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3.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Measurements of Elliptic and Triangular Flow in High-Multiplicity He-3 + Au Collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 115:14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the first measurement of elliptic (v(2)) and triangular (v(3)) flow in high-multiplicity He-3 + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. Two-particle correlations, where the particles have a large separation in pseudorapidity, are compared in He-3 + Au and in p + p collisions and indicate that collective effects dominate the second and third Fourier components for the correlations observed in the He-3 + Au system. The collective behavior is quantified in terms of elliptic v(2) and triangular v(3) anisotropy coefficients measured with respect to their corresponding event planes. The v(2) values are comparable to those previously measured in d + Au collisions at the same nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy. Comparisons with various theoretical predictions are made, including to models where the hot spots created by the impact of the three He-3 nucleons on the Au nucleus expand hydrodynamically to generate the triangular flow. The agreement of these models with data may indicate the formation of low-viscosity quark-gluon plasma even in these small collision systems.
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4.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Search for dark photons from neutral meson decays in p plus p and d plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 91:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The standard model (SM) of particle physics is spectacularly successful, yet the measured value of the muon anomalous magnetic moment (g - 2)mu deviates from SM calculations by 3.6 sigma. Several theoretical models attribute this to the existence of a "dark photon," an additional U(1) gauge boson, which is weakly coupled to ordinary photons. The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has searched for a dark photon, U, in pi(0), eta -> gamma e(+)e(-) decays and obtained upper limits of O(2 x 10(-6)) on U-gamma mixing at 90% C.L. for the mass range 30 < m(U) < 90 MeV/c(2). Combined with other experimental limits, the remaining region in the U-gamma mixing parameter space that can explain the (g - 2)(mu) deviation from its SM value is nearly completely excluded at the 90% confidence level, with only a small region of 29 < m(U) < 32 MeV/c(2) remaining.
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5.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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6.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of K-S(0) and K*(0) in p plus p, d plus Au, and Cu plus Cu collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 90:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has performed a systematic study of K-S(0) and K*(0) meson production at midrapidity in p + p, d + Au, and Cu + Cu collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. The K-S(0) and K*(0) mesons are reconstructed via their K-S(0) -> pi(0)(-> gamma gamma) pi(0)(-> gamma gamma) and K*(0) -> K-+/-pi(-/+) decay modes, respectively. The measured transverse-momentum spectra are used to determine the nuclear modification factor of K-S(0) and K*(0) mesons in d + Au and Cu + Cu collisions at different centralities. In the d + Au collisions, the nuclear modification factor of K-S(0) and K*(0) mesons is almost constant as a function of transverse momentum and is consistent with unity, showing that cold-nuclear-matter effects do not play a significant role in the measured kinematic range. In Cu + Cu collisions, within the uncertainties no nuclear modification is registered in peripheral collisions. In central collisions, both mesons show suppression relative to the expectations from the p + p yield scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions in the Cu + Cu system. In the p(T) range 2-5 GeV/c, the strange mesons (K-S(0), K*(0)) similarly to the phi meson with hidden strangeness, showan intermediate suppression between the more suppressed light quark mesons (pi(0)) and the nonsuppressed baryons (p, (p) over bar). At higher transverse momentum, p(T) > 5 GeV/c, production of all particles is similarly suppressed by a factor of approximate to 2.
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7.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Medium Modification of Jet Fragmentation in Au plus Au Collisions at root S-NN=200 GeV Measured in Direct Photon-Hadron Correlations
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 111:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The jet fragmentation function is measured with direct photon-hadron correlations in p + p and Au + Au collisions at root S-NN = 200 GeV. The P-T of the photon is an excellent approximation to the initial P-T of the jet and the ratio Z(T) = P-T(h)/P-T(gamma) is used as a proxy for the jet fragmentation function. A statistical subtraction is used to extract the direct photon-hadron yields in Au + Au collisions while a photon isolation cut is applied in p + p. I-AA, the ratio of hadron yield opposite the photon in Au + Au to that in p + p, indicates modification of the jet fragmentation function. Suppression, most likely due to energy loss in the medium, is seen at high Z(T). The associated hadron yield at low Z(T) is enhanced at large angles. Such a trend is expected from redistribution of the lost energy into increased production of low-momentum particles.
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8.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Production of omega mesons in p plus p, d plus Au, Cu plus Cu, and Au plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 84:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured omega meson production via leptonic and hadronic decay channels in p + p, d + Au, Cu+ Cu, and Au + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. The invariant transverse momentum spectra measured in different decay modes give consistent results. Measurements in the hadronic decay channel in Cu Cu and Au + Au collisions show that. production has a suppression pattern at high transverse momentum, similar to that of pi(0) and eta in central collisions, but no suppression is observed in peripheral collisions. The nuclear modification factors, R-AA, are consistent in Cu + Cu and Au + Au collisions at similar numbers of participant nucleons.
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9.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Low-mass vector-meson production at forward rapidity in p plus p collisions at root s=200 GeV
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D (Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology). - : American Physical Society. - 1550-2368. ; 90:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured low-mass vector-meson ,omega, rho, and phi, production through the dimuon decay channel at forward rapidity (1.2 < vertical bar y vertical bar < 2.2) in p + p collisions at root s = 200 GeV. The differential cross sections for these mesons are measured as a function of both p(T) and rapidity. We also report the integrated differential cross sections over 1 < p(T) < 7 GeV/c and 1.2 < vertical bar y vertical bar < 2.2: d sigma/dy(omega + rho rho -> mu mu) = 80 +/- 6(stat) +/- 12(syst)nb and d sigma/dy(phi -> mu mu) = 27 +/- 3(stat) +/- 4(syst)nb. These results are compared with midrapidity measurements and calculations.
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10.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of higher cumulants of net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=7.7-200 GeV
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 93:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the measurement of cumulants (C-n,n = 1, ..., 4) of the net-charge distributions measured within pseudorapidity (vertical bar eta vertical bar < 0.35) in Au + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 7.7-200 GeV with the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The ratios of cumulants (e.g., C-1/C-2, C-3/C-1) of the net-charge distributions, which can be related to volume independent susceptibility ratios, are studied as a function of centrality and energy. These quantities are important to understand the quantum-chromodynamics phase diagram and possible existence of a critical end point. The measured values are very well described by expectation from negative binomial distributions. We do not observe any nonmonotonic behavior in the ratios of the cumulants as a function of collision energy. The measured values of C-1/C-2 and C-3/C-1 can be directly compared to lattice quantum-chromodynamics calculations and thus allow extraction of both the chemical freeze-out temperature and the baryon chemical potential at each center-of-mass energy. The extracted baryon chemical potentials are in excellent agreement with a thermal-statistical analysis model.
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