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Sökning: WFRF:(Kvaskoff M)

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1.
  • Bamia, C., et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma in a multi-centre, European cohort study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 112:7, s. 1273-1282
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:Vegetable and/or fruit intakes in association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been investigated in case-control studies conducted in specific European countries and cohort studies conducted in Asia, with inconclusive results. No multi-centre European cohort has investigated the indicated associations. Methods: In 486 799 men/women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition, we identified 201 HCC cases after 11 years median follow-up. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC incidence for sex-specific quintiles and per 100 g d(-1) increments of vegetable/fruit intakes. Results: Higher vegetable intake was associated with a statistically significant, monotonic reduction of HCC risk: HR (100 g d(-1) increment): 0.83; 95% CI: 0.71-0.98. This association was consistent in sensitivity analyses with no apparent heterogeneity across strata of HCC risk factors. Fruit intake was not associated with HCC incidence: HR (100 g d(-1) increment): 1.01; 95% CI: 0.92-1.11. Conclusions: Vegetable, but not fruit, intake is associated with lower HCC risk with no evidence for heterogeneity of this association in strata of important HCC risk factors. Mechanistic studies should clarify pathways underlying this association. Given that HCC prognosis is poor and that vegetables are practically universally accessible, our results may be important, especially for those at high risk for the disease.
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2.
  • Fedirko, Veronika, et al. (författare)
  • Prediagnostic Circulating Vitamin D Levels and Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in European Populations: A Nested Case-Control Study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Hepatology. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1527-3350 .- 0270-9139. ; 60:4, s. 1222-1230
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The association between vitamin D status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been well investigated, despite experimental evidence supporting an important role of vitamin D in liver pathophysiology. Our objective was to investigate the association between prediagnostic circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] serum levels and the risk of HCC in a prospective, nested case-control study among 520,000 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Each case (n=138) diagnosed between 1992 and 2010 was matched to one control by age, sex, study center, date and time of blood collection, and fasting status. Serum baseline levels of 25(OH)D were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Multivariable incident rate ratios (IRRs) of HCC associated with continuous (per 10 nmol/L) or categorical levels (tertiles or a priori-defined categories) of prediagnostic 25(OH)D were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Higher 25(OH)D levels were associated with a 49% reduction in the risk of HCC (highest versus lowest tertile: multivariable IRR=0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 to 0.99; P-trend=0.04; per 10 nmol/L increase: IRR=0.80, 95% CI, 0.68-0.94). The finding did not vary substantially by time from enrolment to diagnosis, and did not change after adjustment for biomarkers of preexisting liver damage, nor chronic infection with hepatitis B or C viruses. The findings were not modified by body size or smoking status. Conclusion: In this prospective study on western European populations, serum levels of 25(OH)D were inversely associated with the risk of HCC. Given the rising incidence of this cancer in low-risk developed countries and the strong public health interest surrounding the potentially cancer-protective roles of vitamin D, additional studies in different populations are required. (Hepatology 2014;60:1222-1230)
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3.
  • Zamora-Ros, R., et al. (författare)
  • Flavonoid and lignan intake in relation to bladder cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 111:9, s. 1870-1880
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There is growing evidence of the protective role of dietary intake of flavonoids and lignans on cancer, but the association with bladder cancer has not been thoroughly investigated in epidemiological studies. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and subclasses of flavonoids and lignans and risk of bladder cancer and its main morphological type, urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC), within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: A cohort of 477 312 men and women mostly aged 35-70 years, were recruited in 10 European countries. At baseline, dietary flavonoid and lignan intakes were estimated using centre-specific validated questionnaires and a food composition database based on the Phenol-Explorer, the UK Food Standards Agency and the US Department of Agriculture databases. Results: During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 1575 new cases of primary bladder cancer were identified, of which 1425 were UCC (classified into aggressive (n = 430) and non-aggressive (n = 413) UCC). No association was found between total flavonoid intake and bladder cancer risk. Among flavonoid subclasses, significant inverse associations with bladder cancer risk were found for intakes of flavonol (hazard ratio comparing fifth with first quintile (HRQ5-Q1) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61-0.91; P-trend = 0.009) and lignans (HRQ5-Q 10.78, 95% CI: 0.62-0.96; P-trend = 0.046). Similar results were observed for overall UCC and aggressive UCC, but not for non-aggressive UCC. Conclusions: Our study suggests an inverse association between the dietary intakes of flavonols and lignans and risk of bladder cancer, particularly aggressive UCC.
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4.
