2) are the cause of a multi-system neurodegenerative disorder, which usually presents as a Spino-Cerebellar Ataxia and is therefore known as SCA2, but may rarely manifest as Levodopa-responsive Parkinson syndrome or as motor neuron disease. Intermediate expansions (27 <= polyQ <= 33) were reported to modify the risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). We have now tested the reproducibility and the specificity of this observation. In 559 independent ALS patients from Central Europe, the association of ATXN2 expansions (30 <= polyQ <= 35) with ALS was highly significant. The study of 1490 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) showed an enrichment of ATXN2 alleles 27/28 in a subgroup with familial cases, but the overall risk of sporadic PD was unchanged. No association was found between polyQ expansions in Ataxin-3 (ATXN3) and ALS risk. These data indicate a specific interaction between ATXN2 expansions and the causes of ALS, possibly through altered RNA-processing as a common pathogenic factor. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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9.
  • Gisselgard, Jens, et al. (författare)
  • Structural and functional alterations in the brain during working memory in medication-naive patients at clinical high-risk for psychosis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 13:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several previous studies suggest that clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) is associated with prefrontal functional abnormalities and more widespread reduced grey matter in prefrontal, temporal and parietal areas. We investigated neural correlates to CHR in medication-naive patients. 41 CHR patients and 37 healthy controls were examined with 1.5 Tesla MRI, yielding functional scans while performing an N-back task and structural T1-weighted brain images. Functional and structural data underwent automated preprocessing steps in SPM and Freesurfer, correspondingly. The groups were compared employing mass-univariate strategy within the generalized linear modelling framework. CHR demonstrated reduced suppression of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions during n-back task. We also found that, consistent with previous findings, CHR subjects demonstrated thinning in prefrontal, cingulate, insular and inferior temporal areas, as well as reduced hippocampal volumes. The present findings add to the growing evidence of specific structural and functional abnormalities in the brain as potential neuroimaging markers of psychosis vulnerability.
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10.
  • Gobel, K., et al. (författare)
  • Coulomb dissociation of 16O into 4He and 12C
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physics: Conference Series. - : IOP Publishing. - 1742-6588 .- 1742-6596. ; 1668:1
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We measured the Coulomb dissociation of 16O into 4He and 12C at the R3B setup in a first campaign within FAIR Phase 0 at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt. The goal was to improve the accuracy of the experimental data for the 12C(a,?)16O fusion reaction and to reach lower center-ofmass energies than measured so far. The experiment required beam intensities of 109 16O ions per second at an energy of 500 MeV/nucleon. The rare case of Coulomb breakup into 12C and 4He posed another challenge: The magnetic rigidities of the particles are so close because of the same mass-To-charge-number ratio A/Z = 2 for 16O, 12C and 4He. Hence, radical changes of the R3B setup were necessary. All detectors had slits to allow the passage of the unreacted 16O ions, while 4He and 12C would hit the detectors' active areas depending on the scattering angle and their relative energies. We developed and built detectors based on organic scintillators to track and identify the reaction products with sufficient precision.
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