  • van Duijnhoven, Fraenzel J. B., et al. (författare)
  • Circulating concentrations of vitamin D in relation to pancreatic cancer risk in European populations
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : WILEY. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 142:6, s. 1189-1201
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Evidence from in vivo, in vitro and ecological studies are suggestive of a protective effect of vitamin D against pancreatic cancer (PC). However, this has not been confirmed by analytical epidemiological studies. We aimed to examine the association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentrations and PC incidence in European populations. We conducted a pooled nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and the Nord-TrOndelag Health Study's second survey (HUNT2) cohorts. In total, 738 primary incident PC cases (EPIC n=626; HUNT2 n=112; median follow-up=6.9 years) were matched to 738 controls. Vitamin D [25(OH)D-2 and 25(OH)D-3 combined] concentrations were determined using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Conditional logistic regression models with adjustments for body mass index and smoking habits were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Compared with a reference category of >50 to 75 nmol/L vitamin D, the IRRs (95% CIs) were 0.71 (0.42-1.20); 0.94 (0.72-1.22); 1.12 (0.82-1.53) and 1.26 (0.79-2.01) for clinically pre-defined categories of 25; >25 to 50; >75 to 100; and >100 nmol/L vitamin D, respectively (p for trend=0.09). Corresponding analyses by quintiles of season-standardized vitamin D concentrations also did not reveal associations with PC risk (p for trend=0.23). Although these findings among participants from the largest combination of European cohort studies to date show increasing effect estimates of PC risk with increasing pre-diagnostic concentrations of vitamin D, they are not statistically significant.
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5.
  • Idahl, Annika, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • Serologic markers of Chlamydia trachomatis and other sexually transmitted infections and subsequent ovarian cancer risk : results from the EPIC cohort
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 1048-891X .- 1525-1438. ; 29, s. A473-A474
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Introduction/Background Sexually transmitted infections (STI) and pelvic inflammatory disease may cause damage to the fallopian tube where a substantial proportion of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) likely arises. The aim of this study was to determine whether Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies are associated with higher EOC risk. As secondary objectives, we investigated Mycoplasma genitalium,herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) 16, 18 and 45 and EOC risk.Methodology In a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort,791 cases and 1,669 matched controls with pre-diagnosis blood samples were analyzed. Cases and controls were matched on study center, and at blood collection age, time of day, fasting status, exogenous hormone use, menopausal status, and menstrual cycle phase. Antibodies against C. trachomatis, M. genitalium, HSV-2, and HPV 16, 18 and 45 (E6, E7, L1) were assessed using multiplex fluorescent bead-based serology. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals [CI] comparing women with positive vs. negative serology.Results A total of 40% of the study population was seropositive to at least one STI. Positive serology to C. trachomatis Pgp3 antibodies was not associated with EOC risk overall, but was associated with higher risk of the mucinous histotype (RR=2.56 [95% CI=1.3–5.05]). Positive serology for chlamydia heat shock protein 60 (cHSP60-1), produced during persistent infection, was associated with higher risk of EOC overall (1.33 [1.09–1.62]) and of the serous subtype (1.42 [1.09–1.84]). None of the other evaluated STIs were associated with EOC risk overall; in analyses by histotype, HSV-2 was associated with higher risk of endometrioid EOC (2.93 [1.50–5.74]).Conclusion C. trachomatis infection may influence carcinogenesis of serous and mucinous EOC, while HSV-2 might promote endometrioid disease. Mechanisms linking STIs to EOC need to be further elucidated.
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6.
  • Mondul, Alison M., et al. (författare)
  • Vitamin D-Associated Genetic Variation and Risk of Breast Cancer in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 24:3, s. 627-630
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Two recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified SNPs in or near four genes related to circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] concentration. To examine the hypothesized inverse relationship between vitamin D status and breast cancer, we studied the associations between SNPs in these genes and breast cancer risk in a large pooled study of 9,456 cases and 10,816 controls from six cohorts. Methods: SNP markers localized to each of four genes (GC, CYP24A1, CYP2R1, and DHCR7) previously associated with 25 (OH) D were genotyped and examined both individually and as a 4-SNP polygenic score. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between the genetic variants and risk of breast cancer. Results: We found no association between any of the four SNPs or their polygenic score and breast cancer risk. Conclusions: Our findings do not support an association between vitamin D status, as reflected by 25(OH) D-related genotypes, and breast cancer risk. Impact: These findings may contribute to future meta-analyses and scientific review articles, and provide new data about the association between vitamin D-related genes and breast cancer.
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7.
  • Kaaks, Rudolf, et al. (författare)
  • Tumor-associated autoantibodies as early detection markers for ovarian cancer? A prospective evaluation
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 143:3, s. 515-526
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Immuno-proteomic screening has identified several tumor-associated autoantibodies (AAb) that may have diagnostic capacity for invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, with AAbs to P53 proteins and cancer-testis antigens (CTAGs) as prominent examples. However, the early detection potential of these AAbs has been insufficiently explored in prospective studies. We performed ELISA measurements of AAbs to CTAG1A, CTAG2, P53 and NUDT11 proteins, for 194 patients with ovarian cancer and 705 matched controls from the European EPIC cohort, using serum samples collected up to 36 months prior to diagnosis under usual care. CA125 was measured using electrochemo-luminiscence. Diagnostic discrimination statistics were calculated by strata of lead-time between blood collection and diagnosis. With lead times ≤6 months, ovarian cancer detection sensitivity at 0.98 specificity (SE98) varied from 0.19 [95% CI 0.08-0.40] for CTAG1A, CTAG2 and NUDT1 to 0.23 [0.10-0.44] for P53 (0.33 [0.11-0.68] for high-grade serous tumors). However, at longer lead-times, the ability of these AAb markers to distinguish future ovarian cancer cases from controls declined rapidly; at lead times >1 year, SE98 estimates were close to zero (all invasive cases, range: 0.01-0.11). Compared to CA125 alone, combined logistic regression scores of AAbs and CA125 did not improve detection sensitivity at equal level of specificity. The added value of these selected AAbs as markers for ovarian cancer beyond CA125 for early detection is therefore limited.
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8.
  • Caini, Saverio, et al. (författare)
  • Coffee, tea and melanoma risk : findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 140:10, s. 2246-2255
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In vitro and animal studies suggest that bioactive constituents of coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects against cutaneous melanoma; however, epidemiological evidence is limited to date. We examined the relationships between coffee (total, caffeinated or decaffeinated) and tea consumption and risk of melanoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a multicentre prospective study that enrolled over 500,000 participants aged 25–70 years from ten European countries in 1992–2000. Information on coffee and tea drinking was collected at baseline using validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between coffee and tea consumption and melanoma risk. Overall, 2,712 melanoma cases were identified during a median follow-up of 14.9 years among 476,160 study participants. Consumption of caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with melanoma risk among men (HR for highest quartile of consumption vs. non-consumers 0.31, 95% CI 0.14–0.69) but not among women (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.62–1.47). There were no statistically significant associations between consumption of decaffeinated coffee or tea and the risk of melanoma among both men and women. The consumption of caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with melanoma risk among men in this large cohort study. Further investigations are warranted to confirm our findings and clarify the possible role of caffeine and other coffee compounds in reducing the risk of melanoma.
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9.
  • Fortner, Renee T., et al. (författare)
  • Correlates of circulating ovarian cancer early detection markers and their contribution to discrimination of early detection models : results from the EPIC cohort
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Ovarian Research. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1757-2215 .- 1757-2215. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Ovarian cancer early detection markers CA125, CA15.3, HE4, and CA72.4 vary between healthy women, limiting their utility for screening.Methods: We evaluated cross-sectional relationships between lifestyle and reproductive factors and these markers among controls (n = 1910) from a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Improvements in discrimination of prediction models adjusting for correlates of the markers were evaluated among postmenopausal women in the nested case-control study (n = 590 cases). Generalized linear models were used to calculate geometric means of CA125, CA15.3, and HE4. CA72.4 above vs. below limit of detection was evaluated using logistic regression. Early detection prediction was modeled using conditional logistic regression.Results: CA125 concentrations were lower, and CA15.3 higher, in post- vs. premenopausal women (p ≤ 0.02). Among postmenopausal women, CA125 was higher among women with higher parity and older age at menopause (ptrend ≤ 0.02), but lower among women reporting oophorectomy, hysterectomy, ever use of estrogen-only hormone therapy, or current smoking (p < 0.01). CA15.3 concentrations were higher among heavier women and in former smokers (p ≤ 0.03). HE4 was higher with older age at blood collection and in current smokers, and inversely associated with OC use duration, parity, and older age at menopause (≤ 0.02). No associations were observed with CA72.4. Adjusting for correlates of the markers in prediction models did not improve the discrimination.Conclusions: This study provides insights into sources of variation in ovarian cancer early detection markers in healthy women and informs about the utility of individualizing marker cutpoints based on epidemiologic factors.
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10.
  • Ricceri, Fulvio, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of second primary malignancies in women with breast cancer: Results from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 137:4, s. 940-948
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Women with a diagnosis of breast cancer are at increased risk of second primary cancers, and the identification of risk factors for the latter may have clinical implications. We have followed-up for 11 years 10,045 women with invasive breast cancer from a European cohort, and identified 492 second primary cancers, including 140 contralateral breast cancers. Expected and observed cases and Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR) were estimated using Aalen-Johansen Markovian methods. Information on various risk factors was obtained from detailed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the role of risk factors. Women with breast cancer had a 30% excess risk for second malignancies (95% confidence interval-CI 18-42) after excluding contralateral breast cancers. Risk was particularly elevated for colorectal cancer (SIR, 1.71, 95% CI 1.43-2.00), lymphoma (SIR 1.80, 95% CI 1.31-2.40), melanoma (2.12; 1.63-2.70), endometrium (2.18; 1.75-2.70) and kidney cancers (2.40; 1.57-3.52). Risk of second malignancies was positively associated with age at first cancer, body mass index and smoking status, while it was inversely associated with education, post-menopausal status and a history of full-term pregnancy. We describe in a large cohort of women with breast cancer a 30% excess of second primaries. Among risk factors for breast cancer, a history of full-term pregnancy was inversely associated with the risk of second primary cancer. What's new? For the first time, researchers have used cohort data to show that people who survive breast cancer have a higher risk of developing another cancer later. By collecting data on 10,000 breast cancer patients over 11 years, these authors calculated a 30% boost in the patients' risk of developing a second primary malignancy, particularly colorectal cancer, lymphoma, melanoma, endometrial cancer, and kidney cancer. These findings, plus the data they collected on risk factors such as age, smoking, body mass index, and others, will help guide clinicians in screening procedures and follow up care for breast cancer patients.
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